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THE^ 



AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



AND 



By I. GARLAND PENN, 

PRINCIPAL IN LYNCHBURG, VA., SCHOOLS, AND EX-EDITOR LYNCH- 
BURG, vAm laborer, with contributions by 

Hon. Frederick Douglass, Hon. John R Lynch, Hon. J. T. Settle, Hon. D. A. 

Straker. Hon. Jere A. Brown, Hon. T. Thomas Fortune. Hon. John Mercer 

LangBton. Hon. P. B. 8. Piuchback. Prof. W. 8. Scarborouifh. Prof. 

J. H. Lawson, Prof. Booker T. Washington, Prof. George E. 

Stephens. Pro/. Frank Trigg, Bishop B. W. Arnett, 

D. D., Rev. J. C Price, D. D., Rev. T. G. Stewart, 

D. D., Rev. A. A. Burleigh. Rev. L. J. 

Coppin. D. D.. James T. Still, M. D., 

William H. Johnson. M. D., 

and Mrs. N. F. Mossell. 



Souls dwell in printer's tyi)e.— Joseph Amef. 

Ink Is the blood of the printing Y^re&s.—MUton. 

Hostile newspapers are more to be feared than bayonets.— A^opoJ^on. 

I am myself a gentleman of the press and need no other escutcheon. 
—Beacon^fleld. 

In the long fierce struggle for freedom the press, like the church, 
counted its martyrs by thousands.— Pr«^/ien/ Garfidd. 



SPBINGFIELDf MASS. 

WILLEY & CO., Publishers. 
1891. 



T.< 






Entered aooording to Act of CoDfp-eas in the Offloe of 
the Librarian of Congr^a at Washington, D. C., in the 
Tears 1890 and 1801, by I. Garland Penn. 

All rights reserved. 

Sold only by subscription. 



OULRK W. BRTATC * CO., FRIIITBIIS, 
SPBINOriBLD. MASS 
OBABLBS VAN VLACK, BLECTROTTPBR. 



TO 

THK UNCONQUERABLE HOST OF 

AFRO-AMERICANiD 

WHO ARE LAYING THEIR SACRIFICES 
UPON THE EDITORIAL ALTAR 

FOR THEIR RACE, 

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTETJLLY 

DEDICATEE). 



INTRODUCTION. 



" We live in deeds, not years ; in thoughts, not breaths ; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial ; 
We should count time by heart throbs ; he most lives 
Who thinks most, feeb the noblest, acts the best." 



Having been requested by Mr. Penn to write a brief introduc- 
tion to his book, I cheerfully consented to do so from several 
considerations. In the first place, I admire the manly energy, 
venture, and intellectual power displayed by him in undertaking 
to chronicle facts concerning Colored American journalism. 
Then again, I heartily love to encourage intellectual and moral 
efiForts of young Colored American men and women. For the last 
ten years, I have endeavored to do this as a teacher, associate, 
and friend. Suidas relates that Thucydides, when a boy, listened 
with delight to Herodotus as he recited publicly his famous history 
at the great Olympic festival, and that he was so deeply moved 
that he shed tears. Thucydides was so inspired by the occasion 
that he finally became a more distinguished historian than 
Herodotus himself. It is possible that a perusal of this unpreten- 
tious sketch may so energize and inspire some boy or girl, young 
man or woman, that he or she will determine to perform for the 
race a greater service than Mr. Penn has rendered. 

I. HIS BIRTH AND EARLY TRAINING. 

Irvine Garland Penn was born in the year 1867, in New 
Glasgow, a small village in Amherst County, Virginia. His 
father and mother, Isham Penn and Mariah Penn, were fully 
aware of the superior advantages of a public school training to 
their children, and moved to the city of Lynchburg when Irvine 
was five years old. He passed with success through the primary 
and grammar grades of the schools, and in 1882 entered the junior 
class of the high school. Circumstances, over which he had 
no control, prevented him from attending school during the 



INTRODUCTION. 

succeeding school year, and, in consequence, he taught a school 
in Bedford County, Virginia. After teaching for one school year, 
he decided to re-< nter the high school, from which he graduated 
in 1886. Before he graduated, he accepted a position on the 
editorial stafiE of The Lynchburg Laborer, 

II. AS AN EDUCATOR. 

The subject of our sketch has had almost five years experience 
as a teacher, and has successfully managed county and city 
schools. During 1883-4, he taught with credit to himself, and 
satisfaction to his superintendent and patrons, a school in Bedford 
County, Virginia. During the school year 1886-7, he superin- 
tended a school in Amherst County, Virginia. In 1887 he was 
elected as a teacher in the public schools of Lynchburg, and, in a 
short time, arose to the position of principal. Though he is 
young, his executive ability enables him to discharge well the 
duties of his responsible post. 

Mr. Penn seeks to inform himself on the principles and 
methods of education. He aims to keep abreast of the times by 
purchasing and studying the works of leading writers on educa- 
tional methods. He is in deep sympathy with The New Educa- 
tion, which has so materially changed in the last eight years our 
educational modes and systems. Nor is he insensible to the 
merits and excellencies of leading Colored American educators, 
but aims to learn from all that he may make his own school the 
more excellent. He has attended several institutes for teachers, 
and exhibited earnestness and industry in class recitations. As 
an educator, he takes as his motto — "Labor et perseverentia 
omnia vincunt." (Labor and persevarence conquer all things.) 

III. AS AN EDITOR AND WRITER. 
The subject of our sketch accepted a position upon the editorial 
staff of The Lynchburg Laborer heiore his graduation. In 1886 
Messrs. Penn and Johnson purchased it, and Mr. Penn took 
control of the editorial department. The paper was not properly 
supported, and its publication was suspended. As editor of this 
paper, Mr. Penn proved himself a skilled and forcible writer. 
Though he was only about twenty years of age, he evinced a good 
acquaintance with practical life and the needs of the race. He 
freely and frequently discussed questions relating to the material, 



INTRODUCTION. 

intellectual, moral, and religious welfare of his people and state. 
The unusual ability displayed- by this youthful editor won for him 
laudable encomiums, even from several white editors in Virginia. 
The Spirit of the Valley, edited by D. Sheffey Lewis, said : *» We 
have received The Lynchburg Virginia Laborer, edited by I. 
Garland Penn. It is edited with dignity and ability. The Lynch- 
burg Daily Advance gave this testimony: "We most cheer- 
fully commend The Lynchburg Virginia Laborer to all the sons 
of toil." 

Our subject ardently loves newspaper work. He was once a 
pleasing and trenchant writer for The Richmond Planet and The 
Virginia Lancet, He is at present a correspondent for The 
Knoxville Negro World and The New York Age, He seems to 
observe closely, and he expresses his ideas with great clearness 
and strength. No one needs to read a sentence of Addison or 
Washington Irving twice to understand it. This may with truth 
be said of the young man whose life we are now considering. 

IV. AS A SPEAKER. 
Mr. Penn is an easy, fluent speaker. Though he has on several 
occasions been requested to make political speeches in the Old 
Dominion, he prefers to confine his speech-making to educational 
subjects. He has frequently delivered discourses to Sunday- 
Schools, and has been, in several instances, invited to speak on 
prominent public occasions. At the annual conference of the 
Colored M. E. Church which met in Charlottesville in July, 1889, 
Mr. Penn delivered a convincing address, advocating the estab. 
lishment of a Theological and Normal School within Virginia. 

V. HIS REPUTATION. 
It may be readily affirmed from what has been said, that Mr* 
Penn is one of the few young men of our state who enjoys national 
recognition. He has on several occasions been honored by some 
of our leading men. On March 16, 1889, a fine cut and well- 
written sketch of him appeared in The Freeman oi Indianapolis. 
Creditable sketches of him have also adorned the brilliant 
columns of The Cleveland Gazette and The Negro World of 
Knoxville. His publication of his intention to write a history of 
Colored American journalism has brought him into closer contact 
with the foremost men of our race, and caused him to receive 
numerous complimentary notices. 



INTRODUCTION. 

He has been repeatedly honored, too, by the people of his own 
state. He was twice appointed commissioner at Lynchburg for 
the Petersburg Industrial Association. He is Recording Steward 
of the Jackson Street M. £. Church and Superintendent of the 
Sunday-School. The business tact of our subject was fully 
recognized in his election as Secretary of the Board of Directors 
of the Lynchburg Real Estate Loan and Trust Company. 

Mr. Penn is a member of the Colored M. £. Church, and a man 
of good moral character. He respects himself, and is respected 
by his friends and acquaintances. 

VL HIS PRESENT WORK. 

The work for which this introduction is prepared will be of no 
little benefit to the race. It will serve as a cyclopaedia of informa- 
tion on a power which has exerted an untold influence on our 
progress. " Afro-American Journalism and its editors" must of 
necessity cover a broad field. Its conception is grand, and the 
labor and culture essential to its accomplishment are great and 
varied. It may be thought by some that Mr. Penn is too young 
for the undertaking. The fallacy of such an idea is apparent from 
the fact, that the world's literature is greatly indebted to young 
men and women. 

Thomas Sackville wrote, at the age of twenty-three, *' A Mirror 
for Magistrates," and *' Rare Ben Johnson," at the same age, 
produced "Every Man in his Humor." *'The Fall of Robes- 
pierre" was finished by Samuel Taylor Coleridge before he was 
twenty-two, and "Hours of Idleness" was completed by Lord 
Byron, at the age of twenty. Amelie Rives conceived and 
brought forth "The Quick and the Dead," before she was twenty- 
one, and Phillis Wheatley issued a volume of poems before she 
was twenty. " Pleasures of Hope," " Essay on Criticism," " As a 
Man and Not a Man," were produced, respectively, by Thomas 
Campbell, Alexander Pope, and A. A. Whitman, when each was 
about twenty. How remarkable it is that Euripides penned a 
laudable tragedy and William Cullen Bryant wrote " Thanatopsis," 
when they were each eighteen; that Aristophanes, at the age of 
seventeen, exhibited his first comedy; and that Robert Burns and 
Hannah More produced, respectively, " Handsome Nell" and 
**The Search after Happiness," when each was about sixteen. 



INTRODUCTION. 

And what shall we say of that wonderful instance of precocious 
mentality, Thomas Chatterton, who, at the age of eleven, wrote 
excellent verses, and who, before he was eighteen, successfully 
forged descriptions, names, and poems from the antiquated 
coffer of Canyt.ge, in the church at Bristol? 

An investigation of Colored American literature reveals the 
fact, that most of our literature was produced before our authors 
were thirty-five years of age. This is certainly true of the works 
of B. T. Tanner; W. S. Scarborough; R. C. O. Benjamin; Phillis 
Wheatley ; A. A. Whitman; T. T. Fortune ; E. A. Randolph ; J. J. 
Coles; C. W. B. Gordon; and others whom I might mention. It 
may not be inappropriate for me to state, at this juncture, that 
**The Negro Race, a Pioneer in Civilization," was penned when I 
was almost twenty-two; "The Life and Times of Paul," at 
twenty-four; "Science, Art, and Methods of Teaching," at twenty- 
six ; and ** Freedom and Progress" is now ready for press. 

In the light of these historic facts, let no one think or say that 
Mr. Penn is too young and inexperienced for the compilation of 
his valuable work. Let us be thankful that among us are young 
men and women who are able to think and pen thoughts worthy 
of themselves and race. Let us encourage, by word and deedt 
every intellectual and moral effort put forth by our young men 
and women for the enlightenment and advancement of our people* 

This grand work should illumine with its light every home of 
our beloved state, and every fireside of the Colored Americans of 
our country. Its many principles and precepts; its record of 
struggles and conflicts, born of contending forces ; its narration of 
the lives and deeds of energetic, intelligent men and women are 
well calculated to impart useful knowledge, beget lofty aspira- 
tions, and direct the life to high, manly, womanly achievements. 
Its every sentence is pregnant with wholesome instruction, and 
its every page admonishes us to exert our best endeavors to 
prevent and allay racial antagonism and estrangement, and to 
labor for the time when white and colored citizens alike will vie 
with each other in making Virginia the foremost state in the 
Nation. 

Daniel B. Williams. 

Professor of Ancient Languages, and Instructor in Methods of 
Teaching in the V. N. & C. I., Ettrick P. O., Va.,November 7, 1889. 



PREFACE. 



In preparing this work on the Afro-American Press, I am not 

unmlndfiii of the fact, that while I pursue somewhat of a beaten road I 

deal with a work which has proven a power in the promotion of truth, 

justice and equal rights for an oppressed people. The reader cannot 

iaii to recognize some achievement won by that people, the measure 

of whose rights is yet being questioned, and will readily see that the 

social, moral, political and educational ills of the Afro- American have 

been fittingly championed by these A fro- American journals and their 

editors. Certainly, the importance and magnitude of the work done 

by the Afro-American Press, the scope of its influence, and the 

beneficent results accruing from its labors, cannot fail of appreciation. 

In seeking the information contained in this volume, great pains 

have been taken, and expense incurred to insure its truth and 

accuracy. The aid of those of experienced years, of both races, has 

been secured. The information has been carefully given and the facts 

culled and put together with the utmost care and thought. 

Believing that credit is at all times due those who merit it, I am 
pleased to announce the names of some friends to whom I shall be ever 
grateful, and for whose kindness I shall always be ready to say words 
expressive of my thankfulness : 

Mr. Jno. J. Ziiille, an Afro- American printer of abolition times; 
P. W. Ray, M. D. ; Prof. R. T. Greener; Miss Florence Ray; Mr. 
Robert H. Hamilton; Editors: A. M. Hodges, T. Thos. Fortune; 
R. H. Hamilton ; Dr. Alex. Crummell ; Hon. Frederick Douglass; 
Dr. William H. Johnson ; Mr. John H. Deyo ; Prof. Joseph E. 
Jones, D. D. ; Bishop Benj. W. Arnett ; Hon. J.J. Spellmun, and 
others. These gentlemen and ladies I greatly thank for the loan of 
books, papers, periodicals, and for their kindness for gratuitous 
information. I abo remember the aid of Hon. E. E. Copper, editor of 
TKe Freeman^ for the loan of some cuts, and the New South ^ at Beaufort, 
8. C, and other papers, for gratuitous editorial mention. Above all, I 
can not forget the aid of friendly interest as well as the great honor my 



PREFACR 

distinguished friend and brother, Prof. D. B. WilliamSi A. M., of the 
Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute does me in the association of 
his name with this poor effort. As the reader will note. Prof. Williams 
has written the introductory sketch, for which I am ander great 
obligations to him. 

The object in putting forth this feeble effort is not for the praise of 
men or for the reaping of money, but to promote the future welfare ot 
Afro- American journalism by telling; to its constituents the story of its 
heroic labors in their behalf. As I have said in my circular to editors, 
January Ist, 1890, so say I now : ** I believe that the greatest reason 
why our papers are not better supported is because the Afro-Americans 
do not sufficiently comprehend the responsibilities and magnitude of 
the work." 

If the eyes of my people shall be opened to see the Afro-American 
Press as it is, and as it labors with the greatest sacrifice, I shall feel 
that Providence has blessed my work and that I have been amply 
rewarded. This volume may find its way to the cottage of the lowly 
and humble, the home of the scholar and the hands of the critic. I 
would invite its earnest perusal by each and all, and, at the same time, 
pray your most lenient criticism of its make-up, construction and 
thought. I would ask you to speak a good word for it, not in the hope 
of placing honor upon my head or the dime in my pocket, but in the 
hope of forming a favorable sentiment and creating an able and 
constant support for the Afro-American editor whose labor unites with 
all in building up and furthering the interest of our common country. 
Lynchburg, Va., 1890. 



P. S. To the hundreds of men and women laboring in journalism, 
the author owes an apology for not making personal mention of all of 
our papers now published, and their editors; also, the numerous corre- 
spondents and great phalanx of our brave and ambitious women who 
have espoused the cause. Many of you are able and efficient, and all 
of you deserve particular mention, but you will agree that it would take 
ten volumes, yea, more, to make satisfactory personal mention in this 
work of the many laboring for the race and for humanity. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 

FiBST Afro-American Newspapers — Freedom's Jour- 
nal. AXi> Rights of All — 1827-30, New York, 



25—31 



CHAPTER II. 
Weekly Advocate, 18.'i7, New York, 

CHAPTER III. 
Colored American, 1837-42, New York, 

CHAPTER IV. 
Elevator, 1842, Albany, N. Y., 



. 32—34 



. 35—47 



4S— 51 



CHAPTER V. 



National Watchman and The Clarion, 1842-45, Troy, 

N. Y., \ 52—54 



CHAPTER VI. 

People's Press and The Mystery, 
York, and Pittsbur*;, Pa., 

CHAPTER VII. 
Genius of Freedom, 1845-47, New York, 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Ram's Horn, 1847-48, New York, 



184;3-47, New 



. 55 — 57 



58—60 



61—65 



i6 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 
North Star, 1847-65, Rochester, N. Y., . . . 66—70 

CHAPTER X. 

CONTEMPOBABIES OF THE NORTH StAR, 1848-65, SSTTSCUSe, 

N. Y. ; New York; Cleveland, O. ; San Francisco, 

Cal., and Philadelphia, Pa., 71—81 

CHAPTER XL 
The Anolo-African, 1859-65, New York, .... 83—88 

CHAPTER XII. 

Contemporaries of the Anglo- African, 1861-69, Cin- 
cinnati, O., and San Francisco, Cal., .... 90 — 99 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Colored American, first newspaper published in 

the South, 1865-67, Augusta, Ga., . 100—104 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Contemporaries of the Colored American, 1865-66, 

Baltimore, Md. ; , Tenn., .... 105—106 , 

CHAPTER XV. 

A General View of Afro-American Journalism, 

1870-90, 107—115 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Afro-American Magazines, iaS8-90, New York; Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Evanston, 111.; Harrisburg, Pa., and 
Salisbury, N. C 116—120 

CHAPTER XVII, 

The Daily Afro-American Journals, 1882-91, Cairo, 
111.; Baltimore, Md.; Columbus, Ga., and Knoxville, 
Tenn., 127—1:^ 



CONTENTS. 
PART II. 



17 



CHAPTEK XVIII. 
BKETCnKS AXD POBTRAITS OF AfKO-AmEBICAN EDITORS, 133 — :332 

Timothy Tuomas Fortuxk, editor Xew York Age, , 133 

Col. William Mubrell, editor New Jersey Trumpet, 138 

Rev. J. Alrxakdeb Holmf.h, editor Central Methodist, , 

Staunton, Va., 140 

S. N. Hill and William H. Dewev, editors People's 

Advocate and Golden Rule, New Berne, N. C, . . 141 

Rev. G. W. Gayles, editor Baptist Signal, Natchez, Miss., 142 

Christopheu J. Perry, editor Tribune, Philadelphia, Pa., 145 

Revs. R. C. Ransom, William S. Lowry, Daniel S. 
Bextley and William F. Brooks, Afro-American 
Spokesman, Pittslmrg, Pa., 148 

Magnus L. Robinson, editor National Leader. Washing- 
ton, D. C, 150 

John Westley CkomWkli-, editor People's Advocate, 

Washington. D. C., 154 

William H. Anderson, Ben.jamin B 1'eliiam, W. II. 
Stoweks and Uoijekt Peliiam Jr.. Detroit Plain- 
dealer, Detroit, Micli 158 

Prof. J. E. Jones, I). I)., editor African Missions, Rich- 
mond, Va., 104 

Hon. M. M. Lewey, editor Florida Sentinel, Gainesville, 

Fla., 170 

Col. J. T. Wilson, editor Industrial Day, Richmond, Va., 174 

Hon. J. II. WiLr.iAMSON, editor North Carolina Gazette, 

Raleigh, N. C, 180 

John Mitchell, Jr., editor Planet. Riclnnond, Va., . 183 

Hon. C. n. J. Taylor, Southern Appeal, Atlanta, Ga., . 187 

Hon. John L. Waller, ex-editor Western Recorder and 

American Citizen, Topeka, Kan., 188 

Rev. C. B. W. Gordon, editor National Pilot, Peters- 
burg, Va., 194 

Hon. John C. Dancy, editor Star of Zion, Salisbury, N. C, 107 



i8 CONTENTS. 

William E. Kixo, editor Fair Play, Meridian, Miss., . 200 

Rev. W. H. Mixon, ex-editor Dallas Post, Selran, Ala., . 201 

Thomas T. Henry, ex-editor Enterprise, South Boston, 

Va., 202 

Hox. S. J. Bampfield, G. W. Anderson and I. Ran- 
dall Reid; New South, Beaufort, S. C, . . . 205 

Prof. E. H. Lipscombe, Mountain Gleaner, Asheville, 

N. C, 210 

William F. Simpson and Abel P. Caldwell; Monthly 

Echo, Philadelphia, Pa., 213 

Rev. W. J. White, editor Georgia Baptist, Augusta, Ga., 216 

Levi E. Christy, editor Indianapolis World, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., 222 

Rev. a. E. P. Albert, D. D., editor Southwestern Chris- 
tian Advocate, New Orleans, La., .... 22.3 

Rev. Marshall W. Taylor, D. D., ex-editor Southwest- 
em Christian Advocate, 227 

R. D. Littlejohn and I). A. Williams, New Light, 

Columbus, Miss., 228 

J. Dallas Bowser, editor Gate City Press, Kansas City, 

Mo., 230 

Hon. James J. Spellman, editor Baptist Messenger, 

Jackson, Miss., 232 

Rev. W. B. Johnson, I). I)., editor Wayland Alumni 

Journal, Washington, 1). C, 235 

John Q. Adams, editor Western Ai>peal, St. Paul, Minn., 237 

I'ROF. J. T. Bailey, editor Little Kock Sun, Little Rock, 

Ark., 240 

David C. Carter, ex-editor Virginia (.'ritic, Staunton, Va., 245 

Wm. Buford, editor Kansa.s Dispatch, Little Rock, Ark., 215 

Rev. W. H. Anderson, ex-editor Baptist Watch Tower, 

Evansville, Ind , 246 

Rev. C. C. Stumm, D. D., editor Christian Banner, Pliila- 

delphia,Pa., 248 

Rev. E. W. S. Peck, D. D., ex-editor Conference Journal, 

Baltimore, Md., 255 

S. B. Turner, editor State Capital, Si)ringtield, 111., . 250 



CONTENTS. 19 

Ret. Joseph A. Booker, A. B., editor Baptist Vanguard, 

Little Rock, Ark., 258 

Rev. R. De B aptistk, D. D., ex-editor Conservator, Chicago. 262 

Rev. T. W. Coffee, editor Vindicator, Eufala, Ala., . 266 

Rev. S. D. Russell, editor Torchlight Appeal, Fort 

Worth, Tex., ... 267 

W. C. Smffh, editor Charlotte Messenger, Charlotte, N. C, 270 

Hon. Richabd Nelson, editor Freeman's Journal, Gal- 
veston, Tex., 274 

Rev. F. M. Hamilton, editor Christian Index, Nashville, 

Tenn., 278 

Hon. H. C. Smith, editor Cleveland Gazette, Cleveland, O., 280 

Hon. Chas. Hbnbley, editor Gazette, Huntsville, Ala., . 28^ 

William Calvin Chase, editor Washington Bee, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 287 

Augustus M. Hodoes, Brooklyn Sentinel, Brooklyn, N. Y., 291 

R. A. J0XE8, editor Cleveland Globe, Cleveland, O., , 292 

J. T. Morris, associate editor Cleveland Globe, Cleveland, 

O., 295 

Rev. D. J. Sauxders, editor Afro-American Presbyterian, 

Wilmington, N. C, 299 

Rev. a N. McEwen, editor Baptist Leader, Montgomery, 

Ala., 300 

Rev. Calvin S. Brown, A. B., editor Baptist Pilot, Win- 
ton, N. C, 306 

Rev. George W. Clinton, A. B., editor Afro-American 

Spokesman, Pittsburg, Pa., 309 

William B. Townsend, editor Leavenworth Advocate, . 312 

Henry Fitzbutler, M. D., editjr Ohio Falls Express, . 314 

R. C. O. Benjamin, editor San Francisco Sentinel, . . 320 

Dr. E. a. Williams, editor Journal of the Lodge, . . 326 

Prof. D. W. Davis, editor Young Man's Friend, . . 326 

Rev. M. W. Clair, editor Methodist Banner, . . . 330 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Illustrated Afro-American Journalism, . . 334 — 339 
Hon. Edwabd E. Cooper, editor The Freeman, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., 334 



20 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Pbominbxt Afro-Ambbicax Cobbesponb&vts, Contbib- 

UT0B8 AND Rbpobtbbs, 340—366 

Pbof. Daniel Babclay Williams, Petersbui'g, Va., . 840 

J. E. Bbuce (Bruce Grit), Washington, D. C, . . . 344 

Rev. W. H. Fbanklin, Rogersville, Tenn., . . 347 

John (tOBDON Stbeet, Boston, Mass., .... 352 

Rev. Bp. Henby McNeal Tubneb, D. D., LL. D., At- 
lanta, Ga., 

Robebt T. Teamoh, Boston, Mass., . 

W. Allison Sweeney, Indianapolis, Ind , 



Ala 



CHAPTER XXI. 
Afbo-Amebican Women in^ Joubnalism, . 
Pbof. Maby V. Cook (Grace Ermine), Louisville, Ky., 
Mbs. W. E. Matthews (Victoria Earle), New York, 
Lucy W. Smith, Louisville, Ky., . 
Lillian A. Lewis (Bert Islew), Boston, Mass , 
LucBETiA N. Coleman, Minneapolis, Minn., 
Geoboia Mabel De Baptiste, Galesburg, 111., 
Kate D. Chapman, Yankton, Dak., 
Mbs. Josephine T. Washington, Birmingham, 
Alice E. McEwen, Montgomery, Ala., 
Mbs. C. C. Stumm, Philadelphia, Pa., . 
Miss A. L. Tilohman, Washington, D. C . 
Mbs. N. F. Mossell, Philadelphia, Pa , 
Ida B. Wells (lola), Memphis, Tenn , 
Ione E. Wood, Louisville, Ky., 
Lavinia B. Sneed, Louisville, Ky., 
Maby E. Bbitton, Lexington, Ky.. 
Meta Pelham, Detroit, Mich., 
Mbs. Fbances E. W. Habpeb, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Mbs. Amelia E. Johnson, Baltimore, Md., 



356 
360 
364 



367—427 
367 
375 
376 
381 
384 
386 
388 
393 
306 
400 
401 
405 
407 
410 
413 
415 
419 
420 
422 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Opinions of Eminent Men on the Afbo-Amebican 

Pbess, 428—477 



CONTENTS. 21 

Author* B Introduction to Opinions, .... 428 

Prof. W. S. Scarborough, LL. D., Wilberforce Univer- 
sity, O., 431 

Hon. John Mercer Lanoston, LL. D., Petersburg, Va., 434 

Hon. John R, Lynch, Washington, D. C, . 438 

Dr. William H. Johnson, Albany, N. Y., . . 439 

Prof. Frank Trigg, Lynchburg, Va., .... 442 

Hon. D. a. Straker, LL. B., Detroit, Mich., ... 444 

Prof. Booker T. Washington, Tuskeegee, Ala., . 446 

Hon. Frederick Douglass, Washington, D. C, . . 448 

Rev. A. A. Burleigh, Springfield, III., .... 450 

James T. Still, M. D., Boston, Mass., .... 452 

Hon. p. B. S. Pinchrack, New Orleans, La., . . . 454 

Bishop Benmamin W. Arnett, D. D., Wilberforce, Ohio, 456 

Kkv. J. C. Price, D. D., Salisbury, N. C, . . . . 4.59 

PuoF. George K. Stephens, Lynchburg, Va., . . . 460 

Box. JosiAH T. Settle, LL. B., Memphis, Tenn., . . 463 

Hon. Jere A. Brown, Cleveland, O., 467 

Rev. T. G. Stewart, D. D., Baltimore, Md 471 

Pkof. J. H. Lawson, L.L. B., Louisville, Ky., . . . 475 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

The Afro-American Epitor's Mission, by Eminent 

Journalists, 478—491 

Author* s Introduction, 478 

T. Thomas Fortune, 479 

Rev. L. J. CoppiN, D. D., 483 

Mrs. N. F. Mossell, 487 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
The Anglo-Saxon and the Afro-American Press, 492—513 



CHAPTER XXY. 

Recoonition of the Afro- American as a Contrib- 
utor to Anglo-Saxon Journals, 514—518 



St CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Thx Pbxsdoh of thk Press Bl 

CHAPTER XXTII. 
Ths Afbo-Amhlbican Leaouic . . . . S2 

CHAPTER XXTUI. 
The AssociiTBD Cobhbspo.ndsnts of Race News- 





JOHN B. ItUSSWUBM. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE FIRST AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 



FROM the very first time the Afro- American had a right to 
exercise his freedom in this country, his course with regard 
to church, state and society, has been followed with more 
than ordinary zeal, and his progress in the various })ursuits 
undertaken by him have been noted with an exacting eye, 
characteristic of the most watchful. Why he havS been watch- 
ed in this peculiar way is not hard to be seen when tlie cir- 
cumstances surrounding his life has been taken into consider- 
ation. When one remembers that Ik? was brought from 
Africa only two centuries ago, an uncivilized and barbarous 
creature, and settled in a country where he was de})rived the 
privileges of becoming even properly civilized; wlien one 
remembers that during this aforesaid period lie had not one 
iota of opportunity to understand the most unpretentious 
business act in state or church; when one remembers that he 
was not allowod, (if he desired,) to think of a business tran- 
8a<:tion in any of its ramifications, were they ever so small, 
when it is remembered that the whole world was closed 
against him for centuries, save that of labor in the field of 
his owner; and when it is remembered that he faced the 

25 



26 FIRST AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 

world as freeman, laborer, mechanic, student, scholar, lawyer, 
doctor, engineer, business man, journalist, etc., under the most 
embarrassing circumstances, the desire of mind and heart for 
a complete knowledge of his development grows into a moun- 
tain of curiosity. Thus it can be said that he is to-day the 
cynosure of all nations. 

If the above be true, (which every one in fairness will ad- 
mit,) the next thought that would likely present itself is: Has 
the Afro- American made any commendable progress amid the 
multiplicity of disadvantages which have beset him? We 
freely assert that he has; and it is with this thought in mind 
that we propose to deal with the facts of his journalistic ca- 
reer of sixty -three years, dating from the first paper published 
in New York City, March 30, 1827, to the present auspicious 
year of 1890. And from our observations we predict that the 
Nineteenth Century will close with a halo of journalistic sun- 
shine about his head, and the Twentieth Century open with 
succeeding new events indicative of his triumphant success. 
uBetween the years of 1827 and 1830, there were published 
in New York City by an Afro-American two papers known 
as Freedcyfris Journal and Eights of AIL These two papers 
were both edited by Mr. John B. Russwurm. They both 
seem to have been one and the same paper, only during 
publication the names were changed ; thus the two names. 
There is some conflict of opinion among those few who now 
live and remember anything about the matter, as to whether 
ITie Freedom 8 Journal or The Rights of All was the name of 
Mr. Russwurm's paper. Be this as it may, the decision of 
those who were most intimately acquainted with Mr. Rosso- 
worm, and upon whose breadth of intelligence and scope of 
memory we feel safely secure, is that The Freedoms Journal 
was the first publication by Afro- Americans, It was issued, 
Vol. I, No. 1, March 30, 1827. Of course, any paper estab- 
lished by Afro- Americans at that time and for the succeeding 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 27 

forty years, would have fought absolutely in the interest of 
abolition of slavery. As a matter of fact, this publication by 
Mr. Russwurm met with more and greater obstacles than did j 
any other paper ever published upon the continent. Besides 
having to fight for a cause which then had but few advocates, ' 
it could see in the popular mind no indication of support. / 

The Afro- Americans in the North that would patronize the 
journal were few, while the Abolitionists numbered no great 
throng at that time. 

The Journal was a medium-sized weekly, presenting a very \ 
neat appearance, while the composition was as good as some ' 
journals of to-day. Mr. Russwurm had a most excellent es- 
timate as to how an Afro- American journal should be con- 
ducted, particularly at that time, and for the people in whose 
interests it was published. There are few men who have 
Uved who knew more about the business, or whose editorial 
pen could battle with such force against a volcano of sin and 
oppression, like unto that of American slavery. It devolved 
upon him and his journal to create sentiment, and to prove 
the interest which the free Afro- American of the North had 
in his oppressed brethren in the South. 

At this time there appeared a mighty question involving life, 
the chaiitity of our women, the property, homo and happiness 
of the freedmen of the South, to which the best eflbrts of Afro- 
American journalism must be directed yet it was not half so great 
as that of American slavery. Now the journalist contends for 
our rights as citizens; then he contended for our freedom from 
bondage, or our deliverance from a human curse which then 
seemed riveted about us with a most tenacious grip. It was 
for this, Mr. Russwurm caused TA<? Journalio open its way and 
contend through discouragement and embarrassment for rights. 

He was a man of positive journalistic ability, singleness of 
purpose and strong character. It is said he entered the fo- 
rum of debate for the Abolition cause doing what he could with 



28 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

a heartiness and zeal only equalled by the martyrs of abolition. 
The North had not fully waked up to the abolition cause. 
Many, who hated the Afro- American, published papers attack- 
ing the free Afro-American as well as the ppor slave. It 
was on this account, too, that the leading Afro-Americans of 
New York City met, formulated plans and encouraged, to the 
best of their ability, the eiforts of Mr. Ruaswurm. 

There was a local paper published in New York City in 
1827 and 1828 by an Afro- American-hating Jew, which made 
the vilest attacks upon the Afro- Americans. It encouraged 
slavery and deplored the thought of freedom for the slave. 
It seems to have been a power in that direction. Against 
this The Journal was directed, and it did heavy cannonading 
against this perpetrator of evil, 

Mr. Russwurm had associated with him in the publication 
of llic Journal Rev. Samuel E. Cornish, and possibly others 
whose names are not editorially mentioned, since the inception 
of Tfie Journal was the result of a meeting of Messrs. Russ- 
wurm, Cornish and others at the house of M. Bostin Crummell 
(Rev. Dr. Crummell's lather,) in New York, called to consider 
the attacks of the local paper mentioned above. 

Rev. Cornish also did editorial work upon The Journal. 
He was a man of wonderful intellectual parts, having keen 
perception and a mind full of thought and judgment. He 
was very probably the most thoughtful and reliable, certainly 
the most popular and conversant, editor of his time. This is 
seen in the fact that in all his succeeding journalistic efforts, 
ranging through a course of twenty years, he was actively 
connected with some paper as editor or associate editor. A 
gentleman writing to the author says: "He was a most 
successful journalist." Another, writing about Rev* Cornish, 
says : ** He was an old and indefatigable journalist." An- 
other says : *' Undoubtedly he was the greatest wielder of the 
pen in a quarter of a century of Afro- American journalism." 



THE FIRST AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 29 

The following editorial which appeared in the Colored 
American^ a paper since edited by him, will serve, we* are 
sure, to justify the reader in accepting the above comments. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS. 

America io many respects is a clorious country. She rivals boasted 
England in the excellence of her a^ciilture. The whole length and 
breadth of her land might, by proper culture, be converted into one 
anlTersal and fertile garden, poaring forth her riches in exulx^rant 
abundance. Thus, blessed by the smiles, and watered by the showers 
of a bountiful Heaven, she may well and justly call forth loud and 
hearty praises of her sons. In a land then, like this, characterized by 
its geniality of climate, and great fertility of soil, many are the induce- 
ments held out to the sober and industrious; and morally culpable is 
he who can **eat the bread of idleness,*' or who can, with health and 
strength, sit down surrounded by pinching misery and want. 

On the subject of agricultural pursuits, our people are too indiffer- 
ent. It is a subject, however, of immense importance to colored inter- 
est, both individual and general, and cannot be treated of too fre- 
quently or earnestly, by journals which advocate our cause. 

If we would have more men among us in comfortable circumstauceH* 
we must turn our attention to farming. If we would have men who 
might exert a powerful influence in different communities, we must 
have the sturdy cultivators of the soil. 

It is beyond a doubt, that the influence which our farmers exert is 
great and extensive; and it is evident, that wherever there may be lo- 
cated respectable, intelligent, and wealthy colored agriculturists, there 
they will be respected, and soon rise into power and intluence. 

Want of necessary capital may be urged by many, as the great 
difficulty in the way of our people on this sulgect. Cue might venture 
to say that the great portion of our most able farmers commenced their 
labors with far less capital than many of our colored citizens cau lay 
claim t-o. Many have risen to their present affluence, who had at first 
scarcely as much money as would enable them to till a garden of 
cabbages. They struggled with difficulties apparently insuperable; but 
by their fixed determination and firm resolves, they removeil all bar- 
riers, overcame all obstacles, conquered the soil, and finally became 
the independent masters of it. If we would be the "lords of the soil'* 
we must go and do likewise. 

There is too great a disposition among our men of capital to congre 
gate in large cities, where their influence is, in a measure, entirely lost. 
To be sure, the advantages accruing to some, from a city settlement, 
are infinitely greater than a country one; but in many cases the indi- 
vidual, and the community at large, would be vastly benefited by the 
residence of our capitalists in different parts of our country. 



30 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

It is hif^hly important, therefore, I conceive, that this sahject be dalj 
and attentively considered by oar people generally. We most gain 
some inflaence in oar own coantry. At present, we have none. In 
oar large cities, we are passed by as not at all incorporated in the body 
politic. Let us then resort to those measures, and pursue that course, 
which will be of the most advantage to us and will canse a colored 
American's influence to be weighed and valued. 

Rev. Cornish retired from the publication of The Freedoms 
Journal, Mr. Russwurm assuming sole editorial control, 
with the issue of September 4, 1827, Vol. I, No. 27. The 
Journal was continued the year out. With the issue of 
March 21, 1828, the name of the paper was changed to 
Rights of All, Mr. Russwurm continued to follow, with 
unabating interest, the line of policy prescribed by The 
Freedmns Journal, It fought for Afro-American freedom 
and Afro-American citizenship. Mr. Russwurm's two pub- 
lications were made more powerful, and the sentiment of the 
two more respected, because of its large list of agents and 
contributors, who were remarkable men, either for their 
work in behalf of the Afro- American or as the fathers of 
public-spirited descendants. 

The following are some of them as found upon the paper : 

David Walker, (Author of Walker's Appeal) Reuben , 

Portland, Me; Rev. Thomas Paul, Boston; Francis Webb, 
Boston ; Stephen Smith, Columbia, Penn. ; John Lemond, Salem, 
Mass. ; Hezekiah Grice, Baltimore, Md. ; Rev. Nathaniel Paul, 
Albany, N. Y. ; Rev. Theodore S. Wright, Princeton, N. Y. ; 
M. De Baptist, Fredericksburg, Va. ; B. F. Hughes, Newark, 
N. J. ; John W. Print, Washington, D. C. ; Austin Stewart, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; Rev. R. Vaughn, Richmond, Va. ; George 
De Grave, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Seth Henhaws, Post-Master, New 
Salem; John C. Stanley, New Berne; Lewis Sheridan, Eliza- 
bethtown, N. C. ; Joseph Hughes, Richmond, Va. ; and others. 

The Rights of All suspended publication in 1830, it having 
been conducted under more opposing circumstances than The 
Freedcmis Journal, owing, possibly, to the great amount of 



THE FIRST AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 31 

good it wafi doing for the cauBe of Abolition. The exact date 
of its suBpension it seems impossible to ascertain. 

Mr. Russwurm's career as an Afro- American journalist, 
was soon cut short after the suspension of his paper. He was 
captured by the Colonization Society and sent to Africa. 
Many notices and comments on Mr. Russwurm's work and 
upon him as a man, appeared in The Oohnizatum Journal of 
1839. "^ 




CHAPTER II. 



THE WEEKLY ADVOCATE. 



AFRO-AMERICANS North began now to feel the need 
of an exponent of Bentiment and thought. The road 
had been opened, if any one by dint of sacrifice and 
strength of eflfort would lay all on the altar in the publica- 
tion of another journal. 

Phillip A. Bell, the Nestor of Afro- American journalism, 
came forward and put upon the uncertain wings of journal- 
istic time a paper, which battled with unrelenting vigor for 
the right. 

In January, 1837, appeared the first issue of the second \ 
journal edited by Afro-Americans under the name of The 
Weekly Advocate, the editor being Rev. Samuel E. Cornish, 
and the proprietor Mr. Phillip A. Bell. It was published by 
Mr. Robert Sears, of Toronto, Canada, a warm friend to the 
race. "After two months it was thought best," so informs 
Mr. Sears, to change the name of this paper to the Colored 
American] therefore March 4, 1837, it appeared under the 
last mentioned name. 

The means to aid in its publication were largely contri- 

32 






THE FIRST AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 33 



buted by Anti-Slavery Advocates, prominent among whom 
must be noticed that fearless and generous defender, Mr. Tap- 
pan. In "The Life of Mr. Tappan" occurs this passage:" The 
paper was intended to be the organ of the colored Americans." 
Its columns were filled with excellently selected and original ! 
matter It ably advocated the emancipation of the enslaved 
and the elevation of the free colored people; and to this end 
it urged on the whites the abolition of caste and on their own 
people a thorough education. 

Gifted men among the people of New York and elsewhere, 
(and there were not a few of them,) had an opportunity that 
was well worth improving of addressing their people and the 
public at large, through the columns of this excellent paper. 

The proprietor, Mr. Bell, was known and respected for the 
work he did for the race in the newspaper field. He was 
one of those men who not only gave his literary ability to the 
cause but his money also, and died in destitute circumstances, 
after fifty years of earnest and persistent work for his race. 

At the time of his death he was more experienced, older, 
and abler, than any of his associates. He longed to see 
Afro- American journalism a fixed thing in this country, and 
he did not die without the sight. 

Wm. Welles Brown, in his "Rising Sun," says, " Mr. Bell's 
enthusiastic admirers regarded him as the Napoleon of the 
Afro- American Press. The person of Mr. Bell, as described 
by Mr. Brown in his volume, is as follows: " He is medium in 
size, dark complexion, pleasing countenance, and very gentle- 
manly in his manners." 

After the retirement of Mr. Cornish, Mr. Bell had as co- 
editor, Dr. James McCune Smith, of whom much has been said 
as a writer and contributor. Wm. Welles Brown, in chroni- 
cling the success of Dr. Smith as a writer, says: "The Doctor 
has contributed many papers to different journals published 
by colored men in the last quarter of the century. The New 

a 



34 



THE WEEKLY ADVOCATE. 



York dailies have also received aid from him during the same 
period. History, antiquity, biography, translation, criticism, 
political economy, statistics, and almost every department of 
knowledge, received attention from his able, ready, versatile 
and unwearied pen. 

The emancipator of the slave, and of the elevation of the 
free colored people, has been the greatest slave of his time 
as a writer. 

Dr. Smith was born and raised in New York City, but 
educated at Edinburgh. During the years 1838-49, he had 
some memorable newspaper controversies; prominent among 
them was the fight with Bishop Hughes and, later on, with 
one Grant. 

A lecture of his on the "Destiny of the People of Color," 
delivered before the Philomathean Society and the Hamilton 
Society in January, 1841, and published by request, received 
flattering comments. He was one of the most logical and 
scientific writers the world ever knew. 

Besides this eminent gentleman, Mr. Bell had an able corps 
of correspondents, which made The Colored American felt as a 
power in the land. Mr. Bell severed his connection with The 
American in 1839 ; but did not leave the work, for which 
it seems the Maker had intended him. We shall have cause 
to notice him later on in this volume. 



CHAPTER III. 



IHE COLORED AMERICAN. 



IN April, 1837, while Mr. Bell wa« yet proprietor and 
editorial writer of the A?ncfican, Mr. Cliarle.s Bennett 
Ray became associated vviiii IVce Colored American, as 
general agent. In this capacity, he travelled extensively, 
writing letters to the paper which embodied the result of his 
labors and reflections on the progress of the race in different 
parts of the country. He also lectured successfully in many 
cities, East and West, to bring before the people the interests 
of the paper and the noble aims to which it was devoted, 
never neglecting, meanwhile, to speak in behalf of the slave, 
who.se welfare lay always near his heart. 

In 1838, he became one of the proprietors of the paper ; 
and in 1839, on the retirement of Mr. Bell, he a»ssumed the 
po.sition of editor. Under his charge, as before, 27ie Colored 
Ainericaji continued to be ably conducted, and strong in its 
advocacy of the principles underlying humanity and justice. 
He retained the editorial management until 1842, when 

35 



36 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

education was received at the schools and academy of his 
native town. His theological training was obtained at the 
Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, Mass. Later on, he 
studied at the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

In addition to his life as a useful journalist, should be 
recorded his life as a minister. He served as pastor of the 
Bethesda Congregational church in New York, and was its 
faithful shepherd for twenty years or more. 

During the greater part of Mr. Ray's activity, slavery was 
at its highest state of agitation. The times were perilous, 
great deeds being enacted everywhere by noble champions of 
freedom, roused to action by an unquenchable love of justice 
and the resolve that all men should be free. He entered 
with eager earnestness into the contest to secure freedom for 
a down-trodden race, and proved his fidelity to the sacred 
cause of liberty, and his zeal in furthering the overthrow of 
slavery, by rendering practical aid. It often became neces- 
sary, therefore, to interest those whose hearts not only beat 
in unison with the movement but whose means could be made 
available. In co-operation with Lewis Tappan, and others 
whose purse-strings were wont to be loosed at the call of 
humanity, he assisted in enabling many a slave to see the 
light of freedom. 

Mr. Ray always manifested a keen interest in the affairs of 
the government, and was a staunch republican, entering 
heartily into all things affecting the welfare of the govern- 
ment. When the great right of suffrage was accorded to his 
race, none rejoiced more than he that now the A fro- American 
citizen was truly a man, under the law ; and, thenceforth, he 
uniformly endeavored to impart the knowledge of an intelli- 
gent use of the franchise to those whose limited experience in 
such matters might cause them to err in judgment. 

He never ceased to give earnest support to any great 
measure designed to elevate his race; and not only in this 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 37 

way did he serve the people, bat private matters were often 
brought to him for adjustment, — his natural grasp of the 
legal points of the subject enabling him to reach the solution 
of many a seemingly entangled situation. 

He lived to see his race enjoying the blessings of that 
freedom to which he had consecrated his best days, and 
passed to the blessed fulfillment of a better world, on Sunday 
morning, August 15, 1886. 

A general idea of The Cblored American, which was Mr. 
Ray's greatest work for the race, issued, as it was, a half a 
century ago, in the interests of the Afro- American, under the 
editorial management of one of the race, will be obtained 
through the following extracts, embodying the plan and scope 
of the paper, and showing the rank it held among the leading 
journalH of that time. It cannot fail of proper interest. 
They are taken from *' In Memoriam," compiled by the family 
of the late Rev. Chas. B. Ray, March 7, 1840. 
" Terms of the paper : 

The Cblored American is published weekly by Charles B. 
Ray, at No. 9 Spruce Street, New York, at two dollars per 
annum, in advance, excepting where a local agent will be 
responsible to collect the balance, when one-half may be 
received in advance. 

No subscription received for a less term than six months. 
No paper will be considered discontinued until arrearages 
are paid, except at the discretion of the publisher. 

Four copies will be sent to one address for six dollars, — 
t. c. a person wishing the paper, by obtaining three sub- 
scribers, with the money in full, shall have his own paper. 

Local agents shall be allowed one-fourth, in all cases, on all 
money raised from subscribers. 

Traveling agents shall be allowed one- third on all new 
subscribers, and one-fourth for collecting from old ones. 

Postmasters, and all ministers of the gospel, friendly to our 



38 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

object, are requested to act as agents for us ; also, students in 
seminaries. 

Addresses, in all cases, (post paid), on all business pertain- 
ing to the paper: "Charles B. Ray, Publisher of The 
Colored American.'' 

Philadelphia depositories, where this paper can be had: 
136 Lombard Sreet, and No. 2 Acorn Alley. S. H. Glouces- 
ter and J. J. G. Bias, Agents. 

Prospectus of ITie Colored American, Volume II : 

The Second Volume, New Series, of The Colored American^ 
will be issued on the first Saturday in March, 1841. 

This is the only paper in the United States, published and 
edited by a colored man, and expressly for the colored people. 

Its objects are, more directly, the moral, social and political 

elevation and improvement of the free colored people ; and 

the peaceful emancipation of the enslaved. 

It will, therefore, advocate all lawful, as well as moral 

measures, to accomplish those objects. 

The editor being a colored man, necessarily feels an interest 
in the welfare of the colored people, wherever found. 

The paper, therefore, will not be regardless of the welfare 
of the colored people of other countries. 

The editor, also being a Man, " whatever interests man,, 
interests him." The paper, therefore, will not pass by, in 
silence, the reforms of the age, and whatever relates to our 
common humanity. 

As the paper is devoted primarily to the interests of the 
colored population, and ought to bu in every family, the 
editor intends to make it a first-rate family paper, devoting a 
column to the instruction of children, giving the general news 
of the day, as far as practicable, etc. ; and nothing of an 
immoral tendency can find a place in its columns. 

The paper ought to be patronized by the white community^ 
to aid them in becoming better acquainted with the condition 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 39 

and claims of their fellow-citizens, and on account of the 
influence it will exert among the latter, and in their behalf. 

The colored population ought to patronize it, because it 
belongs to them, and for the sake of its success. 

Price, Two Dollars per annum, always in advance. No 
subscription received for a less term than six months. 

Charles B. Ray, Editor and Proprietor, No. 9 Spruce 
Street, New York. 

The sentiments of the press are here given concerning the 
re-appearance of The Colored American, after a short term of 
suspension. Says The American, — " We insert, once for all, 
the sentiments of the press in relation to our re-appearance 
among them; and our readers must not attribute to us 
motives of vanity in doing so, — for better things move us 
than a vain show. We intend to keep self where it should 
be, out of sight. 

In combating the prejudices of the strong, on the one 
hand, and in defending the character of the weak, on the 
other; in advocating an unpopular cause, and coming in 
contact with such a variety of mind and of taste, and in 
bearing up under our present duties and responsibilities, in 
such times as these, such sentiments from an enlightened and 
judicious corps-editorial are encouraging, and furnish us with 
additional testimony that we are not ill-timed and out of 
place but needful, and deserve a place among the mouth- 
pieces of different sects, parties and clasFes now existing. 

We presume our readers, who do not see these expressions 
of opinion as we do, will be glad to know what the press has 
friid about us; and we think such sentiments will both 
encourage and stimulate them to be vigilant in giving us aid 
as they incite us to labor to show ourselves worthy to be 
sustained." 

•* The Colored American, we are glad to see, has re-appeared 
in the field, under the conduct of our enterprising and 



40 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

talented Brother Ray. It will maintain a very handsome 
rank among the anti-slavery periodicals, and we hope will be 
well sustained and kept up by both colored and uncolored 
patronage. 

It must be a matter of pride to our colored friends, as it is 
to us, that they are already able to vindicate the claims our 
enterprise has always made in their behalf, — to an equal 
intellectual rank in this heterogeneous, (but " homogeneous") 
community. 

It is no longer necessary for abolitionists to contend against 
the blunder of pro-slavery, — that the colored people are 
inferior to the whites ; for these people are practically demon- 
strating its falseness. They have men enough in action now, 
to maintain the anti-slavery enterprise, and to win their 
liberty, and that of their enslaved brethren, — if every white 
abolitionist were drawn from the field : McCune Smith, and 
Cornish, and Wright, and Ray, and a host of others, — not to 
mention our eloquent brother, Remond, of Maine, and 
Brother Lewis who is the stay and staff of field anti-slavery 
in New Hampshire. 

The people of such men as these cannot be held in slavery. 
They have got their pens drawn, and tried their voices, and 
and they are seen to be the pens and voices of human genius ; 
and they will neither lay down the one, nor will they hush 
the other, till their brethren are free. 

The Calhouns and Clays may display their vain oratory 
and metaphysics, but they tremble when they behold the 
colored man is in the intellectual field. The time is at hand, 
when this terrible denunciation shall thunder in their own 
race. — Herald of Freedom, Concord, N. H." 

The Colored American. 

The Colored Aineiican after a suspension of three months 
has started afresh, under the charge of our friend, Charles B. 
Ray, as sole editor and proprietor. If among the four 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 41 

* 

hundred thousand free colored people in this country, — to 
say nothing of the white population from whom it ought to 
receive a strong support, a living patronage for this paper can 
not be obtained, it will be greatly to their reproach. 

In their present condition, a special organ of their own 
conducted by one of their own number, ought to be regarded 
by them as an object of great importance. True, it does not 
follow that because the paper is called The Oolored Americant 
and is edited by a colored man, therefore the colored popula- 
tion are under obligation to support it ; for if it be not in 
itself a faithful and useful journal, it cannot claim support, on 
any other grounds. But we have confidence in the ability, 
perseverance, and integrity of Mr. Ray, and we doubt not 
that he will make The American an interesting sheet. 

If any persons, white or colored, in this city, desire to 
become subscribers to it, we will forward their names with 
great pleasure. 

The names of several persons are published who have 
severally pledged five, ten, twenty, and twenty-five dollars, 
ia aid of The American. This looks like being in earnest. 

In the midst of the present unhappy divisions in our ranks, 
we trust our friend Ray will be enabled to distinguish by 
intuition the true from the spurious, the right from the wrong, 
and to utter his convictions in a true and fearless spirit." — 
Ltbera/or. 

•* T/ie Colored Ameiican. Returning from the country, we 
are glad to find upon our table several copies of this excellent 
paper, which has waked up with renewed strength and 
beauty. It is now under the exclusive control of Charles B. 
Ray, a gentleman in every manner competent to the duties 
devolving upon him in the station he occupies. Our colored 
friends generally, and all those who can do so, would bestow 
their patronage worthily by giving it to T/ie CoUrred 
A niei'ican. " — Ch risfia n ] \ l^ness. 



42 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

" In the days when The Colored American found its way 
into many homes, bearing the weight of influence ever 
exerted by the press, some of the vital questions claiming 
public attention did not differ materially from those that 
serve to interest the thinking community of to-day, as will be 
evidenced by the following editorials : 

Prejydice. 

"Prejudice," said a noble man, "is an aristocratic hatred 
of humble life." 

Prejudice, of every character, and existing against whom it 
may, is hatred. It is a fruit of our corrupt nature, and has its- 
being in the depravity of the human heart. It is sin. 

To hate a man, for any consideration whatever, is murder- 
ous ; and to hate him, in any degree, is, in the same degree 
murderous ; and to hate a man for no cause whatever, magni- 
fies the evil. " Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer,'' 
says Holy Writ. 

There is a kind of aristocracy in our country, as in nearly 
all others, — a looking down with disdain upon humble life 
and a disregard of it. Still, we hear little about prejudice 
against any class among us, excepting against color, or against 
the colored population of this Union, which so monopolizes 
this state of feeling in our country that we hear less of it in 
its operations upon others, than in other countries. It is the 
only sense in which there is equality ; here, the democratic 
principle is adopted, and all come together as equals, and 
unite the rich and the poor, the high and the low, in an equal 
right to hate the colored man ; and its operations upon the 
mind and character are cruel and disastrous, as it is murder- 
ous and wicked in itself. One needs to feel it, and to wither 
under its effects, to know it ; and the colored men of the 
United States, wherever found, and in whatever circum- 
stances, are living epistles, which may be read by all men in 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 43 

proof of all that is paralyzing to enterprise, destructive to 
ambition, ruinous to character, crushing to mind, and painful 
to the soul, in the monster. Prejudice. For it is found 
equally malignant, active, and strong, — associated with the 
mechanical arts, in the work-shop, in the mercantile house, in 
the commercial affairs of the country, in the halls of learning 
in the temple of God, and in the highways and hedges. It 
almost possesses ubiquity ; it is everywhere, doii)g its dele- 
terious work wherever one of the proscribed class lives and 
moves. 

Yet prejudice against color, prevalent as it is in the minds 
of one class of our community against another, is unnatural, 
though habitual. If it were natural, children would mani- 
fest it with the first signs of consciousness ; but with them, all 
are alike affectionate and beloved. They have not the feel- 
ing, because it is a creature of education and habit. 

While we write, there are now playing at our right, a few 
steps away, a colored and a white child, with all the affection 
and harmony of feeling, as though prejudice had always been 
unknown. 

Prejudice overlooks all that is noble and grand in man's 
being. It forgets that, housed in a dark complexion is, 
equally and alike, with the white, all that is lofty in mind 
and noble in soul ; that there lies an equal immortality. It 
teaches to grade mind and soul, either by the texture of the 
hair, or the form ol the features, or the color of the skin. 
This is an education fostered by prejudice ; consequently, an 
education almost universally prevalent in our country ; an 
education, too, subverting the principles of our humanity, and 
turning away the dictates of our noble being from what is 
important, to meaner things." 

This Oountry, our only Home, 
*' When we say, " our home," we refer to the colored 
community. When we say, " our only liome," we speak in a 



44 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

general sense, and do not suppose but in individual cases 
some may, and will, take up a residence under another 
government, and perhaps in some other quarter of the globe. 
We are disposed to say something upon this subject now, in 
refutation of certain positions that have been assumed by a 
class of men, as the American people are too well aware, and 
to the reproach of the Christian church and the Christian 
religion, too, viz. : that we never can rise here, and that no 
power whatsoever is sufficient to correct the American spirit, 
and equalize the laws in reference to our people, so as to give 
them power and influence in this country. 

If we cannot be an elevated people here, in a country the 
resort of almost all nations to improve their condition; a 
country of which we are native, constituent members; our 
native home, (as we shall attempt to show) and where there 
are more means available to bring people into power and 
influence, and more territory to extend to them than in any 
other country ; also the spirit and genius of whose institution 
we so well understand, being completely Americanized, 
as it will be found most of our people are, — we say, if we can 
not be raised up in this country, we are at great loss to know 
where, all things considered, we can be. 

If the Colored Americans are citizens of this country, it 
follows, of course, that, in the broadest sense, this country is 
our home. If we are not citizens of this country, then we 
cannot see of what country we are, or can be, citizens ; for 
Blackstone, who is quoted, we believe, as the standard of 
civil law, tells us that the strongest claim to citizenship is 
birthplace. We understand him to say, that in whatever 
country or place you may be born, of that country or place 
you are, in the highest sense, a citizen ; in flne, this appears 
to us to be too self-evident to require argument to prove it. 

Now, probably three-fourths of the present colored people 
are American born, and therefore American citizens. 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 45 

Suppotie we should remove to some other country, and claim 
a foothold there, could we not be rejected on the ground 
that we were not of them, because not born among them? 
Even in Africa, identity of complexion would be nothing 
neither would it weigh anything because our ancestry were 
of that country ; the fact of our not having been bom there 
would be suflBcient ground for any civil power to refuse us 
citizenship. If this principle were carried out, it would be 
seen that we could not be even a cosmopolite, but must be of 
no Where, and of no section of the globe. This is so absurd, 
that it is as clear as day that we must revert to the country 
which gave us birth, as being, in the highest sense, citizens 
of it. 

These points, it appears to us, are true, indisputably true. 
We are satisfied as to our claims as citizens here, and as to 
this being the virtual and destined home of colored Americans . 

We reflect upon this subject now, on account of the 
frequent agitations, introduced among us, in reference to our 
emigrating to some other country, each of which embodies 
more or less of the colonizing principle, and all of which are 
of bad tendency, thowing our people into an unsettled state; 
and turning away our attention from vital matters which 
involve our attention in this country, to uncertain things 
under another government, and evidently putting us back. 
All such agitations introduced among us, with a view to our 
emigrating, ought to be frowned upon by us, and we ought 
to teach the people that they may as well come here and 
agitate the emigration of the Jays, the Rings, the Adamses, 
the Otises, the Hancocks, et al, as to agitate our removal. 
We are all alike constituents of the same government, and 
members of the same rising family. Although we come up 
much more slowly, our rise is to be none the less sure. 
This subject is pressed upon us, because we not unfrequently 
meet some of our brethren in this unsettled state of mind, 



46 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

who, though by no means colonizationists, yet adopt the 
colonization motto, and say they can not see how or when we 
are going to rise here. Perhaps, if we looked only to the 
selfishness of man, and to him as absolute, we should think 
so, too. But while we know that God lives and governs, and 
always will ; that He is just, and has declared that righteous- 
ness shall prevail ; and that one day with Him is as a 
thousand years, and a thousand years as one day ; we believe 
that, despite all corruption and caste, we shall yet be elevated 
with the American people here. 

It appears to us most conclusive, that our destinies in this 
country are for the better, not for the worse, in view of the 
many schemes introduced to our notice for emigrating to 
other countries liaving failed ; thus teaching us that our 
rights, hopes, and prospects, are in this country ; and it is a 
waste of time and of power to look for them under another 
government; and also, that God, in His providence, is 
instructing us to remain at home, where are all our interests 
and claims, and to adopt proper measures and pursue them, 
and we yet shall participate in all the immunities and privi- 
leges the American nation holds out to her citizens, and be 
happy. We are also strongly American in our character and 
disposition. 

We believe, therefore, in view of all the facts, that it is 
our duty and privilege to claim an equal place among the 
American people; to identify ourselves with American 
interests, and to exert all the power and influence we have, to 
break down all the disabilities under which we labor, and 
thus look to become a happy people in this extensive 
country." 

Thus Editor Ray was no dupe in the editorial fight that he 
made for his race. He successfully made The American a 
paper that will be known for ages as a bold and uncompro- 
mising fighter for freedom. 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 47 

We will not invite the reader to any comment of ours 
upon the character and ability of Mr. Ray as a journalist, or 
upon the influence and magnitude of the work done by his 
paper. Any remarks would be lost in the ocean of comments 
by others, some of which are here quoted. We give what 
recognized historians say of Mr. Ray: "In the year of 1839, 
he became the editor of The Oolored American, a paper which 
he conducted with signal ability. The Oolored American was 
well conducted, had the confidence of the public, and was 
distinguished for the ability shown in its editorials, as well as 
in its correspondence." 

In another place Mr. Brown says: "All, however, who 
remember as far back as thirty-five years, will bear testimony 
to* the eflBcient work done by The Oolored American, and to 
the honor that is due to its noble founder." He is an 
original and subtile writer, having fine powers to analyze, and 
often flings the sparkling rays of a vivid imagination over the 
productions of his pen. His articles are usually of a practical 
nature, always trying to remove evils, working for the moral, 
social, and political elevation of his race. He was always 
true to the cause of the Southern slave, and the elevation of 
the black man, everywhere." 

Another writer says : " Dr. Ray is a terse and vigorous 
writer, well informed upon all subjects of the day." 

The American suspended publication in the early part of 
1842, having made a brilliant record and opened a compara- 
tively easy road for future efforts in Afro-American 
journalism. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE ELEVATOR. 



THE time for decisive, urgent, and unceasing fight for free- 
dom and citizenship, from 1838 on, seems to have taken 
firm root in the mind and heart of every leading Afro- 
Ameriean, whose intelligence and practical knowledge enabled 
him to engage in the contest in anything like an efl^ectual 
way. 

This is seen in the ways and means established, through 
which they could express themselves. New York state ap- 
pears to have been the great fighting-ground of the Afro- 
American abolitionists. Not only in New York, but through- 
out the whole section of New York state, papers were 
established, here and there, for the purpose of agitating Afro- 
American freedom and citizenship. 

A small but bright and newsy sheet, under the title of 
The Elevator, was established at Albany, N. Y., in 1842. 
This journal, as were the others, was devoted to the Anti- 
Slavery cause and to the interests and progress of the Afro- 
Americans. It was published by Stephen Myers, whose 
efibrts made it a strong advocate of everything looking to the 

advancement and up-building of the Afro-American. 

48 



THE ELEVATOR. 49 

Mr. Myers was born at Hoosic Four Corners, Rensselaer 
County, N. Y., in 1800. He was a slave of Gen. Warren, 
of Revolutionary fame, and made free by him, in the city of 
Albany, at the age of eighteen. He was a man of very 
limited education, but of great natural gifts. He was both an 
orator and a writer. 

In the publication of his paper and the make-up of subject- 
matter, he was greatly aided by his wife, who was a lady of 
education and refinement. Before marriage, she was a Miss 
Harriet Johnson, the daughter of Capt. Abram Johnson. 
She aided her husband in the preparation of all his editorials, 
«he, too, having caught the Abolition spirit. In the publica- 
tion of his journal, Mr. Myers was backed by Horace Greeley, 
Gerrit Smith, Erastus Corning of Albany, N. Y., Henry J. 
Raymond, Hugh Hastings, Thurlow Weed, William Caasidy, 
and Peter Cagger. 

Mr. Myers conducted his paper purely in the interest of 
the abolition of slavery and in the interest of his race, and 
never for the purpose of making money. The above-named 
gentlemen, and many others, aided him with contributions 
from time to time; and they were largely instrumental in 
enabling him to circulate his journal throughout the country. 
Although it did not appear regularly, nevertheless it was a 
potent factor in aiding him to make his work effective. 

The cause of Abolition was supported by many able men 
iind influential newspapers ; but by none with more earnest- 
ness and self-sacrificing devotion than that which character- 
ized the life of Stephen Myers. The Elevator, like many 
other journals of its class, proved a powerful lever in 
diverting public opinion, public sympathy, and public 
support, towards the liberation of the slave. It seems 
almost incredible that Mr. Myers, with no education, could 
have accomplished so great a work. Nothing but unceasing 
labor and unwavering vigilance could have made him so 
4 



60 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

successful. Impressed by these qualifications, those at whose 
hands he sought and obtained assistance were ever ready to 
respond to his appeals. True, there were many other men 
like Mr. Myers engaged in the same glorious work; but he 
seems to have had more than ordinary success in accom- 
plishing anything he attempted, to strengthen the mission to 
which he consecrated his life. 

Wherever and whenever he attended Anti-slavery gather- 
ings, he was an effective and even powerful speaker ; and no 
one could listen to him without becoming a warm supporter 
of his cause. 

Meanwhile, The ElevcUor found its way into the homes of 
several thousands of patriotic citizens of all races, molding 
Atiti-slavery sentiments in ifcs ceaseless efforts to arouse the 
American people to a sense of their duty to exterminate from 
our land a condition of affairs wholly inconsistent with the 
sublime principles of a republican form of government. 

Happily, Mr. Myers lived to see slavery abolished, the 
Union restored, the Fifteenth Amendment attached to the 
Constitution of the Nation, and, best of all, the barriers of 
prejudice gradually weaken their hold upon commercial and 
professional circles. 

He was also permitted to see the Afro- American, the 
shackled and despised being whom "man's inhumanity to 
man" had made a chattel, take his initial step in the pathway 
of ideal American citizenship, unfettered and free; while 
the cloud of darkness which had enveloped him for two 
centuries, gave way to the sunshine of education, with oppor- 
tunities to reach any point in the path of success which 
nature intended for him. 

The last days of Mr. Myers were a fitting end to a life 
that future generations can but be pleased to admit was crown- 
ed with glory and splendor, by his magnificent achievements 
in behalf of his fellow-men ; and connected with his name will 



THE ELEVATOR. 51 

atvays be a lustre and a sanctjty, which is the certain reward 
of an honorable, upright life. 

" Picsi on ! pros on ! nor doubt nor fcai, 
From age lo age Ihii voice itull cheer — 
Whate'tr nuT die, and be forgot, 
Work done for Freedom dielh not." 




CHAPTER V. 



THE NATIONAL WATCHMAN AND CLARION. 



THE sUte of New York still gave evidence of her Afro- 
American sons' interest in the Abolition cause. 
Still another messenger of warfare was issued from 
another portion of the state, under the title of The NaJticmcd 
Watchrruxn, This paper was first published in Troy, in the 
latter part of 1842, having as its publisher and editor, Mr. 
William 6. Allen, assisted by Henry Highland Grarnett. His 
paper had but a very brief existence ; however, it contended 
manfully for what its projectors hoped to see, and for what 
their soulsdesired. 

Mr. Allen was among the few men of his time who could 
be looked upon as a highly educated gentleman. Into his 
paper he put all the intellectual strength his mighty brain 
could master, which made it no less able as an advocate than 
any of its contemporaries. In this brief period, he conduct- 
ed his publication with journalistic tact and energy. In his 
editorial work he was assisted by one of the brainiest and 
most successful black men in the country. 

Mr. Garnett, after his connection with the Watchvian, and 
while he was pastor of the Liberty-Street Presbyterian Church 

52 



HENRY HIGHLAND GARNETT. 



54 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



of Troy, published 7%^ Clarion. This paper, while not fail- 
ing to treat the most momentous of questions — American 
Slavery — with weighty argument and skillful debate, was 
run, we are informed, mostly in the interest of the religious 
and moral improvement of his race, to whose wellfare he was 
wedded. 

As one puts it, — " Mr. Garnett was a remarkable man." 
Ho was as telling a speaker, as he was a writer. A gentle- 
man of ability and worth sums him up in the following man- 
ner: "He has gained the reputation of being a courteous and 
accomplished man, an able and eloquent debater, and a 
pood writer." 



•) -^ 




CHAPTER VI. 



THE PEOPLES PRESS AND THE MYSTERY. 



THE Clarion vjd& followed next by an effort at journalism 
in the publication of The Peoples Press, by Thomas 
Hamilton and John Dias, about 1843. This publication, 
like many succeeding ones, lasted only a few months. 

Mr. Hamilton was book-keeper in the office of T/ie Evan- 
gelist, at the time when a desire to be an editor first took 
control of him, which desire resulted in the publication of 
The Pre^ss. 

There is a belief among some that this paper, for a while 
Ijefore its suspension, was known as The Anglo- African, but 
this must not in any way be connected with the later publi- 
cation of ** Hamilton's Magazine," and a paper known also as 
Anglo- African, Further mention will be made of Mr. Ham- 
ilton in a succeeding chapter. 

The Afro- Americans, at this stage, evidently caught inspi- 
ration, wherever settled in the North, as to the duty of the 
hour. Those who were able, intellectually, found it their 
imperative duty to agitate through the medium of the Press, 
for but little could be accomplished by means of speech; 
even at the North. 

55 



56 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Not only was New York the garden-spot for journalistic 
fruit, but Pennsylvania also occupies a place on that record- 
In 1843, when the interest of every man at the North had 
been stirred up on the slave question, the Afro- Americans 
of Pittsburgh, not unlike their friends in New York, desired 
and sought to publish letters in their behalf, but could find 
no means of expression. Their pleas to the white publishers 
ol papers were not heeded. This prompted Major Martin 
R. Delaney to publish a weekly sheet in the early part of 
the year, under the title of The Mystery, which was devoted 
solely to the interest of his race. 

As we have seen in preceding chapters, and as is generally 
the case at this writing, Afro- American papers were always 
lacking support. The most pretentious newspapers, run strictly 
on business principles, would be hardly able to live upon the 
support the race offers. 

While Mr. Delaney put ability, money and business spirit 
into his paper, yet it survived as personal property only nine 
months, when it was transferred to a joint-stock company of 
six gentlemen, he being retained as editor. 

Mr. Delaney was an editor of attractive power. His 
friends who now live are loud in their praises of his editorial 
ability. A writer says — "The editorials of his journal 
elicited praises from even his enemies, and were frequently 
transferred to their columns." 

To his editorial influence is due the originating of the 
Avery fund. He was the only editor from 1827 to 70, to 
our knowledge, who was ever arrested for what his enemies 
would term libel ; certainly he was the first. A verdict of 
guilty was rendered in the suit for libel, and he was fined. 
Mr. Delaney stood well with his newspaper friends. They 
were loud in praises of him and his editorial work ; and upon 
the occasion of the suit for libel, this was fully exemplified ; 
for as soon as they found out the court had fined him, they 



THE PEOPLES PRESS AND THE MYSTERY. 57 



proceeded immediately to start a subscription paper to pay 
the fine. Happily, it had been remitted and the money was 
not needed. 

Mr. Delaney was a physician of great skill. He was 
among the first Afro-Americans to graduate from Harvard 
College. He championed the c^use of the Afro-Americans 
for four years through Tlie Mystery^ which suspended publi- 
cation in 1847. This connection with The Mystery^ was his 
first appearance in public life. 

Mr. Brown, in his '* Lives of Representative Men and 
Women," says — **His journal was faithful in its advocacy of 
the rights of man, and had the reputation. of being a well-con- 
ducted sheet." 

Dr. Delaney died January 24, 1885, after living a useful 
life seventy odd years. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE GENIUS OF FREEDOM. 



SHORTLY after this, another effort at Afro-American 
journalism was made in the publication of Th^ Oenius 
of Freedom , issued some time between 1845 and 1847. 
with Mr. David Ruggles as editor and publisher. The exact 
date of the commencement of this paper is not known, the 
writer having exhausted all resources to find out. 

Ruggles also published contemporaneously with l^he Cbhred 
American a quarterly magazine, under the style and title of 
"The Mirror of Liberty," which we shall notice in another 
chapter. 

It is safe to conclude that The Oenius of Freedom was not 
published until aft^r the suspension of Mr. Ruggles' Maga- 
zine in 1841, and prior to the establishment of The North 
Star, at Rochester, N. Y., in 1847. This paper, while edited 
for the interest of the Afro- American, did not survive a long 
life. It was soon gathered into its projectors' arms, however, 
with the knowledge of its having done something for an op- 
pressed people. Thus, little is known of it by any one save 
the most careful observer of men, times and events. 

Mr. Ruggles was a highly educated gentleman, refined in 

58 



THE GENIUS OF FREEDOM. 59 

manners. He was one of the first promoters of the Under- 
ground Railroad, and was one who stood by it in times of 
peril. He was a terror to the Southerner; but a friend to his 
brethren in the South. He labored for his people with unfal- 
tering trust. 

He was the most logical writer of his time ; indeed, there 
are few now of the craft who can excel our subject in the 
editorial field where logic and argument have most power. 
He was a quick and ready writer, his articles being of that 
nature befitting the time and occasion. 

Wm. Welles Brown, in his "Rising Sun," says, — *' The first 
thing ever read, coming from the pen of a colored man, was 
D. M. Reese, M. D., used up by David Ruggles, a man of color. 
Dr. Reese was a noted colonizationist, and had written a work, 
in which he advocated the expatriation of the blacks from the 
American continent. Mr. Ruggles' work was a reply to it. 
In this argument, the Afro- American proved too much for the 
Anglo-Saxon, and exhibited in Mr. Ruggles those qualities of 
keen perception, deep thought, and originality, that mark the 
critic and the man of letters. 

Mr. Ruggles was an editor of the indomitable stamp. He 
was respected by all of his constituents, as an able and fear- 
less advocate. 

Hon. Frederick Douglass says of Mr. Ruggles, — " He was 
not only an intelligent man, but one of the bravest and bold- 
est spirits of the times. John J. Zuille of New York, says, 
— '* He was a man of profound ability and force of character. 
During most of his active public life, he was the soul of the 
Under-ground Railroad in New York City, respected as an 
editor, and in the courts of New York for his intimate knowl- 
edge of law in slave cases." Another says, — " He was a keen 
and witty writer, sending his arrows directly at his opponent." 
The most striking characteristic of Mr. Ruggles, with re- 
gard to his work and his time, is that he was of unmixed 



60 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



blood, which clearly showed the possibilities of a race of 
people, some of whom were slaves and others free but with- 
out the right of franchisement, and with no means of eleva> 
tion. 

The Oenvus of Freedom, as has been said, was short-lived. 
However, Mr. Ruggles' journalistic career numbered through 
several years, the rest of which will be noted in a succeeding 
chapter. 

It is highly probable that his life, in this respect, would 
have been longer, had he not been overtaken with blindness. 
He died in 1849, highly respected and esteemed and with a 
popularity which not many of his race enjoy to-day. 




CHAPTER VIII. 



THE RAMS HORN. 



IN New York, before the war, there was embodied in the 
Constitution of that state a clause relating to the voting 

qualifications of the Afro- American, which was called the 
*' Colored Clause." It was to the effect, that no Afro- Ameri- 
can could have the right of suffrage who was not actually 
worth two hundred and fifty dollars of real estate, accurately 
rated and taxes paid thereon ; while any white man of twenty 
years, without a foot of land, could vote. The fact of such a 
law existing, many intelligent and level-headed Afro- Ameri- 
cans were deprived of a just right ; while his white brother, 
in many cases not so capable as the other, was allowed it. 

As the Afro-Americans became more and more intelligent 
and able to see and discern events of a public nature, and 
capable to sit in judgment upon matters of public concern to 
them, sentiment among their fellows with regard to this 
injustice arose to such a height, that the more thoughtful 
and efficient of the race met in New York city, sometime 
between 1845 and *47, to take into consideration this special 
feature of injustice. The result was a unanimous decision to 
petition the legislature to eliminate the word "color," and 

61 



62 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

have every man to vote on the same terms and conditions. 
The legislature, after some fighting, decided to leave the 
matter with the voters, who were to vote Yes or No, on the 
question. Now was the most favorable opportunity for the 
publication of an Afro- American journal ; but there was not 
one then issued in the land. 

About this time, Mr. Willis A. Hodges, a man full of 
zeal and devotion for his race, enthused by utterances from 
the editorial columns of The New York Sun calling on the 
voters to vote ** No," prepared an article in answer to these 
utterances, and sought space for the same in The Suns col- 
umns. 

Mr. Hodges* ai-ticle was published for a fifteen-dollar 
consideration; but its sentiment was modified, and it was 
published in the advertising columns. Mr. Hodges upon 
inquiry relative to the alteration of his article and the manner 
of its publication, was told — " The Sun shines for all white 
men, and not for colored men." He was also told if he 
wished the Afro- American cause advocated, he would have to 
publish a paper himself for the purpose. 

Right here, Mr. Hodges, as was t^e case of all his friends 
with whom he consulted, saw the irreparable loss his people 
had sustained by the suspension of Afro- American newspapers, 
formerly published in New York. 

As has been said, there was not a paper published by an 
Afro-American, at this time, in the Union. Mr. Hodges, 
being a man of energy, public-spirited and to the manor born, 
hastily came to the conclusion that one should be published 
in New York city by Afro-Americans. He consulted with 
leading Afro-Americans who had been interested in former 
publications, only to be discouraged. All seemed to be seek- 
ing personal ends, and not what, at this time, demanded the 
closest attention of their leading minds. 

Finally, Mr. Hodges met with an old friend, Thomas Van 



THE BAMS HORN. 68 

Benaselaer, with whom he formed a co-partnership. This was 
done in October, 1846, at which meeting they also decided 
upon The Eatn*8 Horn, as a title for the paper. 

There was no money in hand to make the first issue. It 
was agreed that Mr. Hodges should furnish the finances and 
contribute editorially, while Mr. Van Rensselaer was to be 
the business manager. 

It is amusing, as well as interesting, to recall what Mr. 
Hodges himself has to say about it : ''I had not one dollar of 
my own for the paper; but as white-washing was a good 
business in New York, I went to work at it, and in two 
months I had nearly all the money that was necessary to get 
out the first number; and I can truly say that I furnished 
every dollar that started The Mams Horn, and wrote the 
first article that was published in its columns." 

To the surprise of many, on the first day of January, 1847, 
three thousand copies of The Rams Horn were gotten out, 
with the significant motto, — "We are men, and therefore 
interested in whatever concerns men." 

It was published in the second story of 141 Fulton Street, 
the price of subscription being $1.50 to persons living in New 
York, and $1.00 to those who received it by mail. 

The paper was well received, though it met with some 
opposition on the part of Afro- Americans in the Metropolis, 
and was published until dissension arose among its projectors. 

It was edited by Messrs. Hodges and Van Rensselaer, 
assisted by Frederick Douglass. Mr. Douglass, while he did 
little writing for The Rams Horn, was then so highly popular, 
that no paper was considered of much importance without the 
name of Douglass connected with it. He was probably to 
Afro-American journalism of that day, what Bill Nye and 
Bret Harte are to the journalism of their day. The Ram's 
Horn was well distributed. At one time it had upon its 
books two thousand five hundred subscribers. Of course. 



64 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

these were enough to support several journals of its size, but 
few of them represented fully paid subscriptions. 

The Rams Horn was greatly aided in living by such men 
as John Brown, who was a supporter and contributor, and 
whose sympathy was gained by the publication of Mr. Hodges 
treatment in Virginia. 

The Rama Horn was as neatly printed, and presented as 
pleasing a journalistic look, as any paper published at that 
time. It was a five-column folio, printed on both sides with 
original matter, and was full in every issue with anti-slavery 
sentiment from the editors, as well as from able contributors. 

The writer of this, especially, was attracted by the clean- 
cut logic of an editorial, written by Mr. Hodges on one 
occasion, entitled, — " The South Land Again." 

We put Mr. Hodges down as a man of prolific brain, good 
practical sense, and sound reasoning faculties. In fact, the 
articles of The Ram's Horn, in general, were noted for their 
readableness and force of character. 

Vol. I, No. 43, November 5, 1847, which we have before 
us, contains a reply of a correspondent to the following clause 
of a circular sent out by Rev. Alexander Crummell, dated 
April 19, 1846 : 

"The rising anti-slavery feeling of the North confines 
itself almost entirely to the interests and rights of the whit« 
race, with an almost utter disregard of the Afro- Americans ; 
which tendency is dangerous to us and should be changed.*' 

It also contained other interesting articles, which space 
forbids us to mention here. 

After The Ram's Horn had been published eighteen months, 
a dissension arose which resulted in Mr. Hodges retiring from 
the paper, leaving Mr. Van Rens.selaer as editor and owner. 
It is due Mr. Hodges to say he left T/ir Ram's Horn free of 
debt. 

Hodges, while crude in his English, was one of the most 



THE RAM S HORN. 



65 



sagacious and practical men of his time. He was the soul of 
Ihe Bams Mam, though little credit has been given him by 
some who comment on Afro- American journalism. He now 
resides at Norfolk, Va., a trusted citizen. 

The Sams Sam appeared only once with Mr. Van Rens> 
selaer as editor and owner, when it fell asleep in June, 1848. 
It, however, had done good work for the race, in whose special 
interests it was run. 

Mr. Van Rensselaer, while a very indiscreet man, was a 
brave and undaunted advocate of the equal rights of the 
Afro- American in the United States. T. i. Fortune, in writ- 
ing an article on A&o-American journalism for the holiday 
number of The New York JaumaUst, takes his subject " From 
The Ham's Homy He comments on The Rarna Horn as 
follows : *' Before the war, few newspapers were published by 
Afro-Americans. Here and there, a man more intelligent, 
more venturesome, more affluent than his fellows, turned to 
journalism as the most effective means of pleading for the 
abolition of slavery ; but his funds would be soon wasted and 
the issue of his paper would be stopped." 

It was thus with The Rarna Hom^ and it? service must not 
be forgotten. 





DE. JAMES McCUNB SMITH. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE NORTH STAR. 



THE suspension of The Ravi's Horn did not leave the 
Afro- Americans entirely without an organ. Vol. I, No. 
43, of T^ Rama Horn contained the following pro- 
spectus for an anti-slavery organ at Rochester, N. Y. : " Pro- 
spectus for an Anti-slavery paper, to be entitled — '* The North 
Star: 

Frederick Douglass proposes to publish in Rochester, New 
York, a weekly anti-slavery paper with the above title. The 
object of The North Star will be to attack slavery in all its 
forms and aspects; advocate Universal Emancipation; exact 
the standard of public morality ; promote the moral and 
intellectual improvement of the colored people ; and to hasten 
the dav of freedom to our three million enslaved fellow-coun- 
trymen. 

The paper will be printed on a double medium sheet, at 
$2.00 per annum, if paid in advance, and $2.50 if payment 
be delayed over six months. 

The names of subscribers can be sent to the following 
persons, and should be forwarded, as far as practicable, by 
thp first of November, proximo. 

67 



68 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

The following are the agents: Frederick Douglass, Lynn^ 

Mass, ; Samuel B. , Salem, Ohio ; M, R, Delaney, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Val Nicholson, Harrisburg, Ohio ; Mr, Wal- 
cott, Boston, Mass.; J. P, Davis, Economy, Indiana; Christian 
Donaldson, Cincinnati, Ohio ; J. M. M. Rinn, Philadelphia, 
Pa, ; Amaraney Paine, Providence, R. I. ; Mr. Gay, New 
York," 

The North Star was issued the first day of November, 
1847. It and The Rains Horn were contemporaries. 

The editor of The Star being head and shoulders above 
many of his colleagues, his paper was readily accepted as one 
of the most formidable enemies to American Slavery. Its 
aims and purposes, as set forth in the prospectus, drew to it 
good support from those of the whites who favored Abolition, 

The North Star was conducted on a much higher plane 
than any of the preceding publications. Mr. Douglass had, 
by his eloquent appeals in behalf of the Abolition cause, 
created a wide-spread sentiment, and he was known as an 
orator. While much of his time was spent on the rostrum in 
behalf of Abolition, yet many say his best and most effective 
work for freedom was as editor, in the publication of The 
Star at Rochester, New York. 

Mr. Douglass was what is hard to find in any one man,^— 
a good speaker, as well as an effective, able, and logical 
writer. There is no man to-day who is a Douglass with the 
quill and upon the rostrum. 

Previous to this publication, Mr. Douglass was not known 
as a writer ; but he was afterward recognized as a great 
man in more than one sphere. 

No writer ever expressed truth in better and more fitting 
language than did the man who said — " His (Mr. Doug- 
lass') boldness and superior journalistic ability won for him a 
world-wide reputation." 

His power as a writer was large, while his ready and 



THE NORTH STAR. 69 

yigorous use of the English language was always effective and 
good. 

We clip the following from The Mising Sun : " Frederick 
Douglass' ability as an editor and publisher has done more 
for the freedom and elevation of his race than all his platform 
appeals." 

The commencement of the publication of 27ie North Star 
was the beginning of a new era in the black-man s literature. 
Mr. Douglass' great fame gave his paper at once a place 
among the first journals of the country ; and he drew around 
him a corps of contributors and correspondents from Europe, 
as well as from all parts of America and the West Indies, 
that made his columns rich with the current literature of the 
world. 

While The North Star became a welcome visitor to the 
homes of the whites who had never before read a paper 
edited by an A fro- American, its proprietor became still more 
popular as a speaker in every state in the Union where 
Abolitionism was tolerated. 

Of all his labors, we regard Mr. Douglass' efforts as pub- 
lisher and editor the most useful to his race. 

For sixteen years, against much opposition, single-handed 
and alone, he demonstrated the fact that the Afro- American 
was equal to the white man in conducting a useful and 
popular journal. 

The paper was continued under the title of The North Star 
until, in 1850, its name was changed, and it was afterwards 
known as " Frederick Douglass Paper y 

But there was only a change in name ; for the same prin- 
ciples, the same ability, and fight for Abolition, characterized 
its every movement. 

In the publication and work incident to the paper, Mr. 
Douglass was assisted by his sons. This accounts, in a great 
measure, for their love of newspapers at this writing, and their 



70 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



connection, from time to time, with many different journals. 
Fred Douglass' Paper continued to be published until it was 
able to chronicle the emancipation of the slaves. It was then 
gathered into the arms of its promoters, haying triumphed in 
the cause for which it so vigorously fought. 




o-^ 



CHAPTER X. 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE NORTH STAR. 



BEGINNING with The JVarthStar, journalism among Afro- 
Americans took a higher stand, and was of a more ele- 
vated plane than that previous to 1847. 

About this time, the Abolition cause began to wax warm, 
and the fight was a vigorous one. In this condition of affairs 
the Afro- American could not have less interest than those 
among the other race who made many sacrifices for the sake 
of Abolition. 

Upon the rostrum could be heard, all over the North, the 
voices of the abolitionists for the emancipation of the slave. 

In this, the Afro- Americans enlisted. The matchless ora- 
tory of Frederick Douglass, John Remond, and others, was 
listened to in almost every section of the North, pleading for 
their brethren's freedom from oppression. This was seen to 
have been a necessary means of agitation. 

It was also necessary that the press should be conducted 
by able and fearless advocates. It is true, Douglass had his 
Star, at Rochester ; but other papers were needed to make the 
press heard in the hum of battle, in union with the musical 
voi<je of the orator ; therefore, the Sfar should have its contem- 

I>orarie8. 

71 



72 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Of these, some were of short and others were of long 
duration. The first of them was The Impartial QUizen, at 
Syracuse, N. Y., in 1848, published by Samuel Ward. 

Mr. Ward was a very intelligent and sober man, and 
conducted his journal on a very lofty plane. He was as able 
as any other journalist since that time, and his publication 
was managed with as much shrewdness and practical ability 
as any of his day. By many he was regarded aa an abler 
speaker than writer. 

The principles for which the paper fought are indicated by 
its name. It clamored particularly lor Afro- American citizen- 
ship at the North, and the freedom of the slave at the South. 

Mr. Douglass, an able man himself, says — " To my mind, 
Mr. Ward was the ablest black man the country has ever 
produced." It follows that Mr. Ward must have been an 
able man. 

The Citizen advocated, with convincing logic, political action 
against slavery. Though the paper had unfortunately but a 
brief existence, it gained for itself the reputation of being a 
spirited sheet. The editor of The North Star, which was a 
contemporary of 77ie Citizen, says — " Mr. Ward was an edu- 
cated man, and his paper was ably edited." This was an 
excellent effort at journalism. 

There was now no Afro-American journal published in 
New York City. T/te Banis Horn having been suspended in 
1848, left the Afro- Americans in that city without any organ. 

While journals, backed by men of brains, were springing 
up in other parts of the North, New York City contained, 
probably, a greater number of able black men, both speakers 
and writers than could be found elsewhere. 

Mr. Louis H. Putman, a man identified with all the Afro- 
American interests, began the publication of The Colored 
Mans Journal, in New York City. It was backed by a man 
of some financial strength, and therefore survived many a 



74 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

shock to which it must otherwise have succumbed. It was 
issued in 1851, and continued to be published during a 
period of ten years of stormy agitation, until the outbreak 
of the civil war. 

As a writer, Mr. Putman was known very well. He, 
however, did little work as a speaker, save in his native 
town on matters of local interest. His main efforts were 
made through his paper. He was what might be termed a 
practical man, full of common sense, which he used abundantly 
in conducting his journal. No paper up to this time, save 
The Star, survived the existence of The Journal. 

There is one feature about Mr. Putman 's life as a writer 
which is very flattering. He never fought for anything he 
did not conceive to be right. He had his faults, as all men 
have; but he looked far and thought soberly before acting. 
A friend speaks thus of him: "Mr. Putman was a man 
full of historical facts, and possessed keen perceptive powers ; 
and he was a good writer." His paper was neat in appear- 
ance, and exhibited, in its mechanical make-up, a knowledge 
of the higher order of journalism. 

The next effort at journalism among the early contempora- 
ries of The North Star was 27ic Alienated American, edited by 
Prof. W. H, H, Day, which he published at Cloveland, Ohio, 
in 1852, in the interest of Abolition, immediately after he 
graduated from Oberlin, in 1847. The American was decid- 
edly one of the best journals ever published, supported by a 
well-trained man, as well as of recognized ability. This 
paper was wholly devoted to the cause for which it was 
every Afro- American's pleasure to fight, — that of freedom. 
A man eminently able and thoughtful, says — "It rendered 
timely and efficient service in the cause of freedom and the 
elevation of the colored people in the state." 

Mr. Day was a scholarly writer, of as much ability as any 
of that day ; and since he still lives, with years of experience 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE NORTH STAR. 75 

upon his head, it is safe to say there are very few now who 
are his equals at the editorial desk. To judge from historical 
accounts of Mr. Day and his journalistic life, it is indeed 
safe to say that then t&ere were only a few in that department 
of life's work who could attain to his measure. 

He is spoken of in The Rising Sun, as follows : " As a 
writer, Mr. Day is far above newspaper editors generally, 
exhibiting much care and thought in many of his articles. 
As a speaker and writer, he has done much for his race." 

He is admitted to be among the few who, with Douglass, 
may justly claim the distinction of being a prolific writer. 

The great secret of Mr, Day's success and triumphant 
ability as a writer is, that he had a finely stored memory^ 
firom which he could draw at will. ITie American was a 
paper that could be regarded as a creditable publication, and 
it realized a good support. It was the first paper that had 
ever been published in Ohio by an Afro-American for his 
race ; and it is a matter of fact that an enthusiastic and hearty 
support was at once created for it. 

The American suspended publication, for a while, before 
Mr. Day sailed for England, in 1856 and '57. There, he was 
recognized for his worth and scholarly training, his manner of 
deportment, and for his genuine eloquence in his preaching 
and lecturing. Some time after he returned, he embarked 
again in journalism, which we shall have occasion to refer to 
later on. 

Mr. Day lives at Harrisburg, Pa., where he is yet engaged 
in toiling for his people. He is a preacher in the A. M. E. 
Zion church, and one of its best and brainiest men. 

In 1887, Livingstone College, Rev. J. C. Price, President, 
gave him the degree of *' D. D." The honor has never been 
conferred on one more worthy. 

Truly he has helped to make the history of journalism 
bright and shining by his having been in it. 



76 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

It must seem to the reader that now the Afro-Americans 
were of some consequence , for we see them rising on all sides, 
whenever allowed any freedom at all, aiming at the one 
great evil of slavery. 

The work, as the reader will note, was not now confined 
to the state of New York or Pennsylvania, but was reaching 
into the far West and there getting foothold for a crusade 
for the right. 

Another contemporary of The North Star was The Mirror 
of the HmeSy of which Hon. Mifflin W. Gibbs was one of the 
proprietors and editors. It was published in San Francisco, 
Cal., in 1855. 

That The Mirror of the Times did much good work can not 
be denied by any one. It could not have been otherwise 
with the name of Judge Gibbs attached to it. 

This journal was published for seven years, and nobly 
defended the race and fought for the common cause of 
Abolition, until, in 1862, it was merged into The Pacific 
Appeal. 

The Times did excellent work, and the Afro- Americans of 
to-day feel proud of its efforts. 

Judge Gibbs is at present Receiver of Public Moneys, at 
Little Rock, Ark. 

Another excellent contemporary of The North Star was 
The Herald of Freedom, published in 1855 by Mr. Peter H. 
Clark. It was one of the best advocates of Abolition among 
the Afro- Americans, for the reason that it had an editor of 
good sense and vast knowledge, both natural and acquired. 
Mr. Clark was born in 1827. 

There are possibly few men of our race who have lived, 
and now live, better known as of literary and intelligent 
worth than Mr. Clark, every person of importance giving him 
the credit of being an acute thinker. 

His journal had a very short existence, but it, no doubt. 






PETER H. CLARK. 



78 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

helped on the fight for a just principle, which was after- 
wards maintained. 

Its name indicated a long-looked-for desire. It joined in 
the fight with a vim, and went to rest, doubtless, with the 
feeling that it had accomplished something. 

After the suspension of Hie Herald of Freedom, in Ohio, 
Mr. Clark was associated with Mr. Douglass in the publica- 
tion of The North Star. Upon the editorial staflF of this 
paper he labored zealously. 

27ie Star had already been actively battling for Abolition 
for some years, and with Mr. Clark*s vigorous and pricking 
pen, its aims and purposes for triumph were greatly strength- 
ened. 

Respecting his contributions to The Star, a writer to the 
author quotes William Welles Brown as expressing his senti- 
ment : " His articles were fresh, vigorous and telling." 

Mr. Clark is one of the bright Afro- American minds, and 
the world has been made brighter and more attractive for 
his having lived in it. 

Up to this time there had been no part taken by the 
Afro-American churches in the interest of Abolition, save, 
here and there, a few individual attempts. There seems to 
have been no organized e£fort among the churches ; and noth- 
ing of a tangible nature was done to battle against the wrong. 

This the members saw ; and the A. M. E. Church, having 
had some years of existence, now made a very interesting and 
permanent stand in the North. The principles of the church, 
as taught by Richard Allen, were laid down with much 
power and strength. 

The Press, an indispensable factor, was seen to be neces- 
sary here; and it was about this time (1856) that The 
Christian Recorder was established in Philadelphia, with Rev. 
Jabez Campbell, now Bishop Campbell, as editor. 

It is hardly necessary for us to comment here upon the 



CX)NTEMPORARIES OF THE NORTH STAR. 79 

work of The Recorder, or to attempt to t«Il its liiatory ; for 
to every churchman The ChrieAian Recorder is a familiar 
periodical. 

It was establiehed as the official organ of the A. M. E. 
Church, and has manfully fought the fight. Its heroic efforts 




REV. RICHARD ALLEN, 
Firat Bishop of Th« Africsn M. £. Cliurcli. 

in the days of slavery for Abolition, are well known to the 
Afro-American student of times and evente. 

Rev. Campbell brought its editorial work to a high stand- 
ard, which was carried even higher by succeeding editors. 

Rev. Campbell resigned his position after a few years' 
service, and was succeeded by Rev. John M. Brown, who 
afterward became Bishop. 



80 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Mr. Brown kept up the high order of editorial work 
attained by Mr. Campbell. By these two gentlemen the 
standard was fixed, and the foundation laid for a more 
glorious service in the time of absolute freedom. • 

This brings us to 1868, when Rev. Benjamin F. Tanner 
took the editorial chair, which he occupied for sixteen years, 
during which time he made The Recorder an assured publica- 
tion, giving it that distinction and prominence which it well 
deserved under his management. 

In 1870, after Rev. Tanner had had control of The Recorder 
only two years, a man of eminence and high intellectoal 
ability speaks thus of him and his paper : " As editor of The 
Recorder, he has written many witty, pithy, and brilliant 
sentiments. There is a tinge of opulent fancy running through 
his editorials, which always refreshes one. The wide repu- 
tation of his journal, outside of his own denomination, is 
probably the best test of his ability as a newspaper con- 
ductor." This can be said of his whole career. 

Upon the establishment of a church magazine in 1884, 
Rev. Tanner was chosen editor, whereupon he resigned the 
editorship of The Recorder, when Rev. Dr. Lee was chosen as 
his successor. 

As is known, Dr. Lee is one of the greatest Afro- American 
writers upon the continent of America, and with entire satis- 
faction to his race and his church he fills the responsible 
editorial chair of The Recorder, He is one of those who had 
to toil by the sweat of his brow for an education. 

It is highly interesting to think of Dr. Lee as once having 
been the stable-man upon the Wilberforce University grounds, 
and of his return, after a few years, to be its President. 
The divine injunction that the first shall be last and the last 
shall be first, is fully illustrated in this case. 

There is nothing harsh about Editor Lee s productions. 
He is rather an easy, mellifluous writer, and fully conversant 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE NORTH STAR. Rl 



with hiH church polity. It may safely be said that he is one 
of the most dieitingnished men of his race and church. 




BLACK HARRY— "The FrencliLT." 
BisbopCkike's servant, and aaid by Dr. Rush, Bishop Asbiirr i 
lo have been the greateel omlor in America. 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE ANGLO-AFRICAN. 



THE next marked effort in this field was in New York 
City, and was opportunely made. 
Mr. Thomas Hamilton, of The Peoples Press fame, again 
dares to brave the storm in another publication. This time it 
was a decided success, reflecting credit upon his journalistic 
experience and his active brain. It was called TJie Angh- 
African, and was one of the most powerful journals, irrespect- 
ive of the color of the publisher, in the Abolition cause. 

Published a few years before the war, it entered upon a 
heated period, which demanded fight, — fight to the bitter 
end. 

Mr. Hamilton put every thing serviceable into his paper. 
He decided it should be a creditable and effective sheet, and 
to accomplish this he made many sacrifices, and flung to the 
breeze the first number of The African, (Vol. 1., No. 1.) July 
23, 1859. It started with a high order of journalism, and 
occupied that elevated plane of Afro- American press work, 
inaugurated by The North Star. 

Mr. Hamilton was, at this time, sole owner of the paper ; 
but his brother Robert was associated with him in the 



84 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

editorial department. Tfie Anglo- African was a most worthy 
paper. The publishers were men of great intellectual, as well- 
as journalistic ability. The opinion of Mr. Douglass is — *' It 
had more promise, and more journalistic ability about it, than 
any of the other papers," 

It was a large sheet of four pages, with seven columns to 
a page. These were larger than ordinary newspaper columns. 

It had at their head the following : 

The Weekly Anglo-African is published every Saturday by 
Thomas Hamilton, 43 Beekman Street, New York. 

Terms of subscription : Two dollars per year, or four cents 
per copy. Thus it went forth, and made a noble fight for 
the Abolition cause. 

Papers published at this time were watched with a criti- 
cising eye by almost every man among the white people. 
The editorial backing was closely observed, as well as the 
journalistic look of the paper. 

This ordeal The Anglo- African was able to meet. When- 
ever weighed in the journalistic balances, it was not found 
wanting. 

Mr. Thomas Hamilton,, like his brother, was a man of 
superior ability, and of much experience in his profession. 
He was on The Evayigelist for a long while, and had been 
one of the proprietors of The Peoples Press. Many are of 
the opinion that The Anglo- Afican was the better publica- 
tion of the two. We will not venture the opinion that it 
was the best paper published, but we will say it was the 
largest. 

The great feature of Th4i Anglo-African was, that it did 
not seek to make itself a paper whose matter should originate 
in the Hamilton family alone ; and some of its contributors 
were known to embrace the best Afro-American talent of 
those days ; the result being a genuine Afro- American news- 
paper. 



"»"h? 



R. DeLANEY. 



86 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

Hamilton was devoted to journalistic efforts, and proved 
eminently successful therein. 

The motto of TJie Angh- African was as significant as that 
of any paper ever published. It was — "Man must be free; 
if not through the law, then above the law." With this 
motto, it manfully contended for Afro- American freedom and 
citizenship. 

Mr. Thomas Hamilton continued to be the owner and 
editor of The Anglo-African until it was bought by Mr. 
James Redpath, one of the old and substantial Abolition- 
ists, — the object of his purchase being the advocating of the 
Haytian Emigration Movement; a project that seemed then 
to be the only hope for the Afro- Americans. This occurred 
in the early part of 1860. 

After its purchase by Mr. Redpath, the paper was known 
as The Weekly Anglo- African, for a short time, when the 
following notice appeared in Vol. II, No. 13, May 11, 1861: 
The Anglo- African will appear next week under a new name 
— The Pine and Palm. 

What does it mean ? Wait and you will see." 

George Lawrence, Jr., Publisher. 

While Mr. Redpath was owner, Mr. Lawrence seems to 
have done the work for him, and carried out his wishes with 
respect to the Haytian Emigration Movement. This Move- 
ment was pressed with earnestness by Mr. Redpath and by 
his representative, Mr, Lawrence, through The Afncan, as 
well as The Pine and Palm. 

The Anglo- African of March 23, 1861, Vol. II, No. 36, 
contained a full outline of the Movement, and some very 
pertinent and interesting articles on the feasibility of it. 

Mr. Redpath, the General Agent, resided in Boston, and 
used The African, afterwards The Pine and Palm, as the 
surest medium through which the Afro-American could be 
reached. 



THE ANGLO-AFRICAN. 87 

The issue spoken of above also contained circulars setting 
forth the advantages of the Movement, signed by Mr. Red- 
path. We would insert them verbatim et lUeratim, as they 
appear in The Afiican, but for the great consumption of 
space it would require. It kept up to the old landmark of 
journalistic enterprise, during the year it was published. 

About August or Septembur of 1861, Mr. Redpath having 
resigned the position of Emigration Agent of the Haytian 
Movement, the paper reverted to the hands of one of the 
Hamiltons, this time being owned and edited by Mr. Robert 
Hamilton, Mr. Thomas Hamilton having died. It also resumed 
its original name, Anglo- AfHcan. 

Mr. Hamilton was assisted in the editorial work by Rev. 
Henry Highland Garnott, who appears in the paper as 
** Editor of the Southern Department;" and who was inter- 
ested in every good enterprise started during this perilous 
time in the interest of American Slavery Under Mr. Robert 
Hamilton's management the paper increased in size, and the 
editorial dash of its columns was perceptibly quickened. 

Mr. Garnett was a man of affaii-s, and contributed in a 
magnificent way to the brilliancy of the paper. 

It was published at 50 Beekman Street, a part of the 
time, and then at 184 Church Street, New York City. 

Much of the services of The Anglo- Afncan, in these later 
days of its publication, was due to Mr. William G. Hamilton, 
son of the former owner and editor, who acted in the capacity 
of business manager. 

Mr. Robert Hamilton was known throughout New York 
state, and, in fact, the Union, as an able writer; and his 
paper was recognized as an unflinching advocate of Republi- 
canism, which he regarded the best friend of the slave. 
While an untiring advocate of Republican principles, he 
watched party actions with a vigilant eye, in order to detect 
any traitorous measure it might attempt to support. 



88 THE ANGLO-AFRICAN, 

The African also looked with a piercing eye to the educa- 
tional interests of the freedmen in the South. — Vol, V, No. 5, 
September 9th, 1865, immediately after the Surrender, con- 
tains a most potent and well-timed article on the kind of 
education the freedmen should have, and the wav in which 
he should be taught. The editorial was headed : '* The South- 
ern Field and the proper agents." 

The following are the introductory words of the article : 

" We notice an increasing solicitude among the A^hites, as 
to the influence likely to be exerted upon the freed brethren 
of those talented colore«l men who are now going South. 
This is quite natural. The whites are conscious of the fact 
that heretofore thev have had the field all to themselves; 
that for patronage and perquisites they have taught what 
and how they pleased." 

•' It is reasonable and proper that colored men should feel 
that it is their mission now to enter this field and educate 
and elevate their freed brethren. This field is naturally 
ours, and is the onlv fair one we ever had for usefulness 
before. Moreover, the race to be educated and elevated is 
ours; therefore we are deeply interested in the kind of 
education it receive.^*, etc." 

The Amjio- Africa II liveil (o see the Afro- American a freed- 
man, and to enjoy the awarded — " Well done, good and 
faithful servant," in the Abolition fight. 

It lived to see the A fro- American on the march to an 
intellectual position and to civil citizenship ; and with this 
consciousness it died peacefully in the arms of its promoters. 

The Hamiltons will be known as long as the .cause for 
which men fought, mentally and physically, is remembered 
by their countrymen. Their names will be treasured in the 
archives of history in connection with that of Phillips, Garrison, 
and a phalanx of others, whose arms are stacked by the 
Jordan of eternal rest. 




EEV. J. P. SAMPI 



CHAPTER XII. 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE ANGLO-AFRICAN. 



THE only paper we have heard of that was published by 
one of our race during the war, or that began publica- 
tion during that period, was The Colored Citizen, at Cincin- 
nati, by Mr. John P. Sampson. It was issued in the interest 
of the black soldiers, then fighting in the Civil War. 

The Citizen was the only Afro- American war-policy paper 
published. It was generally known as the "Soldiers* Organ." 

Many humane Christians at the North aided in the publi- 
cation of this paper, and circulated thousands of copies of it 
among the Afro- American soldiers. 

It was a successfully conducted shoot, having the tone of a 
journal whose mission was a high and lofty one. 

Mr. Sampson was a man of eminent learning, having been 
sent North from his home in North Carolina to obtain an ed- 
ucation, which he received in the schools of Boston. 

He began work as a teacher in the public schools of New 
York, and so endeared himself to the hearts of his people and 
won the esteem of the nation, that when he entered upon this 
mission he gave a prestige to his paper which made it an 
ever-welcome visitor to many homes. 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 91 

Mr. Welles Brown, who possibly knew more about the 
ability and work of the men of his times than most people, 
Bays — " Mr. Sampson was an able writer, ete.," which com- 
pliment speaks well for him. 

John P, Sampson was as well known for his good deeds, 
and for his arduous work as editor in war and reconstruction 
times, as any man who ever espoused the Abolition cause. 

He was an enterprising editor ; which is much to say of a 
colored man of his profession at that time, for, usually, those 
80 disposed were not suffered to exercise their ability in that 
direction. 

His journal was an authority, owing to the fact that Mr, 
Samp.«««jn was a reliable man. He might be termed an im- 
preasive writer, — one whose thoughts in print would leave 
their lessons deeply stamped upon the reader s mind. His 
services as an editor and correspondent were largely sought. 
In addition to his duties in connection with The Citizen, he 
edited, through the mail, for a brief period, a paper at 
Louisville, Ky., which was owned by a joint-stock company. 
We have been unable to find out the name of this paper. The 
CUizen suspended publication in the latter part of 1865, 
having done great service in the West for the colored people. 

The year 1862 brings us to the period when The Mirrc/r 
of the Times, previously spoken of, changed hands, and was 
published as Tlie Pacific Ajypcal, the proprietor being Mr. 
William H. Carter. It was because of this paper that Mr. 
Philip A. Bell left for the Pacific Coast to become its associate 
editor. The Appeal was also one of Tlie Anglo- Africavs 
contemporaries. It was regarded as the official organ of the 
Afro-Americans on the Pacific Slope, at this time. 

The following, which was found weekly in its columns as 
an advertisement of its aims and purposes, as well as a 
delineation of the principles for which it fought, will doubtless 
enlighten the reader as to its stand : 



92 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

" The Pacific Appecd, established in 1862, is the immediate 
successor of The Mirror of the Times, which was established 
by colored men in San Francisco, in 1855. 

The Pacific Appeal has always been regarded on the Pacific 
Coast, also in the Eastern states, as a reliable index of the 
doings of the colored citizens of the Pacific states and adjacent 
territories. Every important political, or other movement, 
made by the citizens of the Pacific coast, is promptly detailed 
by correspondents. 

The Pacifixi Appeal is independent in thought and in 
action. Its columns are open to all parties for the logical 
discussion of every question pertaining to the welfare and 
progress of the people, without regard to race, color, or 
condition, etc." 

With these characteristics, viz. : its political attitude, ex- 
tensive influence, and wide circulation, it was regarded by 
the intelligent of all classes as the most desirable and readable 
newspaper ever published by A fro- Americans on the Pacific 
Slope; and as the equal of any by Afro- Americans in the 
Atlantic States. 

During Mr. Bell's connection with this paper, he exercised 
all of his journalistic zeal, for which he was so well and 
favorably known, and this, as a matter of fact, did its part 
towards enabling it to stand. It was a sprightly-looking 
sheet, a six-column folio, and attractively printed. Its edito- 
rials were of a sober and sound character, which always 
indicated the power and make-up of the paper. 

As was the practice of every Afro- American journal, The 
Pacific Appeal had a motto : "He who would be free, him- 
self must strike the blow;" which it adhered to as best it 
could, under existing circumstances. This, it would seem, 
was the vital principle underlying the contest this paper 
intended to make, in view of what was a common fight, — 
that of Abolition, or freedom to the enslaved. 




PHILLIP A BELL. 



94 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

The Appeal was permitted to witness the accomplishment 
of this, and the bondman become a freeman and a citizen; 
and lived for several years afterwards to see him develop 
his citizenship. 

Mr. Philip A. Bell, one of the very earliest editors of which 
mention was made in a preceding chapter, having moved to 
the Pacific Slope with the desire to continue the good work of 
editorial fighting for his race, began, April 18, 1865, to issue 
The Ekvalor. The following is the proBpectus, ae it appeared 
in The Angh- African: 

"Prospectus: — The Elevaior, — a weekly journal of progreaa, 
published every Friday. 

Office, Phoenix Building, comer of Sampson and Jackaon 
Streets, San Francisco, Cal., Room No. 9. Terms: — Per year, 
$5.00; six months, $2.50; three months, $1.25; one month. 
50 cents; single copies, 15 cents. 

This paper is the organ of the Executive Committee, and 
wilt advocate the largest political and civil liberty to all 
American citizens, irrespective of creed or color. 

Such are our general principles and objects; but we shall 
have, in addition thereto, a special mission to fulfill: We 
shall labor for the civil and political enfranchisement of the 
colored people, — not as a distinct and separate race, but aa 
American citizens. 

We solicit the patronage of all classes, as we intend to 
make The Elevator a real, live paper, and an evidence of the 
progress of the age. 

As an advertising column for retail business, we offer 
peculiar advantages, as our circulation will principally be 
among persons who patronize such establishments. 

To make our advertising columns accessible to all, we have 
established the following low rates of advertising : — One square, 
six lines or less, one insertion, 60 cents; each subsequent 
insertion, 25 cents. 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE ANGLO-AFRICAN. 95 

A liberal discount will be made to those who wish to 
contract for advertising quarterly or by the year. 

P. A. Bell, Editor. 

Publishing Committee : William H. Yates, James R. Star- 
key, R. A. Hall, James P. Dyer and F. G. Barbadoes." 

Mr. Bell, having had up to this time twenty-five years of 
experience in editorial work, of course started The Elevaiar 
without any trouble whatever, either as to journalistic finish 
or business enterprise. It was a neatly printed paper, of 
four pages, with seven columns to a page. Its motto was 
"Equality before the law;" for which it fought with might 
and main. It was devoted to the literary culture of his race 
on the Pacific Slope, and though a contemporary of The 
Pacific Appeal, it claimed to be the organ of the Afro- 
Americans in California, The place of publication was 615 
Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

While an earnest and efiicient writer himself, in these his 
la«?t days of journalism, he had an able corresponding editor 
in the person of Mr. William J. Powell. 

Tlic Elevator was known as a journal of progress, devoted 
to Science, Art and Literature, and also to the Drama. 

As in the other publications of Mr. Bell, he had about him 
an able cla.ss of correspondents, and a willing force of agents. 

Very often, during the publication of The Elevator, Mr. 
Bell was in very straitened circumstances, but he managed 
to continue the publication of his journal, and it was always 
readable. Unfortunately, he died April 24, 1889, in destitute 
circumstances, but his paper still lives, Mr. Bell having given 
it an impetus that will make it flourish for a long time. 

How he was estimated as a journalist can best be told by 
those who knew him, and loved him for his noble deeds and 
generosity of heart. The following is the tribute from 21ic 
Ooie City Press, of Kansas City, Mo. : 

"Philip A. Bell, the octogenarian journalist is dead. In 



96 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

his death the Negro race loses the oldest and one of the 
ablest of American editors. Fifty- two years ago, in New 
York, he flung to the breeze as a menace to the slave owner 
and slave hunter, The Golored American, A quarter of a 
century ago, he removed to San Francisco, where The Pacific 
Appeal was started. In 1865 Mr. Bell launched T/ie UlevcUo7\ 
a spicy weekly, which continues to this day the oldest secular 
Negro newspaper. Educated, original, capable of fine powers 
of analysis, he flung the sparkling rays of his imagination 
over the productions of his pen, and came to be regarded as 
the Napoleon of the Colored press. For some years he had 
been too feeble to engage in newspaper work. Wednesday, 
April 24, at the age of 81, his spirit fled to his Maker. He 
died in the poor-house. And this is the end of a great 
historic character. Peace to his ashes I" 

Below is the tribute paid to him by a writer in ITie NefO) 
York Age : 

** Philip Alexander Bell has closed his eyes in death, in his 
8l8t year. To all New Yorkers the fact opens a history of 
the past that is not only interesting but profitable to consider. 
It brings up precious names ; it calls to mind when New York 
City would call her roll of fifty and more of big-hearted, 
self-sacrificing men who publicly distinguished themselves and 
served the cause of their race not selfishly but for justice 
sake ; men upon whom each other could safely rely ; sensible, 
considerate men ; stirring, energetic men ; who were not simply 
active in eflbrts to free and enfranchise their brethren in 
bonds, but who were actively interested to forward the cause 
of morality generally, of education, of refinement and of the 
general weal. They were men of inflexible character when a 
principle was at stake." 

*^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

^K ^* ^^ ^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

" All of these, and more besides, are worthy of a place in 
the heart of every lover of liberty, and especially in the 




^T-^ <^^^*^ 



98 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

memory of the colored race. It is but seldom we hear men- 
tioned the name of any of the above, though they all labored 
faithfully to bring about what is to-day enjoyed throughout 
the land by millions of their race. They were giant« in 
efforts ; they were heroes in devotion and in sacrifice. 

If you would be informed of the labors of Philip A. Bell, 
seek the files of The Colm-ed American, the Negro's pioneer 
paper. He started this journal in 1837, in New York City. 
There was associated with him the Rev. Samuel E. Cornish, 
one of the ablest colored men of his day, ranking with 
Hamilton, Simpkins and Williams. At a later date Dr. James 
McCune Smith was one of its editors. Dr. Smith, it will be 
remembered, graduated with high honors from Glasgow Uni- 
versity, Scotland. About 1857 Mr. Bell went to California, 
where he wrote vigorously as an associate editor for The 
Pacific Appeal. He, with Frederick G. Barbadoes, did nobly 
in manufacturing a liberal sentiment in California, favorable 
to the colored people. In 1865 he gave to San Francisco and 
to the country The Elevator, which paper had his name at its 
head as editor and proprietor until his spirit from bondage 
was set free on the 25th ult. 

Mr. Bell was a strong, vigorous but chaste writer, quite 
poetic ; in fact he was fond of the poets, many of whom he 
could quote readily. He was well versed in history and 
belles-lettres and was a fine dramatic critic. He wrote several 
articles for the California daily papers, criticising Keene, 
Macready, Forrest and others. 

" To be restless and aggressive, is the lesson his life presents 
to the individuals of this day ; to those who have the manliness 
to feel that their talents, character, and citizenship are not 
properly respected. He was tall and prepossessing in appear- 
ance and manners ; he had a fine address, was quick, impul- 
sive and brave, with a keen sensibility as to honor and those 



CXDNTEMPORARIES OP THE ANGLO-APRICAN. 99 

other amenities that mark a gentleman and refined society. 
He was open-hearted and generous. Philip A. Bell has left 
behind but a veiy few of those old New Yorkers who labored 
with him nearly a half-century ago.*' 




C D> 



V 



'^JU 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 



THE close of the war, and an epoch of freedom for the 
Afro- American, mark an entirely new phase in journal- 
istic pursuit, as in all other interests. 

The South, the main place of abode for our people, is 
vastly in need of a press, not only as a defender of our rights 
but as a popular educator; for as one of eminence has said of 
the Afro- American journals — "They would be, for a long 
time, the popular educator of the masses." 

Afro- American papers educate the masses of the Afro- 
American people. These papers would seem to be not so 
much a defender as teachers of the masses, leading them to 
see the course they should pursue as freedmen in educating 
and elevating themselves as a people. 

The keenest and most far-seeing Afro- Americans were the 
ones, too, whose labors were in demand. 

With these facts in view, the A fro- Americans were not long 
in stretching themselves out. becoming editors and putting 
their thoughts, well mapped out and carefully arranged, on 
the printed page, before the public. 

The prospectus of the first paper published in the South, 



THE COLORED AMERICAN. 101 

appeared in Tfi£ Anglo- African^ Vol. 5, No. 6. The following 
is the proepectus, as it appeared : 

llie Colored American Prospectus : 

"The undersigned propose to establish .in Greorgia, in Au- 
gusta, a Weekly Newspaper, to be entitled The Cbhred 
American. 

It is designed to be a vehicle for the diflPusion of ReHgioua^ 
Political and General Intelligence, It will be devoted to the 
promotion of harmony and good-will between the whites and 
colored people of the South, and untiring in its advocacy of 
Industry and Education among all classes; but particularly 
the class most in need of our agency. It will steadfastly 
oppose all forms of vice that prey upon society, and give 
that counsel that tends to virtue, peace, prosperity and 
happiness. 

Accepting, at all times, the decision of the public sentiment 
and Legislative Aasemblies, and bowing to the majesty of 
law, it will fearlessly remonstrate against legal and constitu- 
tional proscription by appeal to the public sense of justice. 

This paper will be conducted in a kind, conciliatory, an4 
candid spirit, never countenancing that which serves to engen- 
der hostility. Its greatest aims shall be to keep before the 
minds of our race the duties and responsibilities of freedom; 
and to call attention to the wants and grievances of the 
colored people. 

We earnestly ask the patronage of the colored people of 
Georgia, who must see the importance of such an organ. 

We earnestly ask the cordial support of our white friends 
at the South, who are striving to bring about an " era of 
good feeling" and prosperity, and who believe that the colored 
race can materially aid in developing the resources of this 
section. We earnestly ask aid from pur Northern friends, of 
all classes, who can be kept posted on all the affairs of the 
colored people, through our journal, 



102 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

ITie Cblared American will be issued in the latter part of 
October next. It will be of medium size, good type, and 
in all respects a good journal, and a very live one. 

Terms $4.00 per iinnum, in advance. 

Send in donations or subscriptions to Rev. James Lynch, 
34 Edward Street, Baltimore, Md., or to J. T. Shuffcen, 
Augusta, Ga. 

Before proceding to comment respecting the work of The 
Cblared American, it may be interesting to know the cause of 
the establishment of The American by the two gentlemen 
who signed the Prospectus : 

In May, 1865, when the United States Commissioner was 
sent South to the freedmen, Mr. Shuften, then a very young 
man, was chosen to deliver the address of welcome. He did 
so and acquitted himself nicely. He was followed by Rev. 
Dr. Lynch of Baltimore, one of the leading lights of the 
A fro- American race. 

Mr. Shuften saw the necessity of newspapers as the herald 
and sentiment of the Afro-American, in connection with the 
work of elevating his people. Being a young man of no great 
influence, — certainly not enough to give that prestige to a 
publication necessary to draw about it a support, he succeeded 
in securing the aid of Dr. Lynch. In September, 1865, he 
purchased type from a Mr. Singer and issued the above 
Prospectus for a publication in October. The first week of 
that month marked the issue of TTic American, the first Afro- 
American newspaper published in the South, after the war. 
It was received with great favor, by both white and black 
citizens ; and heartily endorsed by the people of Augusta for 
its good and timely counsels, under the new order of things. 

It had no politics to advocate at that time; for its advent 
was before the enfranchisement of the Afro- American, or the 
ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment. It therefore had 
nothing to promote but the intellectual and moral advance- 




J. T. SHUFTEN. 



104 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

ment of its constituents, which it did to no little extent. 

Hie American had but one exchange upon its file, — that of 
The Colored CUizeti, published at Cincinnati, 0. 

The American had but a brief existence. Mr. Shuften 
having consented to form a joint-stock company for the 
purpose of placing the paper upon a more permanent basis, 
he was forced, in February, 1866, through the bad faith of 
the stockholders, to abandon the enterprise to its creditors. 
It was purchased by Mr. J. E. Bryant and afterwards ap- 
peared under the name of TJie Loyal Georgian. 

The American, during its career, received valuable support 
and encouragement from Bishop H. M. Turner and Rev. Dr. 
James Lynch. In fact, Mr. Lynch did a vast deal of good 
by writing for the paper, which made it a journal of interest- 
ing matter. He was not only a man of great experience but 
of vast learning, and was a ready writer. 

Says an eminent man : " Lynch 's articles were always care- 
fully prepared, thoughtful, argumentative, and convincing; 
and they performed a good work wherever read." Another 
says: "Mr. Shuften wa« a writer of natural ability." 

He has issued several pamphlets, and, at present, has a 
work of fiction prepared for the press, which is entirely 
original. The New York World and Churchman credits Mr. 
Shuften as the author of the best article yet published on the 
" Negro Question." 

He was born in 1840, in Augusta, Ga., and at present is a 
successful, practicing lawyer, at the bar of Orlando, Florida. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



CONTEMPORARIES OF THE COLORED AMERICAN. 



CONTEMPORANEOUS with The American was published 
The Colored Tenneseean^ in the state of Tennessee, (the 
second Afro-American journal published in the South) 
and The True QymmuniccUor, at Baltimore, Md. 

These were journals of much ability and influence. Though 
all were of very brief existence, they aided 27ie American in 
its great work of advising the race. 

The Anglo- African of Nov. 11, 1865, says of these papers: 
" ITie True Gommunicalor is edited with much spirit, and 
shows that the gentlemen having it in charge fully compre- 
hend their duties, and are thoroughly alive on all the questions 
of the hour. We hope that great success will attend the 
efforts of the publishers. 

In speaking of The Tenneseean, the same paper says : — 

"This paper, which we have heretofore mentioned with 
much pleasure, has been enlarged, and our friend Waring 
of Ohio has joined the editorial corps. The people of Ten- 
nessee and the adjoining states appear to be coming up to 
the support of this sterling paper; and we hope that the 
publishers are meeting a just reward for their zeal and 
faithfulness in our cause. 



106 ■ THE AFBO-AMEEICAN PRESS. 

Thus we aee that these two papers, puhlished in '65 and 
'66, did excellent work as contemporaries of Tkt Colored 

American. 




CHAPTER XV. 



GENERAL IDEA OF AFRO-AMERICAN JOUR- 
NALISM. 



THE establishment of The Communicator and The Tenne- 
secan opened the way for the introduction of like papers 
all over the South. 

From the year 1866 on, Afro- American newspapers were 
being founded in almost every state, some of which died an 
early death, while others survived many years. Some dropped 
their original name, and, under another, exist to-day. 

These papers were started by some of the ablest men of 
the race at that time. They were men whose loyalty to their 
people could not be questioned, and w^hose efforts for race 
development could not fail to win appreciation. They labored 
at a time w^hen the Afro- American, just out of slavery, did not 
engage to any great extent in literary efforts ; and consequently 
a support for their journals was obtained by the hardest 
efforts only. 

While the South did not accept defeat with any great 
magnanimity of soul, and consequently was not interested in 
the Afro-American's development, — in fact, did not, as a 
whole, wish to see it, yet there were a few whose love of 
principles and a desire to do what is right in the sight of 



108 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Grod led them to receive properly the great result of the war, 
and at once unite with the Christian people of the North in 
helping the freedmen. 

Wherever an Afro-American was found with brain sufficient 
to establish a literary effort, he was aided by these people. 
These journals were, in many respects, of more importance 
as advocates than we find the average Afro- American journals 
now. Why? The answer is plain, when we remember that 
only the ablest men of the race engaged in these under- 
takings then. In 1866 The American was a thing of the 
past, yet The Loyal Georgian was, in a measure, doing its work. 

The Sunbeam, at Brooklyn, edited by Rev. Rufus L. Perry, 
(now D. D. and Ph. D.), and The Zvon Standara and Weekly 
Review, edited by Rev. S. T. Jones, (now Bishop Jones) 
assisted by Prof. W. Howard Day, (now a D. D.,) were all 
marching to the front and early demonstrating the capabilities 
of this people, once oppressed. 

These were supplemented in their efforts by neater and 
more substantial publications. In 1868, Rev. R. H. Cain, 
later a member of Congress, and Bishop in the A. M. E. 
Church, established The CharJcsixm Leader, at Charleston, 
S. C. He afterwards made it the organ of his church, when 
it was known as The 3rissionary Record. 

Rev. Mr. Cain, as is known, is a very able man, and of 
course much of his brilliancy was manifest in his paper. It 
was continued many years under the editorial management 
of Hon. R. Brown Elliott; but when he was elected a member 
of Congress, it suspended. 

There were still papers rising here and there, advocating 
Afro-American advancement. The year 1870 opened glo- 
riously for the Afro-Americans, in the field of journalism. 
Tlie Peoples Journal, a juvenile paper, (which had 10,000 
subscribers) was now being issued by Dr. R. L. Perry, as was 
also The National Monitor, 




BISHOP KICHAED HAEVEY CAIK, D. D. 



no THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

Not one among the many Afro- American journalists has 
been more progressive and aggressive in journalistic work 
than Rev. Dr. R. L. Perry. 

Rev. Perry was born in Smith County, Tenn. He is a 
highly educated man, having, as has been previously stated, 
two honorary degrees at the present time. He has an 
excellent idea of journalism, as one may see by a glance at 
The Monitor, He is a writer of vast learning and experience. 
The MoniUyr has survived many shocks in these twenty years 
of labor. 

A writer says of our subject: "His pen has never in all 
these years failed to warn the race of dangers ahead. He 
always puts God first, and the race next." 

Concerning the fii-st paper he. edited, in 1866, The Brook- 
lyn Daily Union says: "It is edited by an intelligent, 
active, clear-headed colored man. It is temperate, sensible, 
and manly," This is the true estimate of his Monitor, to this 
day. 

Mr. Jas. J. Spellman, now Special U. S. Lumber Agent, 
and Mr. John R. Lynch, now Fourth Auditor U. S. Treasury, 
began in this year, The Colored Citizen, in Mississippi. They 
were among the few able leaders in Mississippi, and their 
journal was creditably gotten up. 

December 25th of that year, Mr. P. B. S. Pinchback started 
The New Orleans Louisianian, which was the first semi- 
weekly paper published by Afro-Americans. It was pub- 
lished in this way for three years, when it was issued weekly. 
This paper was a noteworthy effort, and a champion of the 
race. Its editor put into it all of the zeal and fire for which 
he is noted. 

In this year W. Howard Day also published at Wilmington, 
Del., Our National Progress, which he edited with his accus- 
tomed vigor. It was a very good effort in this line, but eked 
out only a short existence, All during this time the intel- 



APRO-AMERICAN JOURNALISM. Ill 

lectaal state of the Afiro- American was being improved, and 
lus love for newspapers was daily increasing. 

In August, 1861, John J. Freeman Issued The Progressive 
American, in New York City, which ran from August 15, 
1871, to February, 1887. It would not then have been 
suspended, but for the failing health of Mr. Freeman, who 
was advised by his physician to retire from the business. 

No publication, save The Recorder, Elevator, and North 
Star, had so long an existence as this paper ; and there is no 
exaggeration when the assertion is made, that none did more 
good. There was bitter prejudice to Afro- American journals, 
when The American made its appearance in New York ; but 
it successfully combated every obstacle, and came out con- 
queror. 

Many things profitable to the race that T^ie Atnencan 
fought for were gained. Notably among these was the fight 
made for Afro-American teachers in the public schools of 
New York, the result being there are now twenty-three 
such teachers in said schools. The American also fought 
many an evil of the race, while advocating many good 
measures. 

Mr. Freeman was a man of good journalistic ability, and 
excelled in press work. In journalism his was a lough road 
to travel ; but all was laid upon the altar as his contribution 
to elevate the race. His editorials exhibited more than 
ordinary tact and talent, and were always on the side of 
right, morality, and the elevation of man. 

William Welles Brown, in writing on the merits of The 
American, says: "That spicy and spirited weekly, The Pro- 
gressive American, is edited by the gentleman whose name 
heads this sketch. By his natural genius, untiring industry, 
and scholarly attainments, he has created, and kept alive, a 
newspaper that is a welcome guest in New York and the 
county around." 



112 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Mr, Freeman is worthy of a more extended notice, but it 
must be withheld for want of space. The author would like 
to mention many things which he succeeded in obtaining 
through his editorial efforts, but must forbear. 

The Progressive American was followed by The GomiDumer, 
and others equally as prominent. Prof. P. H. Murray pub- 
lished The Oohred Oiiizen, at Washington, D. C. Mr. Murray 
is the present editor of The St. Louis Advance, and his 
editorials are always fresh, vigorous, far-seeing, and bristling 
with argument backed with facts. 

From this time to 1880, journals were continually being 
started, which would require several volumes to mention. 
Many of them survived but a short time. 

This period was one of great political excitement for the 
Afro- American. The ballot had just been given to him, 
with which it became possible to place his brother in the 
Congressional Halls. Publications were started in various 
localities for the achievement of a certain political end, which 
having been accomplished, their career would then terminate. 
This decade was, however, a successful period for Afro-Ameri- 
can journalism, which made a great stride, though not equal 
to that from 1880 to 1890. 

In 1870 there were but ten journals published by Afro- 
Americans in the United States, and in 1880 there were 
thirty ; therefore we perceive there was a gain of twenty in 
ten years, — the most of theso liaving been started after 1875. 
This is a good and notable increase, when we remember the 

lack of literary culture of the Afro- American, his limited 
knowledge of newspapers, and his want of desire for enlight- 
enment then, and his support of newspapers now. 

The following list does not, by any means, comprise the 
exact number of newspapers published by our people, for 
some were known only in the immediate vicinity of their 
publication. 



AFRO-AMliRICAN JOURNALISM. 



113 



The following is a complete list of Afro- American journals 
that were published when the year 1880 was ushered in : 



Leader^ 

Christian Recorder^ 

Conservator, 

Louisiayiian, 

National Tt^ihune, 

Progressive Ajnerican, 

Virginia Star, 

Peoples Advocate, 

Co-Operator, 

Western Sentinel, 

National Monitor, 

Freeman's Journal, 

Advance, 

Peoples Journal, 

Spectator, 

Journal oj Indastry, 

Obso'ver, 

Concordia Eagle, 

Colored Citizen, 

Golden Enterprise, 

Eastern Review, 

Elevator, 

Afro- A merica n Prcshyi^ 

Independent Pilot, 

African Exjyositor, 

Star of Zion, 

Educator and Reformer 

Peoples Journal, 

Peoples Watch ma n, 

live Argus, 



'nan, 



Indianapolis, Ind. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. 

New Orleans, La. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

New York Citv. 

Richmond, Va. 

Washington, D, C. 

Boston, Mass. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

St, Louis, Mo. 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Jackson, Misn. 

Galveston, Tex. 

. Raleigh, N. C. 

New Orleans, La. 

Vidalia, La. 

Topeka, Kan. 

. Baltimore, Mel. 

Providence, R. I. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Concord, N, C. 

, Raleigh, N. C. 

New Berne, N. C. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

New Orleans, La. 

Charleston, S. C. 

Washington, D. C. 



These papers were held in high regard for their j(»urnal- 
istic tact and worth, and for their national reputation as 



114 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



reliable journals. To our mind, the greatest stride made 
ill Afro- American journalism, was in the decade which ends 
with the present year, 1890. Let us note the advance in 
the comparative estimates of 1880 and 1890. For con- 
venience, we will do 80 by states : 



1 

Stateb. 


1880. 


1890. 


Gaiiy. 


Texas, 


1 


16 


15 


PeDDsylvania, 


1 


10 


9 


Virginia, 


1 


10 


9 


Tennessee, 


1 


9 


8 


Ohio, 




6 


6 


Arkansas, 




7 


7 


Louisiana, 


4 


7 


3 


Georgia, 




10 


10 


Illinois, 


1 


6 


5 


Missouri, 


3 


6 


3 


Kentucky, 




o 


5 


Alabama, 


1 


10 


9 


Disl. of Columbia, 




4 


2 


New York, 




4 


2 


South Carolina, 


1 


4 


3 


Indiana, 


1 


•> 

ad 


1 


Maryland, 


1 


5 


4 


MissiHHippi, 


1 


4 


3 


Florida, 




3 


3 


Colorado, 




2 


ad 


North Carolina, 


5 


11 


6 


California, 


2 


3 




Kansas, 


1 


2 




Michigan, 




1 




MinneMot:!, 




1 




West Virginia, 




2 




New Jersey, 




2 


2 


Massachusetts, 


1 


1 




Connecticut, 




1 


1 


Rhode Island, 


1 






Total, 


31 


154 


123 



This period begins with a year when the Afro-American 
i.< seeking to advance in the educational field, and to be 



AFRO-AMERICAN JOURNALISM. 



116 



thirsting for knowledge. It begins with a time when Afro- 
Americau journalism is deeply interwoven in the fabric of 
the nation, and is seen to be an indispensable factor in the 
improvement of our race. 

Some of the states not mentioned have had Afro-American 
papers, but they were short-lived. This increase of jour- 
nalism in these last years indicates as plainly as anything 
can the triumphant progress of the race. Since the begin- 
ning of 1890, there has been a marked gain in Afro- Ameri- 
can journals over the last decade. The typographical 
appearance and the editorial standard of these papers are 
their noticeable characteristics. They assume greater propor- 
tions, and seem more comprehensive in their editorial dealings. 

In jjumming up this chapter, we can readily conclude that 
the increase in our journalistic efforts is a fair measure of 
our literary ability, which has been so developed within 
a quarter of a century. Onward! fellow-craftsmen, is the 
watchword. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



AFRO-AMERICAN MAGAZINES. 



THAT the measure of a people's literary qualifications is 
its press facilities has been accepted, we think, as a 
fact; yet a people's literary worth is not to be estimated 
solely by the number of its newspapers, magazines and periodi- 
cals; for a hundred of them united may not possess as much 
merit as one other journal in point of editorial excellence. 
Therefore, we deduce this from careful study: that press 
facilities may be a measure of a people's literary worth, only 
insomuch as the press is able, practical, and efficient; and so 
far as it expresses itself clearly and produces sentiment in 
accordance with the principles of right, truth and justice. 

What kind of press work goes to make up this measure, 
is the question for each of us to consider. What kind of 
press work has aided in demonstrating the Afro- American's 
literary worth, is another question for solution. 

We believe all nations consider the magazine the best 
exponent of its literary w^orth. This being so, it is fair to 
conclude that such is the case with the Afro- American. 

Tliere is found in the magazine not only the purest and 
best thought of the editor but' also the richest and best 



AFRO- AMERICAN MAGAZINES. 117 

thought of the leaders and representatives of his race ; made 
80 by culture, experience, and pure Christian character. 

If, then, a race possess any number of these magazines, 
which are well contributed to and sustained by its own 
people, it becomes a self-evident fact that they are growing 
in literary merit. 

The Afro- Americans early began this work. Those at the 
North, even while their brethren were enslaved m the South, 
and they themselves were not enjoying many of the blessings 
of freedom, and while their elevation was retarded, saw in 
this branch of journalism a timely and effective means of 
advocacy for the abolition of slavery in the South, and the 
improvement of the black man at the North. As early as 
the 30's an Afro-American was at the head of a popular 
monthly magazine, Mr. William Whipper having editorial 
control of The National Reformer in 1833, which was the 
property of the American Moral Reform Society. 

This magazine was exceedingly popular, and was, as a 
matter of fact, read by more whites than blacks. It was 
published in the interest of the Abolition Movement, and of 
the moral, educational, and social reform of the people, irre- 
spective of color. It therefore occupied a position, in which 
the Afro-American editor had to strive bravely to reach a 
high standard. 

Mr. Whipper was a man of fine editorial powers ; and the 
magazine under his control was, in most respects, the equal 
of its former literary managers. A leader of the race, 
familiar with Mr. Whipper's editorial work for reform, pays 
him this tribute : *' Mr. Whipper's editorials were couched 
in chaste and plain language; but they were bold and 
out-spoken in the advocacy of truth." 

It was in 1833 that Mr. Whipper sent to the world these 
favorable and suggestive words through The Reformer, rela- 
tive to moral reform. Said he : '* Our country is rich with 



118 THE AFRO-AMERICAN .PRESS. 

means for resuscitating her from moral degeneracy. She 
possesses all the elements for her redemption. She has but 
to will it, and she is free." If '33 presented this glorious 
aspect for moral reform, how much greater should this day 
offer! 

This magazine we have just been considering, while in 
every respect A fro- American by having an Afro- American as 
editor, was not owned by a black man. It, however, demon- 
strated the Afro- American's capacity for the editorial work of 
a magazine. 

But it was not long before the Afro- American was sole 
ownor of a magazine, as well as editor of it. With the year 
1837 came the publication of Tfie ^firror of Liherfy, a 
quarterly magazine, (taking William Welles Brown as au- 
thority), published by David Ruggles, whom we have noticed 
in a preceding chapter. Mr. Ruggles was much interested 
in the moral, social, and political elevation of the free Afro- 
Americans in the North, and for this he labored zealouslv 
through the columns of his magazine for many years. He 
was not so interested in the Abolition Movemont. w^hen editing 
The Mirror of Liberty. The magazine had an able corps of 
writers and was a credit to the race. 

Between the years 1840 and 1850, there is no record that 
t^lls us of any publication of the nature we have been 
considering. Not until '59 do we hear of another Afro- 
American magazine. True to the spirit of the Afro- American, 
unhindered, this time his effort for a magazine was greater 
than ever, resulting in one the journalistic neatness of which 
was worthy of that of the most pretentious. It was called 
Tlie Ayufh'Afrirn)} Magazine, and was an outcome of The 
Anglo- Africa)) pnptM*, both being owned and edited by Mr. 
Hamilton. Vol. 1, No. 1, appeared January, 1859. It was 
a monthly magazine of thirty-two pages. The title page had 
the following: "Et nigri Memnonis arma." January 1st, 



AFRO-AMERICAN MAGAZINES. 119 

1856. Published by Thomas Hamilton, 48 Beekman Street, 
New York. 

This magazine adhered closely to the outline of policy 
given in the prospectus, it being devoted to Literature, 
Science, Statistics, and the advancement of the cause of 
human freedom. The name of Thomas Hamilton as editor 
was a guarantee for its editorial matter. Its contributors, 
who were men of unimpeachable character and ability, kept 
its columns constantly teeming with light. They always 
presented a clear and concise statement of the race s condition 
at that time, both free and enslaved. 

The objects mentioned below, set forth in the prospectus, 
were faithfully adhered to and worked for. They were as 
tollowf?: "To chronicle the population and movements of 
the colored people. 

To present reliable statements of their religious, as well as 
their moral and economic standing. 

To present statements of their educational condition and 
movements, and of their legal status in the several states. 

To examine the basis on which rest their claims for citizen- 
ship in the several states and of the United States. 

To give an elaborate account of tl^ various books, pam- 
phlets, and newspa{)ers, written or edited by colored men. 

To present the biographies of noteworthy colored men 
throughout the world." 

The price of subscription to this magazine was $1.00. It 
had fifty corre.^spondents. Upon the death of Mr. Hamliton, 
in 1861, its publication was suspended; but it was resur- 
rected in 1864 by his son, William G. Hamilton, then 
bookkeeper in the office of The Weekly Anglo- African, pub- 
Hahed by his uncle ; it lived, however, but a short time, to 
serve as a reminder of what had been. 

The period intervening before we hear of another magazine, 
is a very long one, — freedom and citizenship having come 



120 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

to the Afro- American, meanwhile. True, there were maga- 
zines and periodicals published in the Afro- American schools; 
but we speak of such as were for the Afro- American people 
at large. 

T/ie A. M, E. Church Ecview, an organ of the General 
Conference of the A. M. E. Church at Baltimore, next claims 
our attention. The first number appeared in July, 1884. It 
was a quarterly of never less than one hundred and twenty- 
five pages. Its journalistic finish is pleasing to the eye, while 
its literary contributions are of high order. In the beginning 
it was edited by Rev. B. T. Tanner, now Bishop Tanner ; but 
at present its editorial head is Dr. L. J. Coppin, a writer of 
acknowledged ability. 

Tlie Review has a circulation of 1500, which is daily 
increasing. It goes to all points of the United States, Africa, 
Europe, Hayti, etc. As a writer says: "It is an example 
of race enterprise and superior ability." The price of sub- 
scription is $1.50, and it is fully worth it." 

After Tlie A, M. E. Church Reviao, came the magazine 
published at Louisville, Ky., known as " Chir Women and 
Children,'' with Dr. William J. Simmons, editor. This maga- 
zine was established in \'^^S. Its purpose was the uplifting 
of the race, particularly our Afro-American women and 
children. Being devoted to this kind of work, it ha« done 
more than all the Afro- American papers together in bringing 
to the front the latent talent of our lady writers. Its 
columns have been open, from time to time, to all our women, 
for articles on the particular questions which affect home, 
the mother and children. By the eflforts of its editor it has 
thus given to the world a bright array of female writers, 
upon different questions hitherto unknown to the literary 
world. 

Its editor. Rev. William J. Simmons, D. D., is recognized 
by the nation as an educator, both with respect to the 



122 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

school-room and the newspaper. He occupieB a prominent 
place in the affairs of his church and his people. At present 
he is the honored Secretary of the Southern District of the 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, President of the 
National Press Convention, and President of the State Uni- 
versity, Louisville, Ky. He has edited, in his time, several 
newspapers, — a prominent one being The American Baptist, 

Dr. Simmons' capacity for thought is an unusual one. His 
literary efforts are such, we feel that the world of journalism 
is becoming so great a power through him, that men yet 
unborn will regard him as of superior mind. 

We clip two tributes to Dr. Simmons as a writer, and 
leave the reader to think about the man: "As an editorial 
writer he has obtained a national reputation for a pungent 
and aggressive style. He is an unremitting champion of 
right as against wrong of any kind, and has a bluff straight- 
forward way of expressing himself on all occasions, that is 
as - refreshing as it is startling at times." — Ind. Freeman. 

A writer in the North pays the following: "Rev. Wm. 
J. Simmons, D. D., President of the State University of 
Louisville, Ky., and the chief Baptist scholar on this con- 
tinent, is one of the race's big coming men. He has seen 
much of the world and men, and is a versatile, luminous 
thinker and writer. His chief work, 'Men of Mark,' brought 
him into immediate and famous notice, and is a book of price- 
less value to all who desire to know and learn of the magnates, 
'chief scribes' and orators of the Negro race. He is President 
of the Colored Press Association and has always been looked 
upon as a Nestor in its different councils." 

Howards Nec^ro Amciican, published at Harrisburg, Pa., is 
another creditable feature of magazine literature among the 
Afro-Amorieans. It is an octavo of at least sixty pages of 
reading matter of the best kind. The first number was issued 
by its proprietor, Jas. H. \V. Howard, July Ist, 1889, It 




REV. \V, .1. SIMMONS, D, n., 
presiiienl of Stnie L"iiirmity, I/.iii-^vill.-. 



124 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

is neat and tasty in its typographical arrangement, and has, 
at this writing, an excellent circulation. Its editor, Mr. 
Howard, is a man of thrift, born, in 1856, at Hamilton, and 
was educated in the schools of Buffalo, N. Y. He is a writer 
of ability and long experience, having edited the State Jour- 
nal from 1881 to '86, in Hanisburg, Pa. 

The next magazine we find is farther west, and is called 
The Afro-Amei-ican Biulgct. It is published monthly at 
Evanston, 111., with Rev. J. S. Woods as editor and proprietor, 
and Rev. W. H. Twiggs as Corresponding Editor. This mag- 
azine, in many respects, is a very praiseworthy production, 
particularly because of its bright journalistic touch. Its editor, 
a man highly educated in letters and in theology, and with 
natural editorial capacity, makes TJie Budget a gem, editori- 
ally. It is devoted to the practical problems of the Afro- 
American race, and always contains contributions from many 
of the excellent writers among our people. It is of thirty-two 
pages, carefully arranged, and is sold at the low price of 
seventy-five cents per year. 

As we conclude this chapter we are greeted by the finest 
and fairest publication yet, The Southiund, a monthly maga- 
zine, founded by Rov. J. C. Price, D. D., of Livingstone College, 
Salisbury, N. C, and edited by Prof. S. G. Atkins of that 
school. It is truly the Forum of the Afro- American press. 
Words too commendable of I7ie Southland cannot be said. 
The high mission it comes to fulfill must indeed be carried 
out to the letter; and in order to do this it demands the 
support of the race. There is no more worthy magazine than 
this. The first number was issued in February, 1890, and 
received great encomiums from the press generally. 

The founder, as well as the editor, needs no introduction at 
our hands : one, the leading educator of our race ; the other, 
a writer of supreme excellence, 

T^ie ^Southland is the fac-simile of The Foruvi ift its 




"'' ' (. PWCft D B. 



«;> 



126 



THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 



typographical arrangement. It is published more particu- 
larly as an exponent of the leaders' opinions of the situation 
in the South, It is bound to "hoe its row" through the 
intellectual field. 

There are other magazines and periodicals published in the 
Afro-American educational institutions Soutli. but they are 
issued more with reference to these institutions than to the 

broad di8CUie»dou of the race question. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE DAILY AFRO-AMERICAN JOURNALS. 



THE Afro- American has not lost any time in learning the 
advantage of a daily paper, with respect to the good it 
may do in a community. He has made efforts in this line 
that have been somewhat successful. 

But there are many obstacles attending publications of this 
sort among the Afro- Americans. The prejudices existing 
prevent his connection with any united or Associated Press 
organization ; which debars him from the privilege of receiv- 
ing telegraphic communications at the cheap rates accorded 
the members of such a body. Then it is our opinion that 
while the race is prepared for daily papers, yet the support 
now given our weeklies argues that ii-j great number of dailies 
among us would be supported. The history of Afro- Ameri- 
can dailies thus far, proves to us that where they have been 
published the patronage was, in the main, white; and in 
order to obtain and hold this, it would not answer to have 
the papers too deeply " colored ;" but if regard were paid to 
this, it would offend the Afro- American. These are only a 
few of the many reasons for the lack of daily Afro- American 
joomals. 



128 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRE8S. 



But, for all this, it is our pleasure to record some effoi'ts in 
this line which have met, and now seem to be meeting, with 
success, though attended with many difficulties. 

The first attempt made to establish a daily publication was 
at Cairo, 111., where Hon. W. S, Scott, then publishing a 
weekly, started a daily in connection with it. It was known 
as The Cairo Gazette, Mr. Scott being owner and editor. He 
bought a complete outfit, at a cost of $2000, which enabled 
him very successfully to put his paper into operation. Vol. 

1, No. 1, of the daily 
i.ssue, came out April 
23, 1882, as an in- 
dependent publica- 
tion, in the interest 
of the race. Mr. Scott 
was a prominent man, 
and as popular with 
the w^hites as with the 
blacks ; a proof of the 
fact being that his job 
office did all the city's 
printing. Four-fifths 
of the circulation of 
his paper was among 
the whites. It was a readable f^heet, all original matter, 
and li.id a good force uf reporters. Mr. Scott's politics do 
not nii^et tlie a[)proval of many ; but hit^ ability is never 
questioned. The Daily Gazette was issued six months, when 
it was destruVLMl bv tire. 

The next etiurt at a dailv is>ue Wiis The Chlumhu:< Messni- 
ger, at Columl)u.«, Ga. It was started June 20, 1887, as a 
weekly paper, and published for a year and a half as such, 
when it became a semi-weekly, and linally a daily. It was 
edited with much spirit and fitness by Mr. B. T. Harvey, a 




B. T. HARVF.Y. 




HON. W. 8, SCOTT. 



130 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



graduate of the Tuskeegee Normal School. We have his 
word for the fact that, as a daily, it had a good circulation, 
or, in other words, a paying circulation, and its receipts were 
clearly satisfactory to him. Its size was 12 by 20 inches, and 
full of reading matter. 

The Daily Messenger would not have suspended publica- 
tion, but the editor having accepted a position in the Railway 
Mail Service, he was necessarily compelled to close up his 
business enterprise for a time. 

As we have said, the paper, as a daily, met with the success 
Mr. Harvey anticipated, which will be seen in a part of a per- 
sonal letter to us, which we insert : " Let me add, that, with 
my experience in newspaper work, I am confident the colored 
press could be made more confidential and powerful, if more 
would attempt daily issues. They can be made a success." 

T/w Knoxville Negro Worlds Patteson Bros. & Co., publish- 
ers, Knoxville, Tenn., was issued daily for two weeks, but 
more as an advertiser than a regular daily medium of news. 

As we close this chapter we learn of a daily publication in 
Baltimore, known as lite Public Ledger. It is edited by Mr. 
Wesley Adams. The Public Ledgei' is having great success, 
we are informed, and our w'lAi is that its efiforts may be so 
appreciated as to warrant it.s continued publication. 



PART SECOND. 




JIAB8HALL W. TAYUJB. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

SKETCHES AND PORTRAITS OF AFRO-AMERICAN 

EDITORS. 



Timothy Thomas Foetune, Editor New York Age, 

THE most noted man in Afro-American journalism is 
T. Thomas Fortune of New York. He was born of 
slave parents in the town of Marianna, Jackson County, 
Florida, October 3, 1856. His parents were Sarah Jane and 
Emanuel Fortune, — the former of whom died in 1869; the 
latter, who was a conspicuous character in the Reconstruction 
period of Florida politics, is now a well-to-do and respected 
citizen of Jacksonville. 

It is evident that young Fortune was destined to be a 
power in journalism. While a mere lad he haunted news- 
paper offices, soon after the war, making himself useful aroun<l 
the office of The Mariamia Courier; and later, when his 
parents moved to East Florida, he entered, first the com- 
posing room of The Jacksonville Cbiirier, then T7i€ Union, 
where he gathered a fair knowledge of the "art preserva- 
tive/* He then attended the Stanton school at JacksonvilL* 
for a while, and afterward entered the Jacksonville post-office 
as office-boy. He was soon promoted to the position of letter 



134 THE APRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

stamper and paper clerk. The Postmaster and he failing to 
agree in a small matter, Mr. Fortune threw up his position 
and returned to the " case." 

While '* sticking type '* he received an appointment in 1874 
as mail-rout« agent between Jacksonville and Chattahoochee. 
He resigned this position in 1875, and was appointed Special 
Inspector of Customs for the Eastern District of Delaware by 
Sec. B. H. Bristow, at the instance of his unwavering friend, 
Congressman William J. Purnam of the First Congressional 
District of Florida. He resigned this position in the fall of 
1875 and entered the Normal Department of Howard Uni- 
versity at Washington, where he remained two school years. 
He then entered the composing-room of The Peoples Advocate, 
at Washington, and while there he was married to Miss Carrie 
C. Smiley. Soon after this he returned to Florida, and spent 
a year teaching county schools. In 1879 Mr. Fortune went 
to New York City, and entered the composing-room of The 
Weekly Witness. In 1880 he made his bow as a journalist, as 
editor of The Rumor, Geo. Parker and William Walter Samp- 
son being partners in the publication, the name of which was 
soon changed to The New York Olohe. 

The Globe wielded a powerful influence for the right. The 
author well remembers the frequent references made to The 
Olohe and its editor. At that time few Afro-American 
journals were published whose columns were as reliable and 
newsy as those of The Olohe, Owing to a disagreement in 
the partnership, The Olohe suspended in November, 1884. 

In speaking of our subject, at the time of the suspension of 
Tlie Globe, a writer in Dr. Simmons' " Men of Mark" has the 
following to say : *' The suspension gf The Olohe did not 
discourage its editor. He had commenced his work with a 
well-defined plan in view, and he was determined to continue 
it. He felt the need of a journal to contend for the just 
rights of his race, and thought that much good might be done 




T. THOMAS FORTUNE. 



186 THE AFRO-AMEtllCAN PRESS. 

through such an agency. He maintained that for a paper to 
be a power for good among his people, it must be fearless in 
its tone ; that its editor should not fail to speak his just con- 
victions ; that he should hold himself aloof from parties, and 
maint^n his position untrammelled by parties and party 
bosses." 

Adhering to the principles in the above he re-entered his 
chosen field as publisher of The New York Freeman, Novem- 
ber 22, 1884. This was only a week after the suspension of 
The Obbe, of which Mr. Fortune was editor and proprietor. 

The Freeman was decidedly the most popular paper pub- 
lished among Afro- American journals, for several reasons, the 
most prominent being these: In typographical make-up it 
resembled the best journals of the whites, and contained all 
the most important news about the Afro- American, sent by 
trustworthy and brilliant correspondents. Having such a 
corps of writers the paper contained such news, and carried 
with it such influence, as did no other. In this respect it 
pleased the masses. 

Another good reason for its success was Mr. Fortune s 
ability as an editorial writer. He declares himself boldly, 
and by many is regarded as the ablest among the many 
Afro- Americans who wield the *' goose quill." W. Allison 
Sweeney, a reputable writer, speaks of him in The Indian- 
apolis Freeman, as follows : " T. Thomas Fortune, the 
well-known newspaper man, although, comparatively speak- 
ing, a young man, came near going to the front amongst the 
big literary men of the race, at one jump. Coming into 
notice first, a few years since, as editor of The Olobe, pub- 
lished in New York City, he has since then, through his 
editorship of The Freeman, published in the same city, made 
his name nearly a household word throughout the land. As 
a brilliant, pointed, aggressive editorial writer, Mr. Fortune 
deserves all the fame he has garnered to himself. It is not 



APRO-AltERICAM EWTOttS. 137 

indulging the least in hyperbole to say that he is considered 
by many the leading editorial writer and all-around news- 
paper man of his race. He also ranks as an essayist of no 
mean order, and in the language of PoUok, occasionally 
'touches his harp'; and if ' nations ' do not ' hear entranced,' 
they may some day, for the ' fine frenzy ' of the poet is largely 
developed in his mental organism. Seriously, Mr. Fortune 
has given fugitive verses to the world, at different times, 
Ui»t burned and sparkled with true poetic fire." 

7^ Freeman had a moat encouraging career, and Mr. 
Fortune, no doubt, would have remained its editor, had he 
not accepted a position upon the editorial staff of The New 
York Evemttg Sun, one of the wealthiest papers in the 
Uetiopolis. He is one of the few young men who have held 
a position upon the editorial staff of a leading white daily. 

The IVeeman having been transferred to Messrs. Fortune 
and Peterson, ita name was changed to The New York Age, 
under which caption it is now published. Our subject is an 
editorial contributor to The Age, at present. Frequent refer- 
ences are made to his articles, which are always able and 
forcible. Hon. Jno. 0. Dancy, in The Slar of Zion, speaks of 
him, in reference to his contributions to TTie Age, as the 
"watchful paragrapher." 

One thing about Fortune's articles is, that he never writes 
nnless he makes somebody wince. When he goes for a thing 
in his editorials, he generally comes back victorious. He ia 
an adiierent to the idea of industrial and elementary edu- 
cation for the A fro- Americans of the South, since, in bis 
judgment, they stand most in need of that kind of an edu- 
cation. 

In politics Mr. Fortune has maintained a stand in his 
writings that few Afro- Americana can afford to take. He has 
been fierce in his condemnation of corrupting principles, in 
botb the Democratic and Republican parties, but a pleasing 



138 THE AFRO-AMERICAK PRESS. 

and earnest advocate of every good principle in each. In 
other words, Mr. Fortune stands as an independent thinker 
in politics, as in other matters of public interest. His 
political writings as editor of The Freeman, during President 
Cleveland's Administration, were watched with interest by 
thousands of intelligent Afro- Americans, and by a large 
portion of whites, who were constant readers of his paper. 

As an editor of The Freeman, he was. the first to suggest 
and further the National League idea, to prevent mob 
violence and intimidation of his people at the South. 

Mr. Fortune's book, entitled *' Black and White," is a 
credit to him and the race. It is generally looked upon as 
being a fine work. He is also author of *• The Negro in 
Politics." It can be truly said that Mr. Fortune is an ex- 
cellent specimen of what the Afro-American may do in 
journalism, and what he will do. He is surely the '* Prince 
of Journalists," and his writings have won for him a life-long 
reputation as ** editor, author, pamphleteer and agitator." 
For a man so young, who has already climbed so many rounds 
in the hard ladder of journalism and authorship, who will 
say he may not reach the top before the allotted years of man 
have run into the minutes and seconds of a ripe and honored 
old age? 

Col. William Murrell, Editor New Jersey Trumpet. 

Colonel William Murrell, whose life is full of interesting 
events, and whose labor in journalism ha.s been of a lengthy 
period, was born a slave in the state of Georgia. He was in 
the war as valet to Confederate General Longstreet, and after 
the latter 's death he enlisted as a soldier in the 44th Regi- 
ment Virginia and South Carolina troops. After the war 
he moved to Louisiana, where he served in the State 
Legislature either as door-keeper or representative for nine 




OOL WILLIAM MUEBELL. 



140 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

years. He was on the staff of Gov. W. P. Kellogg, with the 
rank of major, and was afterward promoted to be colonel, 
and was assigned to the command of the Louisiana State 
National Guards. He now occupies an important position 
in the Interior Department, to which he was appointed by 
Secretary Noble. 

His life as an Afro- American journalist began while resid- 
ing in Louisiana, where he edited at Delta, Madison Parish, 
The Madison Vindicator. Upon going to Washington, D. C, 
he edited The Baltimore Vindicator, then published at Balti- 
more, Md. He went to New Jersey in 1883, and established 
The Trumpet, of which he is now editor and proprietor. 
The Colonel is ably assisted in the management of his paper 
by his amiable wife, Mr?. Louisiana Murrell. His past 
success but predicts what a future there is in store for him, 
in regard to the ennobling work of journalism. 

Rev. J. Alexander Holmes, Ex-Editor Central 

Methodist. 

The life of Mr. Holmes began in the city of Lexington, 
Va., December 11, 1848. Having some love for books and 
letters, he took advantage of the early school training which 
was offered the negro; after which he matriculated at the 
Storer College, Harper's Ferry, where he graduated in 1872. 
For a while he taught school, subsequently entering the 
ministry in March, 1874. He steadily pursued his studies 
during his ministerial connection with the Washington An- 
nual Conference of the M. E. Church, which seems to have 
been a course marked out with a successful end in view. 

He has lived conspicuously, having held some of the best 
charges in that Conference, and has several times represented 
it in the General Conference. His editorial life of two 
years' duration began in 1887, when appointed editor of The 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 141 

Oentral Methodist, It did a multiplicity of good works in 
religious and educational fields. He is quiet and unassum- 
ing, has the affection and respect of all who know him, and 
particularly of those privileged to an intimate acquaintance 
with him. His writings speak effectively for the welfare of 
the race. 

Messbs. S. N. Hill and William H. Dewey, Editoes, 

Respectively, of the People's Advocate 

AND The Golden Rule. 

Mr. Hill first saw the light in New Berne, in 1859, and 
settled at 14 years of age in Wilson, N. C, where he 
graduated from the St. Augustine Normal and Collegiate 
Institute, in 1880. He at ouce began the newspaper busi- 
ness, in connection with Prof, E. Moore, in tho publication 
of TJie Wilson News. This was a strong paper, and was the 
staunchest advocate for the calling of a convention of Afro- 
Americana in North Carolina, with the view of having their 
p^>ople recognized on the juries of the courts of that state. 

Mr. Hill was next upon The Banner, at Raleigh, N. C, 
the organ of the Industrial Association of that state. Upon 
retiring from The Banner, he returned home and began the 
publication of The Peoples Advocate, which he moved to 
Wilmington. While published at this place, it became one 
of the leading journals of the state, being frequently referred 
to by the local white papers, and by the leading New York 
dailies. He returned home with The Advocate, prior tO'this 
last campaign, as the organ of the Republican party of the 
22d Congressional district. It did remarkable service for the 
party. 

As a writer, Mr. Hill is bold, fearless and consistent. We 
are prepared to say his future will be bright as the leading 
editor of the free press. 



142 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Mr. Dewey, like Mr. Hill, was bom at New Berne, N. C, 
September 13, 1858. Having to earn his own living, his 
means for the acquisition of books were very limited. He is 
prominently connected with the G. U. 0. 0. F., in the state 
of North Carolina. He owned and edited The Peoples 
Advocate, in 1886, which did good work in the interest of the 
Republican party. In 1887, this paper was merged into 
The Golden Rule, through which the solidity and harmony 
of the party in Craven County has more than once been 
accomplished. The Golden JRuk is well edited, having for 
its object the amelioration of the race, and the advancement 
of the Afro- American, financially, educationally and morally. 

Rev. G. W. Gayles, Editor Baptist Signal. 

Possibly no man connected with Afro- American journal- 
ism has had a brighter and more honored career than the 
above subject. He was born in the county of Wilkinson, 
Miss., January l29, 1844, of slave parents. Perry and Rebecca 
Gayles. 

Young Gayles, being one of his master's house-servants 
enjoyed a privilege that was accorded only those who were 
similarly situated at that time. As house-servant, he was 
taught the alphabet by a lady who was employed as private 
tutor in Mrs. Nancy Barron's family. This was done on 
account of his diligence. He soon became able to read the 
Bible and his hymn book, which he gave his greatest atten- 
tion. Though so interested in these, he earnestly pursued 
the studies requisite for a good education, until he finally 
became well adapted intellectually for the duties of life which 
lay so brilliantly before him. 

Called to the ministry in November, 1867, he has since, by 
vigorous work, been of great credit to his race as an "ex- 
pounder of the Word." Shortly after he was ordained 




EEV. G W. GAY1.es. 



144 , THE AFBO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

minister, came his appointments to some of the most prominent 
places in Mississippi. Before pointing the reader to his 
career in journalism, we will name these positions : In 1869, 
he was appointed by Geo. A. Ames of the United States 
Army a member of the board of police for the Third District 
of Bolivar County. In 1870, he became a Justice of Peace 
for the Fifth District of Bolivar County, through Grov. J. L. 
Alcom. In August. 1870, he was appointed supervisor for 
the Fifth District. He was also elected to the Stat« Legis- 
lature for four consecutive years, and was returned in 1877 
as State Senator for the Twenty-eighth Senatorial District. 
He has since held the position by re-election. He was 
Corresponding Secretary for the Missionary State Convention, 
and has since been unanimously elected and re-elected to the 
position of president. Thus we see that his wide experience 
in religious, political and general affairs, has served to make 
him a grand force in journalism. The Convention of which 
he was president founded The Baptist Signal in 1880, and 
elected our subject to be its editor. 

As an editorial writer, Rev. Mr. Gayles ranks high among 
those of the "pencil-shoving" class. He is a dignified and 
practical writer, believing in laying before his readers that 
which will be of solid benefit to them in their progress 
through life. 

The Signal, a six-column paper, issues monthly one 
thousand copies, and always contains matter of a helpful 
nature. As a religious journal and an exponent of religious 
ideas, it ranks among the first. Through his great personal 
influence and that of his paper, the Baptist State Convention 
feels proud to own a college in Natchez, Miss., costing six 
thousand dollars. 

In presenting Mr. Gayles in this work, we score another 
success in the pioneer labors of Afro-American journalism, 
for it must be conceded he has achieved much with his pen. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 145 

Mr. Chbistopheb J. Perry, Editor Weekly Tribune. 

In noting the journalistic efforts of the Afro- American, The 
Philadelphia Tribune y of which the above subject is editor, 
falls into the category of the most conspicuous. The 
Tribune began publication in 1884, with Mr. Perry as pro- 
prietor and editor. 

Perry's life in the journalistic work had been of some 
duration before this effort. Born at Baltimore, Md., of free 
parents, September 11, 1854, he availed himself of the school 
facilities provided for the colored children of that city, which 
were very meager. Going to Philadelphia, his present home, 
quite young, and having the desire to be educationally a 
free man, he diligently applied himself to books, attending 
the night schools of that city. He earned his support by 
work in private houses, and could be often seen examining 
the volumes in the libraries of these homes. 

As early as 1867, he began writing for newspapers, his 
letters being always newsy and pleasing. He has an excel- 
lent style, and prominent men complimented him highly for 
his letters at this early period in his journalistic life. In 
November, 1881, he began writing for a Northern daily, and 
later on became the editor of the Colored Department in 
The Sunday Mercury This led to the establishment of Tfie 
Tribune, in 1884, which he has conducted since with editorial 
skill and newspaper tact. A writer says: '' T/ie Tibune, 
under his guidance, has become one of the leading Afro- 
American journals of this country." The same paper says : 
*' It is a staunch advocate of the rights of the negro, and is a 
credit to Editor Perry's managing skill." 

Mr. Perry has. an excellent idea of his mission as 
an Afro-American editor, as will be seen from the fol- 
lowing editorial, published when TTie Tribune began 
its fourth year. That the reader may rightly estimate 




CHEISIOPHEE I. PEEEY. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 147 

the independent, energetic spirit of the man, we 'insert it 
entire : 

Out Fourth Anniversary, 

** So busy were we fighting in our earnest though humble 
way for Harrison and protection, that we actually forgot our 
birthday. It is a fact of which we are truly proud, that The 
Tribune is the only colored journal north of Mason and 
Dixon's line, which has never wavered in its fidelity to 
Republicanism. In the face of very appealing temptations 
from our friends, the enemy, we have been true and steadfast. 
It was this party enthusiasm which led us to forget that on 
Saturday last we were just four years old. 

" The retrospect is very gratifying. No other venture of 
this kind ever started in the face of more appalling diffi- 
culties; but from the beginning our progress has been 
persistent and steady. Envy has raised its foul-tongued 
voice against us. Self-satisfied, self-constituted Phariseeism 
has persistently criticised us. But onward we have steadily 
pursued our way, supported and encouraged by the growing 
confidence of our patrons. Our circulation has increased 
every week, our advertising columns crowd out news every 
issue, and they stand — as compared with those of other 
colored journals throughout the country — a weekly tribute 
to our facilities for reaching the eyes of purchasers. 

** The reason for this is simple. The Tribune is a paper of 
the people and for the people. It is the organ of no clique 
or class. As its name indicates, its purpose is to lead the 
masses to appreciate their best interests and to suggest the 
best means for attaining deserved ends. We have no sympa- 
thy with the spirit of many colored editors, who complain 
that their race does not support their ventures. We have 
been admirably suppoited. Our past year has been a 
complete success. We believe that it has been due to our 
effort to please our patrons and to be worthy of their 



148 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

confidence. It shall be our purpose in the future, as it has 
been in the past, to maintain ITie Tribunes reputation 
for consistency, reliability and news enterprise.'* 

Noticing the past career of Hie Tribune, we can readily 
account for the success attending its efforts. 

Revs. R. C. Ransom, W. S. Lowry, Daniel S. Bentley, 
William F, Brooks : Associate Editor, Business 
Manager, President and Treasurer, 
Respectively, of The Afro- 
American Spokesman. 

These men compose the back-bone of The Afro-American 
Spokesman. If brains and money will push The Spohea" 
man to success, we can look confidently to the accomplishment 
of it, with such men at its head. 

Rev. Mr. Ransom was born at Flushing, Ohio, January 4, 
1861, — the only child of George and Hattie Ransom. He 
graduated from the Wilberforce University in 1886, with the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity. As a writer, he is vigorous, 
possessing a somewhat caustic style. Aside from the associate 
editorship of The Spohcsvian, he is a large contributor to 
various publications on quite a variety of themes. 

Rev. W. S. Lowry, the business manager, was born in 
Allegheny County, Pa., December 5, 1848. Having served 
in the war, his opportunities for early education were con- 
siderably limited. He felt deeply moved to enter the ministry 
in 1868, and in 1870 attended the Wilberforce University 
for three terms, in order to prepare himself for his life-work. 
Since commencing it, he has held responsible positions, now 
being pastor of one of the best churches in the Pittsburg 
Conference, viz. : that of Brown Cbapel, Allegheny City, Pa. 

Conceiving the idea of the need of such an organ as The 




BEV. W. 8. LOWRY. 



■% 



150 THE AFKO-AMEKICAN PRESS. 

Spokesman, Rev. Mr. Lowry, with Rev. R. C. Ransom and 

D. S. Bentlev, decided upon a way by which such a paper 

could be established, and accordingly pushed it to success. 

Through his skilful financiering he is putting the paper in 

every home, and making for it a sure support. As a writer, 

his style is graceful, rich and pure. He is an occasional con- 
tributor to the city papers. 

Rev. Daniel S. Bentley, president of the company, and 
pastor of the Wylie Ave. A. M. E. church, was born in 
Madison county, Ky., and is now thirty-eight years old. His 
fitness for his life-work was acquired in Berea College. He 
is a trusted leader in the A. M. E. church, and a man highly 
esteemed by the Bishopric of his church. His first writings 
gave descriptive accounts of his people's religious and 
general improvement, in the early part of his ministry. 
Most of his productions have found ready entrance to The 
Ckristian Recorder. Upon the organization of the Spokesman 
Stock Company, he was unanimously elected its president. 

Rev. \Vm. F. Brooks, the treasurer, and the pastor of the 
Grace Memorial Presbyterian church, is a man of most excel- 
lent parts, intellectually and otherwise. He is a graduate of 
the famous Lincoln University, and may yet occupy a 
professor's chair in that institution. He is doing good work 
for The Spokesman. 

Magnus L. Robinson, Editor National Leader. 

Magnus L. Robinson, the managing editor and one of the 
proprietors of ITie Washington National Leader, was born 
at Alexandria, Va., November 21, 1852. His parents gave 
him a good private school education. Being naturally of 
an industrious mind, he served an apprenticeship for four 
years in a bakery, and for several years thereafter fol- 
lowed the vocation of a baker. In 1868, he entered the 




BEV. DANIEL 8. BENTLEY. 



152 



THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 



law department of the Howard University, at Washington, 
D. C, from which he earnestly endeavored to graduate, but 
was forced to give up his studies on account of ill health. 
He next turned his attention to teaching, and passed an 
examination for a position in the public schools of his native 
state. In due time he procured a school and taught success- 
fully for nine months, beginning in 1879. 

Before recounting Mr. Robinson's journalistic career, we 
would call the attention of the reader to his popularity in the 
community where he lives, and to his circumstances. He is 
a bright mulatto, rather diminutive in size, with extremely 

affable manners. He owns the property 
in Alexandria where he resides. He 
married young and is blessed with a 
devoted wile, loving children, and a host 
of friends by whom he is highly respected. 
He stands high in society, and is president 
of the Frederick Douglass Library Asso- 
ciation, the most prominent literary and 
social organization at his home. He is a 
true and faithful friend ; and being a 
shrewd politician, is easily the leader of 
the Afro-American people of Alexan- 
dria, who always consult him on questions of public moment^ 
and general welfare. He is a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Colored National Press Convention, and 
delivered an address at the National Press Convention which 
met in the Metropolitan A. M. E. church, Washington. D. C, 
March 5, 1889, his subject being " Representative Negroes.'* 
During the time he taught school he became interested in 
journalism and politics, to which he has given much study 
and attention. Being a close student of human nature and a 
good judge of men and measures, he has contributed to 
the press many thoughtful, able, and logical articles upon 




M. L. ROBINSON. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. . 153 

important and current topics of the day, which were highly 
actvptable to such papers as The Baltimore iSun, Baltimore 
American, and The Lynchburg Daily News. 

The subject-mattor of these productions was always highly 
appreciated by the reading public. He did such good work 
ill the journalistic line, as to give him a considerable reputa- 
tion among the professionals, and he was the fii*st Afro- 
American to be regularly employed on a white journal in 
Baltimore, Md., having been assigned to duty as reporter on 
The Baltimore Daily Bee, which was re-established in 1876. 
He subsequently removed to Harrisonburg, Va., and with his 
brother, Robert B. Robinson, he established T/ie Virginia 
Poftt, which he ably edited for three years at that place. 

During this time, he was steadily growing into popular 
favor, and wa? chosen to fill many political offices, which he 
graced with signal ability, Among his honors may be 
mentioned the fact that he was the tirst Afro-American to 
hold the offif-e of secretary of the llepublican Committee of 
Ro*:kingham County, Va., to which he was chosen in 1880. 
lie was also elected secretary of the Charlottesville, Va., 
Congressional Convention, which nominated Hon. John Paul 
for Congreas in 1880. In 1881, he represented Rockingham 
County, in the Colored State Convention, held at Petersburg; 
and in the same year, having removed to his native home at 
Alexandria, he was nominated for magistrate in that city, 
and received a very flattering vote. Afterward, his time was 
devoted to teaching, and holding other positions of trust and 
honor in his state. 

On January 12, 1888, he established 27ic Nnlional Leader 
at Washington, D. C, and hoisted the name of James G. 
Blaine for president, in his first publication. His was the 
first negro journal to raise the Harrison and Morton ensign at 
the National Capital. His paper met with phenomenal 
suo'ess, and did great service for the Republican party in 



154 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

New York among the Afro-Americans, where it had a 
circulation of over 5000 copies during the campaign of 1888: 
It is very radical in its policy, and is endorsed by the Hon. 
Fred Douglass as the most' staunch Republican journal now 
published in this country. 

On the 26th of April, 1890, Mr. Robinson removed his 
paper to Alexandria, his native city, since when it has been 
regularly issued every Saturday as The Weekly Leader, Mr. 
Robinson is the oldest editor in the state, in point of service, 
having entered upon the work of journalism in 1880 as editor 
of The Virginia Post. 

In conclusion, it is well to refer to some of the later honors 
conferred upon Mr. Robinson. On the 16th of October, 1889, 
he was chief marshal of the largest and most imposing Odd 
Fellows' parade that ever marched through the streets of 
Washington, D. C. He was the Republican candidate for 
aldefftan in his city in 1889, but was defeated. He was also 
a prominent candidate for the legislature that year. He was 
president of the 8th Virginia District convention of colored 
men, held in Alexandria, May 15, 1890, at Odd Fellows' 
hall, which was called for the betterment of the intellectual 
and industrial interests of the race. 

Thus, as is seen, when his people desire a leader they 
turn instinctively to him to represent them ; and if his days 
are prolonged, his future career, it is safe to predict, will be 
of greater distinction than that of the past. 

Hon. Jno, W. Cromwell, Editor People's Advocate. 

Mr. Cromwell, the well-known editor of The Peoples 
Advocate, was born in Portsmouth, Va., September 5, 1845, 
being the youngest child of Willis and Elizabeth Carney 
Cromwell. When but a few years old his parents moved to 
Philadelphia, and he was sent to the public schools, after 




HON. JKO. W. CROMWELL. 



156 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

which he was admitted to the institute for colored youth, 
whose principal was the learned Prof. E. D, Bassett. 

Our subject graduated in 1864, after which he began what 
proved to be a most successful career as a pedagogue. He is 
regarded as one of the finest English scholars in the Union. 
He was an active worker in the Reconstruction period, labor- 
ing for his people at the rif*k of his own life. He has held 
excellent government positions, some of them highly honor- 
ary, to which we cannot further refer, as we desire to dwell 
more particularly upon his journalistic career. 

He graduated from the Law Department of Howard Uni- 
versity in 1874, and was admitted to the bar. He has not 
done much as a lawyer, though he has been almost invariably 
successful in the few cases intrusted to him. His success as 
senior counsel in the cases against the Georgia Railroad, under 
the Inter-State Commerce Act, is very flattering to his ability. 
He and his associate, Mr, W. C. Martin, are the only Afro- 
American lawyers that have appeared before that Commission. 
When Hon. Grover Cleveland assumed the Chief Magistracy 
of the nation, he was removed from the government service 
for "offensive partisanship," which consisted in the publica- 
tion of a Republican newspaper, The Peoples Advocate^ 
which, by the way, is Mr. Cromwell's most conspicuous public 
service. 

The Advocate was first thrown to the breeze at Alexandria, 
Virginia, April 16, 1876. After a spirited fight against it 
during Mr. Cromwell's absence, it received the commendation 
and endorsement of the Republican Convention, assembled at 
Lynchburg to select delegates to the Chicago Convention. 
T. B. Pinn was publisher, R. D. Beckley business manager, 
and John W. Cromwell editor. A few weeks after its 
publication, it absorbed The Sumner Tribune, irregularly 
published at Culpepper Court House, and afterwards at 
Alexandria, by Hon. A. W. Harris. The connection of 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 157 

Measrs. Finn and Beckley with The Advocate was brief, and 
80 was that of Mr. Harris, leaving Mr. Cromwell the sole 
proprietor before it had been in existence more than three 
months. 

Then came the question: What shall be done with it? 
which was solved by a determination to continue it as a 
permanent enterprise, though the month of December showed 
receipts amounting to but sixty-six cents. The persistent 
advice of his wife Lucy not to give up, proved the turning 
point. In June, 1887, he bought a second-hand outfit, and 
published his first " all-at-home" sheet June 29, in the city 
of Washington, Mr. T. T. Fortune supervising its mechanical 
work. The Advocate has been published ever since, with 
varying fortunes ; and it has never missed but one issue. 

Among its editors at difierent times, besides its proprietor, 
may be named the late Charles N. Otey, George H. Richard- 
son, and Rev. S. P. Smith, who were its regular contributors 
and correspondents at difierent periods, as were also well- 
known journalists, now in other fields of labor. Young men 
who learned to stick type on The Advocate have found em- 
ployment at the government printing-ofiice, and with ITie 
Christian Recorder, The New York Age, TJtc Cmiservafor, and 
doubtless other journals. 

Mr. Cromwell's specialty is in the collection of facts, which 
he presents with such clearness and force as to command 
universal attention. His "Negro in Business," prepared for 
a syndicate of Northern newspapers, received editorial notice 
in The Forum, and in one form and another was published 
widely throughout the country. Having had several years 
of experience as a teacher, his editorials on educational topics, 
race organizations, etc., reveal his trained bent pf mind and 
ODBelfish ambitions. A writer in Dr. William J. Simmons' 
" Men of Mark," speaks gloriously of our subject's work in 
this field. He says: "All praise and honor should be 



158 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

given him. None have worked more faithfully or unremit- 
tingly in this field than Mr. Cromwell, and none is held 
higher in the esteem of the colored press. * * * * * 
Mr. Cromwell has kept his paper going through these trying 
years, and has succeeded in business, laying by some money 
for a rainy day. 

As a writer, Cromwell is specific, close, logical and compre- 
hensive. His paper is pure, and is of the sort that can be 
put into the hands of the virtuous, and will rather lead them 
to a higher life, than in any way degrade them. As would 
be expected, his English is plain and forcible and his style 
not at all bombastic." 

Concerning the make-up and appearance of the paper, the 
same writer says : "Its weekly issue is looked for with 
considerable interest, as it discusses thoroughly all questions 
which may arise in the District of Columbia, and concerning 
which he expresses himself. The paper is especially notable 
for its typographical make-up and its excellent proof-reading." 
We can not say more of TJie AdvocaU and its learned editor 
than is here quoted. 

Messrs. William H. Anderson, Benjamin B. Pelham, 
W. H. Stowers, and R. Pelham, Jr., Editors . 
AND Proprietors Plaindealer. 

Afro- American journalism is attended with many difficulties 
in the way to success, that are not met by other people in the 
same kind of work ; yet there are journals published by the 
members of the race to-day, which show that with the proper 
business capacity and editorial ability, the work can be made 
most emphatically a success. 

Such a paper is The Detroit Plaindealer, with the gentle- 
men as editors and proprietors whose names appear at the 
head of this article. The origin of this now-famed newB- 



160 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

paper was under very adverse circumstances. Its first number, 
(May 19, 1883,) was a seven-column folio, with three col- 
umns of advertising matter. At its anniversary issue. May, 
1888, it had twenty pages, with fifty-four columns of adver- 
tising matter. In reading the history of Tlie Plmndealer^ as 
found in the anniversary issue of May, 1888, one can see 
that the glorious achievements which have attended the 
efforts of this ideal newspaper were due to its lofty conception 
of such work. The Flaindealer saw, at the very beginning, 
that there was more in Afro-American journalism than the 
desire for financial success, for it says : 

"But Afro- American newspapers have for their rcUson 
cTetre other motives higher than money-making or notoriety, 
seeking which make their success or failure of more moment 
and of much more interest to those who appreciate their 
necessity. The failure of an Afro- American journal, i. e., a 
good one, means not simply that the people are supporting 
some other in its place, but that they are not inclined to 
support any. It does not mean simply a transfer of patron- 
age, but a lack of it. It does not mean that the desire is 
elsewhere gratified, but that there is no desire. It is an 
index of the tendencies of a people and, to a certain extent, a 
measure of their progress." After citing this. The Plain' 
dealer then says its mission was and is "To overcome distrust; 
to demonstrate that T/ie Plaiiidealcr is an impartial advocate 
of everything for the welfare of Afro-Americans; to set an 
example that there is no field of labor which cannot be 
successfully explored and cultivated by the Afro-American 
who is energetic and painstaking ; to provide a medium for 
the encouragement of literary work, for the creation of a 
distinctive and favorable Afro-American sentiment, for the 
dislodgment of prejudice and for the encouragement of 
patriotism." 

These objects, it must be admitted, 2%e Plaindealer has 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 161 

endeavored, with all the life and power of the free press, to 
demonstrate and carry out; and it may be added that the 
right conception of its mission among a class of emancipated 
freemen has been the secret of its success. Its history has 
been made eventful, useful and authoritative, by its numerous 
representative and versatile contributors. The leading men 
©f the race, as Douglass, Lynch, Bruce, and others, have 
been upon its staff of contributors. Its editors and proprie- 
tors, men of push and men of the hour, are Messrs. William 
H. Anderson, Benjamin B. Pelham, William H. Stowers, and 
Robert Pelham, Jr., a brief sketch of whom we now give. 

William H. Anderson, one of the four original members of 
The Plaindealer Company, first saw the light in Sandusky, 0., 
August 13th, 1857. He attended the common schools there 
until he came to Detroit with his parents at 16. On graduat- 
ing from the High School in 75, he commenced as parcel 
boy with Newcomb, Endicott & Company, and steadily rose 
to the position of bookkeeper. He is now one of their most 
trusted employes, beside doing his editorial work upon The 
Plaindealer. His first newspaper experience was with The 
Detroit Free Press. He then corresponded with The New 
York Olobe, and since his connection with TTie Plaindealer 
•onducted the series of articles that attracted such wide 
mention, " Our Relation to Labor." 

Benjamin B. Pelham was born in Detroit, February 7, 
1862. He began his school life at the age of nine years at 
the Everett School, and was a member of the first class which 
graduated from that school to the Detroit High School. At 
the termination of his course in the High School, he accepted 
a position with the Detroit Post and Tribune Company. His 
first experience in journalism began with the publication of 
The Venture, an amateur paper, which he edited three 
years. He has been connected with The Tribune in various 
tapacities for fifteen years, during a portion of which time 



162 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

he also held a clerkship in the Revenue Office under Collector 
Stone, but was decapitated because Cleveland believed * a 
public office a public trust and correctly surmised that dyed- 
in-the-wool Republicans could not be depended on to do 
Democratic missionary work. His early connection with The 
Venture was an excellent school of preparation for his after 
labors on The Plaimlealer, and much of the early success of 
the paper is due to his terse, witty and well-written articles. 
William H, Stowers was born February 7th, 1859, in 
Canada, where his parents had fled to escape the persecution 
of slavery. His parents returned to Michigan when he was 
seven years of age. He attended the county schools until 
17 ; then came to the city to attend the High School, which 
he did under difficulties, having to walk eight miles each way 
in hot and cold, wet and dry weather. He graduated in '79. 
Ho then became Receiving Clerk for Root, Stone & Co., which 
position he held for seven years. Mr. Stowers has had some 
experience in amateur journalism, having been associated 
with Mr. B. B. Pelham in issuing The Venfurc, an amateur 
sheet. He has a 2")ractical knowledge of stenography, having 
taken a course at the Detroit Business College. He has been 
Deputy Sherifi' since '86. With all his other duties he has 
ably held up his end as one of 27ie Plai7ideal£r editors. It 
is safe to add that there is no more able or forcible writer 
in Afro- American journalism than he. 

Robert Pelham, Jr., — our hustler — was born January 4th, 
1859, in Petersburg, Va. At an early age his parents came 
to Detroit. He attended the public schools, graduating from 
the High School in '77. He commenced his labors with The 
Detroit Iribune at 10 years of age, as carrier boy. By faith- 
ful, energetic service he has risen in their employ, and now 
has control of its mailing and subscription department and 
gives employment to a number of Afro-American youths. 
Last year he was made Deputy Oil Inspector. Ever since 



AFR0-AMH1Uc:AX Kl)IT(.)Il.S. 103 

its inception he haa been business manager of The Plain- 
dealer, and much of its Huccess has been due to his untiring 
zeal and labors in its behalf. 

The rrowning results of their efforts is seen in every issue 
of llie r/aindealcr. Full of news, and its columns teeming 
with bright editorials, it will always be a welcome visitor to 
the hume of every Afro- American. A writer in The Beau- 
mont (Texas) Mecorder expresses our sentiment in the follow- 
ing linetf : 

••Another good paper is Tlie Detroit Plaindealer, This 
paper is just what its name indicates. It does not mince 
matters, but it calls a spade a spade every time. And what 
is mot-t interesting about it is, it is making money and enjoys 
a good circulation throughout the country. The Messrs. 
Pelham seem to know what they arc about." 

The exact tiuth as to the consistency of Southern editors 
found in the editorial columns of Tlie Phiindealer cannot fail 
to command attention, as well as prove true all that has been 
said of them respecting their editorial capacity. Says The 
Planidealer : 

*• Consi.«tency is a jewel little prized by Southern editors. 
One issue of their papers teems with tirades against Northern 
agents who entice Afro-American labor from the South, and 
the next declares *the negro a detriment' rather than aid to 
that section, and dlamors for his speedy departure or annihi- 
lation. He is said at one time to be utterly devoid of 
ambition, contented and happy in the state which Southern 
brutality has placed him, and at another berated because he 
aspires to social equality with his former master. He is 
regarded as an arrant coward; but one single specimen, 
unarmed and alone, is suflScient to cause a * Negro riot' and 
warrant the calling out of the * militia.* He is said to be 
utterly devoid of moral sense, yet is expected to display 
qualities of forbearance, patience and generosity, which are 



i 



164 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

only possible to types of humanity, inherently pertaining to 
the whites. ****** If St. Peter springs the 
* Negro' question on the average American at the gates of 
Paradise, the a. A. will be in a trying position, for he will find 
in Heaven a numerous host of black men who have come up 
'through tribulation;' and if he elects to try the warmer 
climes of Hades to escape contamination, it is reasonably 
sure that he'll find a few there." 

Thus we close the career of a representative newspaper^ 
with the Afro-American as its trustworthy and faithful 
promoter. 

Prof. J. E. Jones, Editor African Missions. 

Among Virginia's proud and noble Afro-American sons, 
there is none more worthy than the above subject, who was 
born in the Rome of Virginia, October 15th, 1850, of slave 
parents, and was himself a slave until the Surrender. 

During the war our subject's mother was impressed with 
the idea that her son should possess, at least, the ability to 
read and write, and she accordingly sought the aid of a 
fellow-slave to instruct her boy several nights in the week. 
This was continued until 1864, when matters became quite 
heated, and the teacher began to doubt whether he could 
continue the instruction of this youth. However, after some 
consideration it was decided that he should be taught between 
the hours of ten and twelve, on Sunday mornings, during 
the absence of the people, who were at that time attending 
divine services. The master, discovering that the tutor of 
young Jones could read and write, sold him ; but the mother 
was so moved to have her son educated, she secured the 
services of a sick Confederate soldier, which were soon 
terminated by the surrender of Lee. A private school was 
opened soon after the war, the lamented R. A. Perkins of 



FROF. J. E. JONES. 



1C6 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Lynchburg being teacher. To this our subject was sent^ 
Not having considered, heretofore, the advantages a good 
education would attbrd, he was now led to see how unrfatLs- 
factory his present attainments were, and became eager to 
improve. Afterward, on entering the school of James M. 
Gregory, now dean of the College Department of Howard 
University, he began to recognize more fully what it was to 
be learned in the science of letters; therefore he made rapid 
progress, and was regarded as one of the best pupils in the 
school. 

In the spring of 1868 he was baptized, and connected 
himself with the Court Street Baptist church of his city. In 
October of '68 he entered the Richmond Institute, at Rich- 
mond, Va., for the purpose of pursuing a theological course, 
having a desire to propagate Scriptural truth. He completed 
the academic and theological course in three years; after 
which, he left Virginia, and entered the Madison University 
at Hamilton, New York, in 1871. In 1876 he graduated 
from the collegiate department. The same year he was 
appointed by the American Baptist Home Missionary Society 
to a professorship in the Richmond Institute, now Richmond 
Theological Soniinary, which position he still holds, filling 
the chairs of Homiletics and Greek. The degrees of A. M. 
and D. D. have been conferred upon him by his Alma Mater, 
and by Selma (Ala.) University, respectively. It can thus 
be readily seen, that as a student of theology and science he 
is eminently qualified for the trusts committed to him. 

No one has been more active in securing for his people, 
by word and pen, their rights, than Prof Jones. While his 
journalistic life has not been as extensive as that of training 
the Afro-American for " Theologs." he has had a wonderful 
career in this field, which should by no means be overlooked. 
His career in newspaperdom begins with his editorial work 
as a member upon the staff of The Baptist Oompanmi, This 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 167 

journal, the organ of the Virginia Baptists, was conspicuous 
for its many brilliant editions; and as for the subsequent 
writings of Prof. Jones, we know that not one upon the staff 
contributed more to The Ckympatuon 8 high reputation than he. 

In 1883 he was elected corresponding secretary of the 
Baptist Foreign Mission CJonvention of the United States, and 
by virtue of this position he edits the organ of the Conven- 
tion, kiiown as African Missions. 

To deviate a little from his journalistic career, we wish to 
call the reader's attention to what The Eeligrioiis Serald, 
organ of the white Baptists of Virginia, said about him when 
elected to this responsible position : 

"Prof. Jones is one of the most gifted colored men in 
America. Besides being a Professor in Richmond Theological 
Seminary, he is corresponding secretary of the Baptist For- 
eign Mission Convention. He has the ear and heart of his 
people, and fills with distinction the high position to which 
his brethren, North and South, have called him." 

Now let us return to Prof Jones' journalistic life, inas- 
much as this work should especially inform the reader upon 
that. Though 27ie Companion suspended publication, Prof. 
Jones continued his labors as a writer. He is known over 
the country for possessing a quick and ready pen. He once 
held a newspaper controversy with the learned Roman Cath- 
olic Bishop Keane of Richmond, Va., which created wide- 
spread interest. Dr. Cathcart, in the Baptist Encyclopedia, 
Fpeaks of the controversy thus : '* Prof. Jones is an efficient 
teacher and a forcible writer. In 1878, he held a contro- 
versy with Bishop Keane, in which, according to the decision 
of many of the most competent judges, the bishop was 
worsted.'^ If we said no more, this A fro- American's abilitv 
as a writer must be fully demonstrated. As a *' pusher of the 
pen,'* he never fails to elicit the interest of all. 

Our subject, in writing the Introductory Sketch of Rev. A. 



168 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Binga, Jr., D, D., in "Binga's Sermons,*' discusses, in his 
preliminary to the life of Dr. Binga, the progress of the 
Afro- American, in a most pleasing and soul-cheering manner. 
Says he : ** At the end of every revolution in a countiy, there 
can be observed an effort to throw off the old and take on a 
newer and higher civilization. This has been peculiarly true 
of the negro race. The race is moving forward in the face 
of great obstacles, and is rising from the low and depressing 
depths of degradation, to which the system of American 
slavery has reduced it. If the character of this progress be 
scrutinized, it will be found that the forces which propel ia 
the direction of improvement, and the ideas we form of the 
nature of that improvement will be the same forces and 
ideas that propel other races and society in general. Im- 
provement in a race is an indication that the race is alive ; 
for progress is but the movements of life to attain worthy 
and noble objects. The manhood and ability of a racu 
command the attention of the public. Attention is com- 
manded wherever power is possessed. Power is possessed by 
a race when it makes progress along those lines that indicat*** 
general development, etc." Thus our subject proceeds until 
he shows the A fro- American to actually be on the progressive. 

Prof. Jones, in his writings, editorially or otherwise, is 
known for the calm, deliberate and conserva^^^ive way in which 
he deals with things, as will be seen in ah editorial in the 
April issue of Tlw African Missions. After having been 
invited into a religious meeting of white Baptists to take a 
seat on the main floor, one Sunday night, he was approached 
by an usher who requested him to repair to the gallery. He 
quietly left the liouse, and later on, in a cool and most 
deliberate manner, writes editorially about the affair: 

"We wont into a mooting, in this city, last Sunday night, 
to hoar a sonnon from a gentleman who is conducting a 
revival. The meeting was had for men exclusively. The 



AFRO-AMERICAX EDITOl^s. 169 

usher invited us to walk in and t^ke a seat. We did so, 
but pretty soon he came to us and said : ' You will have to 
go to the gallery. I made a mistake; you cannot remain 
here.* We were puzzled. We could not see the reason for 
such conduct upon the part of those having the meeting in 
hand. 

•* We have attended the political meetings held at different 
times, in different parts of the city, by the respective parties, 
but have never had any one invite us to the gallery. Why 
such a thing should be done in a religious meeting, we 
cannot understand. It does seem to us that there should be 
as much charity in a meeting of this character as there is 
in a political meeting, but there was not. It was exceed- 
ingly painful to us to receive such unchristian-like treatment 
from our denomination. We fail to see the relation between 
this sort of treatment and religion. There may be some 
practical morality in it, but according to o\ir judgment it 
does not harmonize with the teaching of the New Te.stamont. 
The Negro may be wrong, in many respects, as to what 
constitutes the ideal Christian, but he certainly will not get 
mnch light on the subject from the men who (cannot keep 
their prejudice in abeyance through one religious service. 
We suggest that our white friends write over tlici dooi's of the 
places in which they hold religious services, No negroes rn:ed 
apply. We wish onhf white persons to he saved. If it were a 
fact that the Negro had no better con<^eptionp of the religious 
life than stated by his critics, it would be in keeping with his 
early training, both from precept and example." 

With this manner of dealing with religious and social 
ostracism, the recognition of the Afro-American is an assured 
fact. The Caucasian mu.st be reasoned with, not bulldozed. 
This Prof. Jones understands, as is evident by the way he 
has expres.sed hini.«elf above, and whi<h no fair-minded white 
man can read without emphatic approval. 



170 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Hon. M. M. Lewey, Editor Florida Sentinel. 

Matthew M. Lewey, son of John W. and Eliza Lewey, was 
born in Baltimore, Maryland, 1845. Up to the age of fifteen 
he had received no schooling, except the little that was 
afforded by the private schools of that slave state. At sixteen 
his parents sent him to New York, where his aunt, Mrs. 
Emeline Carter, and grandfather. Rev. William McFarlin, 
lived. There he attended the well-known school on Mulberry 
street, Rev. John Petterson, principal. When Grovernor 
John A. Andrew of Ma&sachnsettfi was about to organize the 
colored 54th and 55th regiments of volunteers, the subject of 
this sketch dropped his st^liool books and joined the 55th 
regiment, although but eighteen years of age. He had fully 
caught and recognized the sentiment of President Lincoln's 
proclamation. 

His regiment took part in several hard-fought engagements, 
among which were the siege of Fort Wagner, the battle of 
James Island, and the fearful, horrible slaughter of Honey 
Hill, S. C. In this latter engagement he was shot three 
times while bearing the colors of his regiment, and finally 
fell badly wounded. After a period of several months in 
the hospital at David's Island, New York, being totally 
disabled, he was honorably discharged in the summer of 1865. 

In the fall and winter of that year, he pursued his studies 
under the instruction of Rev. William T. Carr, then pastor of 
the Madison Street Presbyterian church, Baltimore. In the 
fall of 1867 he entered the preparatory department of Lincoln 
University at Oxford, and graduated from the collegiate 
department with full honors in the spring of 72. The 
following year he entered the law department of Howard 
University, under the deanship of Hon, John M. Langston, in 
the cjjiss with Josiah Settle, H. B. Fry, Robert Peel Brooks, 
and others. Before completing the full course he removed 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 171 

to Florida and began teaching school at Newmansville. 

In *74» Grovemor M. L. Sterns commissioned him justice 
of the peace for his county. From this time till 77 he held 
the offices of mayor of Newmansville and postmaster of the 
town. In 1878, after admission to the bar, he began the 
practice of law in the 5th Judicial circuit of his adopted 
state. In '82, he was elected to the legislature, in which 
capacity he accomplished some good work in the interest 
of education, among his race. In the same year he was 
married to Miss Bessie H. Chestnut, of Gainesville, Florida, 
where he has lived ever since, pursuing the practice of his 
profession. 

In 1887 he founded The Florida Sentinel, a weekly journal 
published at Gainesville, Florida, in the interest of his 
people. Before the close of the year the paper grew to 
exceptional popularity throughout the state. IVie Sentinel is 
warmly Republican in politics, but not so hide-bound in 
partisan proclivities that it forgets to resent an insult to the 
race from a Republican, whether black or white. 

I7i€ Sentinel has developed within two years to an extent 
that will compare favorably with any negro journal of the 
South. M. M. Lewey is sole editor and proprietor, and owns 
an outfit worth $3000, all new material. He runs a No. 2 
Campbell's improved power-press, capable of 800 impres-sions 
per hour. His job department is complete with a quartor 
medium favorite job press, and is doing his full share of 
work among all classes of people, notwithstanding there are 
two daily papers in the city, with job offices connected. 

Filling the columns of The Sentinel with news is not all of 
Mr. Lewey *8 ambition in the field of journalistic pursuits, for 
when the reader scans the editorials of that paper, he is at 
once struck with the ability displayed, and the very practical 
way in which the editor deals with questions aflPecting the 
educational and political interests of his race. The author 



172 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

was never more fired to a realization of the political condition 
of the colored men under the present administration, than 
was he while reading an editorial in The Sentinel, under the 
caption of " Colored Men, Don't." After citing many reasons 
for the Afro- American's failure to attain influential offices 
under the Republican administration commensurate with his 
numerical strength, the editor cites as another reason the 
following, which in its entirety is the most telling reason we 
have yet seen given : 

** Another trouble negro Republicans get into, which 
appears almost like premeditated design to commit political 
death, is that they go into convention, and permit a few men, 
with no political influence at home, to get control of the party 
organization, carry it to Washington City, and have their 
men appointed to office, with the negro left out. Worse still ; 
after experiencing these sad disappointments some colored 
men will cringe and apologize for having aspired to positions 
of influence and trust, for the purpose of securing a subor- 
dinate place. This is political cowardice, and unmanly in 
the extreme." 

Not only is Mr. Lewey level-headed in this, but as editor 
of The Sentinel, we find him, in a most considerate manner, 
endeavoring to inspire the race with a desire to be a self- 
respecting and a self-assisting people — not content to live in 
the atmosphere of dependency. In an editorial, " Brains will 
Tell," Mr. Lewey clearly proves the Afro- American presft 
responsible for an abstract mixture of the so-called race 
problem, which has led our people, says he, " into a wonder 
of mysteries as to their relationship to this government, and 
what must be done to command personal respect and civil 
recognition from the white men, not only in the South but 
the North, likewise." The plucky editor then says: 

" Douglass, Lan^don and Bruce, have obtained recognition 
among white men, Democrats as well as Republicans, Nortk 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 173 

and South, by reason of their indomitable Belf-perseverance 
in their peculiar field of labor; and other colored men, 
through pluck and energy, will obtain similar respect and 
recognition in their peculiar fields of labor, no matter -what 
this labor is, whether it be in the cotton fields, work-shop, 
school-room, or the grocery store. The sooner we rely 
entirely upon ourselves in the development of manly char- 
acter, aspire to excel in everything, work hard day and night, 
get money, educate our children, don't beg but depend upon 
our own brain and muscles, — in the very nature of things, 
white men will soon recognize seven millions of Douglasses^ 
Langdons and Bruces.'' He then backs his assertions by 
that of Tfie New York Herald, whose stand, in this instance, 
is to be commended. Says The Hei'ald: "But the patent 
facts are that it is not, and never can be, exclusively a white 
man's government. The seven millions of negroes constitute 
one-ninth of our population. They have the same rights, the 
■ame privileges, that the rest of us enjoy. 

*' As for putting negroes into office, why that depends on the 
negroes, not on us. If a black man shows the ability to use 
power, he will probably acquire it. He must make himself, 
and we cannot unmake him. If he is satisfied to always 
remain a field-hand, that is his business; and the race 
question settles itself. But if he develops executive talent, 
business capacity, political astuteness and skill, he will 
gravitate to his place, whether it is the counting-room or the 
rostrum. Tliis is not, after all, a question of prejudice, but a 
question of brains. Brains will solve the problem." 

If The Sentinel continues to grow in the future, a« it has in 
the past, Florida can well afford to claim, in this journal, 
one of the best colored newspapers published in the Soutli. 
With such dignified utterances as are found in his quoted 
editorial, his influence over the race to which he belongs can 
but be uplifting, and of the most helpful nature. 



174 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Col. Joseph T. Wilson, Editoe Industeial Day. 

Amid the roar of cannon and in the smoke of battle, the 

first Republican newspaper published in Virginia made its 

appearance in the little town of Hampton, in March, 1865. 

Its editor, Col. D. B. White, had served as colonel of the 

38th Regiment New York Volunteers, then serving before 

Richmond, in Gen. Butler's army of the James. At that 

time Hampton contained among its ruins and ashes about 

6000 people, — contrabands, refugees and soldiers, nearly all 

of whom were negroes. 

The advent of The True SoiUhemer (the name of the new 
venture) was attended with great success. The names of 

more than three thousand persons, paying ten dollars in 
advance, made up its list of subscribers; an(h Colonel White's 
pen enlightened them on the movements of Grant's and Lee's 
armies, as they advanced upon or retreated from the belea- 
guered city, Richmond, the rebel's capital. It was published 
weekly, printed on a Franklin hand-press in a building often 
rocked by the heavy ordnance at Fortress Monroe, three 
miles away. 

In 1855, Col. Joseph T. Wilson, the subject of this sketch, 
whose connection with The True Southerner we shall hereafter 
mention, was graduated from the schools of New Bedford, 
Mass. After graduating, he went in August of the same 
year, as steersman on board the ship Seconet, of Mattapoisett, 
for a three years whaling voyage in the Pacific Ocean. His 
stay was prolonged, and mixed with thrilling events until 
1862. 

While building a trestle on the Valparaiso and Santiago 
railroad, he heard of the Rebellion, and immcdiat4?ly took 
passage on the Bio-Bio, arriving in New York the following 
August, and sailed thence in the bark Indian Belle for New 
Orleans, La., with government stores. At New Orleans he 



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OOL. JOSEPH T. WJLhUH. 
176 



176 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

joined the army, entering the Second Regiment Louisiana 
Native Guard Volunteers as a private. He served in several 
positions in this regiment, which so distinguished itself during 
the siege of Port Hudson, in 1863. He continued in the 
army until 1864, when he was furloughed from the Hilton 
Head South Carolina hospital. After spending a few weeks 
with friends in New Bedford, he entered the Massachusetts 
General Hospital at Boston, from which he was discharged 
from the army. 

He returned to Norfolk, Virginia, in September, and 
entered the secret service of the Government, operating with 
his squad on the Elizabeth and James rivers, and in front 
of Richmond with the army of the James. In December of 
the same year he took part in the battles of Fort Fisher and 
Petersburg, becoming so disabled by wounds as to leave the 
service entirely. In March of the following year he had 
charge of the Government supply store, at Norfolk, Va. 

After the Surrender he began the mercantile business, and 
managed a large fruit store. In the meantime, with the fall 
of Richmond and the disbanding of the Army of the James, 
Tlie Tnce Southomer was moved to Norfolk, where the local 
columns of the paper were placed under the editorship of Col. 
Wilson, through whose energy the paper acquired a large 
circulation. The following Sept-ember, Col. White, its pub- 
lisher, gave him full charge of the journal, with its six 
thousand and two hundred subscribers, which he continued 
to edit until a mob, in 1866, broke in and destroyed the office 
and its contents. In August, 1867, he was placed in charge' 
of The Union Republican office at Petersburg. These papers 
were owned entirely by white men, many of whom became 
prominent office holders in the State and Federal (Jovern- 
ments. 

Wilson had assumed a very important position in 1867, in 
the organization of the Republican party, and is remembered 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 177 

now for his speeches in favor of confiscation, in the con- 
ventions of those days. He entered the Internal Revenue 
Service in 1869 as the first ganger in the state. In 1870, 
he was transferred to the Customs Department as an Inspector 
at Norfolk. In 1880 he established The American Sentinel, 
and supported Garfield and Arthur. He was a warm and 
enthusiastic admirer of General Grant ; was in attendance at 
the convention when he was defeated for the third term. He 
was presidential elector in 1876, on the Hayes and Wheeler 
ticket, and was defeated in the convention by Hon. Joseph 
Segar the same year when candidate for Congress. 

The American Scniincl was a strong Republican weekly, 
to whose influence Mr. John Goode attributed his defeat when 
candidate for Congress on the Democratic ticket, and the 
Hon. John F. Dezendorf was elected. Mr. Goode had held 
the position for four years, having defeated Hon. James H. 
Piatt, Jr. llie American Seyitinel ceased to appear in the 
latter part of 1881, Wilson being unable to attend to it on 
account of his business as Inspector. 

In 1882 Wilson led the Republicans against the Mahone 
Re-adjuster party, in the colored convention at Petersburg, 
and was elected chairman of the convention. A struggle 
ensued for the mastery of the proceedings, which lasted for 
hours. The mayor, W. E. Cameron, afterwards re-adjuster 
governor of the state, with his police took charge, and seated 
the re-adjuster Afro- Americans. 

In August of the same year, he attended as a delegate the 
state Republican convention, at Lynchburg. It was at this 
convention that a number of Republicans sided with the 
re-adjusters, and held an opposing convention at the same 
time, in the same city. Wilson remained with the Republi- 
cans, was elected chairman of the convention and conducted 
its proceedings so satisfactorily, that he was nominated by 
acclamation as its candidate for governor, the motion having 



178 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

been made by Rev. M. C. Young, and the vote declared by 
Hon. John F. Dezendorf. He declined the nomination, 
however, on account of the division in the party ranks and 
retired from active service in politics until the next fall, 
when, by his influence. Judge Spaulding was nominated for 
Congress, in the Second District. Spaulding withdrew before 
the election, and Harry Libby was nominated. Wilson can- 
vased the district with Mr. Libby, and was credited with 
having saved it to the Republicans, 

In March, 1883, he was appointed one of a corps of 
thirty-five Special Internal Revenue agents, and was stationed 
at Cincinnati, Ohio. At his request, he was transferred to 
Virginia in July, with headquarters at Richmond. In July, 
1884, Congress reduced the number of agents one-half, and 
Wilson was one of those retired. 

In March, 1885, he began the publication of The Right 
Way, at Norfolk. In a few months, however, his terse 
articles caused bim to incur the hatred of William Lamb, 
mayor of the city, and the enmity of George E. Bowden, 
then Collector of the port, and since the representative in 
Congress from that district. By questionable legal proceed- 
ings these men got control of the printing material, and in 
order to stop the publication of the paper, gave it away. 
Thus TJie Right Way ceased to appear, expiring in Sept-ember 
of that year. 

Wilson removed to Richmond in 1885, and organized the 
Galilean Fisherman's Insurance Company, which he managed 
with sagacity and success. In 1888, he was elected a 
member of the colored committee of the Virginia Agricul- 
tural, Mechanical and Tobacco Exposition, and subsequently 
became its secretary. He met with great success in securing 
exhibits for the Colored department. 

In October, under the auspices of the Fisherman's organiza- 
tion, he began the publication of The Indit^trial Day, a 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 179 

thirty-two page monthly ; and in January, 1889, commenced 
to issue it weekly. This publication he devoted to the 
industrial idea, as a means of assisting to solve what is termed 
the race problem. 

In 1881, Col. Wilson published a volume of his poems, 
the entire edition of which (1000) was sold in sixty days, 
and the proceeds devoted to his post of the Grand Army of 
the Republic at Norfolk. In 1882, his work on Emancipa- 
tion was published at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural 
Institute. In 1888, •' The Black Phalanx," written by him, 
was published by the American Publishing Company, ol 
Hartford, Conn. This work needs no commendation here. 
Its sale sui passes that of any other work written by an 
Afro- American. Wilson has contributed to the press con- 
stantly, and there are few papers published by Afro- Americans 
whose pages have not been adorned and its readers enlight- 
ened by his articles upon the living issues and questions of 
the hour. 

He has written several articles concerning the w^ork and 
duties of the Afro- American press. We reproduce a portion 
of one of these written by Wilson for I'hc Planet. Alter 
citing the pioneer work of the Caucasian press, and what it 
had to do in reaching its present position, this veteran says: 
"What was true of the whites is now true of the negro race. 
Twenty-five years ago you could count on the fingers of oik^ 
hand all the newspapers publi.^hed by negroes in the United 
States, and as easily count the books written by negro men 
and women ; but to-day more than one hundred and thirty- 
five newspapers are printed every week, and not less than 
twenty-five issued monthly, not including two or three 
magazines. These, like the white press of fifty years ago, 
are the pioneers of the race's literature, and are read by 
two hundred thousand negroes who accept their teaching as 
readily as does a school child that of the teacher, with, 



180 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

perhaps, one exception.'* We see that he has the riglit 
conception of the relation of our press to the people. 

Col. Wilson is the oldest A fro- American newspaper man 
now living in Virginia, and his writings, full of sound 
judgment and precious experience, ought to be well accepted 
by the youth of our race. Our subject makes use of the 
following words in TJie Day, which plainly show the severe 
troubles the Afro-American press has been, and is now. 
subjected to. " The Negro press, with a few exceptions, ha.« 
for quite a period been under fire — a galling fire, such as no 
press, not excepting the press of Old Ireland, has had to 
confront." 

The Colonel is active and aggressive, a bold writer, an 
astute thinker, and an ornament to Virginia's journalism. 

Hon. John H. Williamson, Editor North Carolina 

Gazette. 

John H. Williamson first saw the light of day, October 3, 
1844, at Covington, Ga., his parents being James and 
Williamson, the property of Gen. John N. William- 
son. Upon the death of their master, his parents moved 
with their mistress to Louisburg, N. C, this now being the 
home of our subject. 

At an early period he longed to be able to read, and so 
began to study. To prevent him from learning, his mistress 
hired him out. The white people said in those days, as they 
say now, sometimes — " It is a dangerous thing for a negro 
to read." He succeeded, however, in his effort. 

He held responsible positions during the Reconstruction 
period. He has spent most of his time in legislative halla 
and at the editorial desk, contributing to the success of the 
race, both by word and pen. In 1867 he was appointed 
register for Franklin County by Gen. Sickles, and was elected 




HON. JUHN U. W. 



182 THE AFRO-AMEJUCAlJ PRESS. 

the same year to the Constitutional convention to frame a 
new constitution, under an act of Congress. His legislative 
career begins with 1866 — '68. He has since served in that 
capacity from '68 to 72,' 76 to '78, and '86 to '88. He was 
defeated in *74 and '78, and '88, owing to party diflference* 
each time. He was a justice of the peace in his state for 
years, a position of considerable responsibility in North 
Carolina. For ten years he was a member of the county 
board of education, and a school committeeman of his school 
district. He was also a delegate to the National Republican 
conventions of '72, '84, and '88, In 1881, he was elected 
secretary of the North Carolina Industrial Association, holding 
that position for seven years, mana«iing its affairs with 
ability and success. 

His course in journalism has been of an extensive nature, 
and is worthy of mention. It begins with the founding of 
The Banner, April 14, 1881, — of which he was editor and 
proprietor. It was the organ of the Industrial Association, 
and as such it was devoted mainly to educg^onal and 
industrial pursuits. T/ie Bamier met with great favor 
throughout the state, its circulation running up in a brief 
period to two thousand, the majority of subscribers being 
laborers. While the paper was devoted mainly to the 
industrial interests of the race, it did not fail to speak boldly 
upon all questions where the rights of the Afro- American 
were involved. 

In 1883, to promote its interests and accomplish more 
good, believing in the maxim — "In union is strength," — The 
Banner united with The Ooldsboro Enterprise, controlled by 
George A. Mebane, and"E. E. Smith, now minister to Liberia. 
This paper assumed tlie name of The Banner Enterprise, and 
was published at Raleigh, N. C. It was devoted to politics, 
and other matters pertaining to the race, and had a most 
succesgful career for quite a while, a powerful influence being 



A^RO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 183 

exerted by the eflTorts of George A. Mebane, and E. E. Smith 
and John H. Williamson, who were well known as editors. 
When a difference of opinion arose upon the matter of 
publication, Mr. Williamson sold his interest to George A. 
Mebane, and retired from the paper, leaving Mr. Mebane 
8ole editor and proprietor, Mr Smith having also retired. 

Mr. Williamson's journalistic career did not end here. 
In August, 1884, he commenced the publication of The 
North Carolina Gazette, a weekly paper, which was devoted, 
in accordance with his bent of mind, to education, industry 
and politics, among. the Afro- Americans. As with his former 
papers, so with Tfie Gazette, a large circulation was secured, 
it reaching two thousand or more. Many of the able lady 
writers of the old North State contributed to its columns, 
among whom were Misses L. T. Jackson, Annie C. Mitchell, 
and Jane E. Thomas. , These made the paper very popular 
with their own sex, and it was eagerly sought for. The 
advertisements came largely from the white business men of 
Raleigh. The Gazette truly did much good, and we regret, 
with scores of Afro-Americans of the state, that the editor's 
other duties prevented his continuing the publication of his 
paper. 

John Mitchell, Jr., Editor Richmond Planet. 

The New York World, in its issue of February 22, 1887, 
said : *' One of the most daring and vigorous negro editors 
is John Mitchell, Jr., editor of Tlie Richnond Planet. The 
fact that he is a negro, and lives in Richmond, does not 
prevent him from being courageous, almost to a fault." 

Without one more word, these lines from the greatest 
daily of the nation set forth the character and aim of the 
man and paper who heads this sketch. He entered into life 
July 11, 1863, amid the roar of cannon and the smoke of 



184 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

battle, in Henrico County, where his parents lived, his father 
being a coachman and his mother a seamstress. In Rich- 
mond, Va., he first attended school, through the push of his 
mother, his instructor being Rev. A. Binga, D. D., now pastor 
of the First Baptist church of Manchester. Under this 
teacher he advanced rapidly, until in 1876 he entered the 
Richmond normal school, graduating from the same some 
years afterward. He is regarded as a natural born artist. 
His work has been highly commended by Senator William 
Mahone, Hon. B. K. Bruce, Senator John A, Logan and Hon. 
Frederick Douglass. 

His desire for the newspaper life, which has been his most 
prominent public service, seems to have begun when he 
cried The State Journal upon the streets of Richmond as a 
newsboy. In 1883 he was the Richmond correspondent of 
The Neio York Freeman, and December 5th, 1884, The 
Planet was placed under his editorial survey, which he has 
kept revolving until this day. 

The PUmct was in a very precarious condition when Mr, 
Mitchell took charge. Since that time he has made it an 
indispensable possession to the people of Virginia. He has 
so perfected his plans, that TJie Planet may continue its 
revolutions without undue shock or disturbance. Since he 
has had control he has put in a Campbell cylinder press, 
which is run by an electric motor ; also job presses, and the 
office is liglited by electricity. This is all due to Mr. 
MitcheH's energy and power to manage. 

He has the reputation of being the gamest Afro- American 
editor upon the continent. His forte as an editor is to battle 
against the outrages perpetrated upon his people in the 
South. In doing this he has encountered many dangerous 
obstacles and undergone many daring risks. His efforts as a 
newspaper man caused his election to the Richmoi;d city 
council in May, 1888. He is also vice-president of the 



i86 THE AFRO-AkERIOAN PRESS. 

National Press Association. He secured the pardon of 
Thomas Hewlett, and the reprieve of Simon Walker, who 
was sentenced to be hung. At this writing he is working 
for a commutation of his sentence. 

As a writer, "Men of Mark" saysf *'Mr. Mitchell is a 
bold and fearless writer, carrying out to the letter all he says 
he will." The Afro- American Presbyterian, published at Wil- 
mington, N. C, says the following of The Planet: "Some of 
our secular exchanges, as The Freeman of Indianapolis, and 
T/ie Planet of Richmond, are doing some splendid work, in 
the interest of the negro race. Their urgent advocacy of the 
right is bound to create a stronger sentiment against the 
oppressor." At the National Press Convention in Washing- 
ton, March 5, 1888, Editor Mitchell addressed the convention 
upon "Southern Outrages." "lola," the great lady writer 
and secretary of the convention, writes toi The Detroit Plain- 
dealer the following complimentary remarks of our subject : 

" Any one listening to the burning words and earnest 
delivery of John Mitchell, Jr., the man who has devoted 
himself to this particular phase of the "Negro Question," 
must feel some throes of indignation and bitter feeling rise 
within him. My eyes filled with tears and my heart with 
unspeakable pity, as I thought of The Richmond Planet's list 
of unfortunates who had met such a fearful fate. No 
requiem, save the night wind, had been sung over their dead 
bodies ; no memorial service to bemoan their sad and horrible 
fate had before been held in their memory, and no record of 
the time and place of their taking off, save this, is extant; 
and like many a brave Union soldier their bodies lie in many 
an unknown and unhonored spot." 

"All lionor, then, to John Mitchell for his memorial service 
— for his record, if only to the few! May his life be spared 
to continue the great work he has set for himself. May his 
personal bravery and courage be an incentive to others 1 " 



APRO-AifEHlCAl^ EDITORS. 187 

As to the muaion of The Planet, " Bert Islew/' in ITie 
Boston Advocate, clearlj enunciates it when she says : " ITie 
Planet devotes its space in condemnation of the wrongs and 
atrocities committed upon the colored men and women, in the 
section of the country from which it is issued." 

The future is bright before Mr. Mitchell. He enjoys the 
confidence, esteem and support of his fellow-citizens, which 
bespeak for The Planet undisturbed revolutions. 

Hon. C. H. J. Taylor, Editor Southern Appeal. 

By virtue of his political life, the Hon. Mr. Taylor is 
known far and near as an Afro- American editor of daring 
traits and excellent ability. He first saw the light in a town 
of Alabama, the 2l8t of April, 1856. At an early age he 
began to fit himself for what afterwards proved to be a 
brilliant career in law, politics, and journalism. His taste 
for newspapers was seen early in his efforts as a newsboy 
about Savannah, Greorgia. His training was had under a 
private tutor, at his home at Beach Institute, one of the 
American missionary schools, and at Ann Arbor college, 
where he finished a literary and legal course of study. He 
immediately began the practice of law, and in various places 
he held eminent positions. He is now located at Atlanta, 
Georgia, where he enjoys a lucrative practice, his fees amount- 
ing to four or five thousand dollars a year. 

His political life has been a most popular one, in that 
he had the courage and manhood to espouse the cause of 
Democracy and work as speaker and editor for the perpetuity 
of a Democratic form of government. As a recognition of 
his services along this line, he was remembered by President 
Cleveland in the portfolio of Minister Resident and Consul 
General to the Republic of Liberia. 

His editorial life was brilliant and fittingly serviceaVA^ \.o 



188 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

the party with which he claims identity. He was publisher 
and editor, previous to his departure to Liberia, of The Worlds 
published at Kansas City. After his return to America, he 
edited The Pnhlic Educator, which was in the interest of the 
Democrats in the national contest of 1888. His paper did 
great service, and the party will yet recognize Mr. Taylor's 
labors. We cannot say more of him as an editor than Prof. 
L. M. Hershaw, principal of a school in 6at« City, Atlanta, 
Georgia, says: 

*' Mr. Taylor is also very well known as an editor. His 
efforts in this line of work are characterized by his usual 
energy, enthusiasm and ability. His editorials are strong, 
pointed and forcible. In replying to an adversary, he is 
cutting and caustic. However, as the law is Mr. Taylor's 
first love, no other pursuit has been able to lure him for any 
considerable time from its practice. Therefore, his history as 
an editor is short, but exceedingly interesting." 

While in his law practice at Atlanta, his time is limited for 
newspaper work; yet he finds time to write as a special 
corres2)ondent to The Kcvisa^ City Times. While the major- 
ity of Afro- American editors do not indorse or countenance 
Mr. Taylor's editorial fight for Democratic supremacy, yet 
they all vie in recognizing his ability and worth, in what 
some may regard as a peculiar field for the Afro- American 
editor. Mr. Taylor is at present connected with The Southern 
Appeal, supposed to be his organ. 

Hon, John L. Waller, Ex-Editor Western Recorder, 

AND American Citizen. 

The life of this eminent young man is fraught with 
achievements as a lawyer, politician and journalist. He was 
a slave, having been l^orn of slave parents in New Madrid 
County, Missouri, January 12, 1850. Entering his first 



HON. JOHN L. WALLEB. 



190 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

school in 1863, he diligentlj studied until he graduated 
from the Toledo, Iowa, high school. 

Concerning his first intimation of the study of law, Hie 
Capital Oommonwealth, (white) of Topeka, Kansas, says: 
" In 1874, Judge N. M. Hubbard, who had been watching 
the career of young Waller, and who sympathized with a 
plucky, struggling youth, sent for John, who had no acquaint- 
ance with him, to come to his office. John was astonished, 
for he could not conceive what so eminent a man and jurist 
as Judge Hubbard wanted with him; but he called as 
requested. After being closely interrogated by the judge on 
several important literary subjects, he threw back the large 
folding-doors of his commodious office and pointed John to 
his immense legal library and offered him its free use, of 
which he availed himself for three years, when he waa 
admitted to the bar in October, 1877. 

"Mr. Waller came to Kansas May 1, 1878, and waa 
admitted to practice in Judge Robert Crozier's court in the 
First judicial district in September, 1878, since which time 
the people of Kansas have known him." 

Mr. Waller is an acknowledged leader in the Republican 
party and has held many prominent positions in that party. 
He was placed at the head of the Republican electoral 
ticket in Kansas, at the last presidential election, — an honor 
never before accorded an Afro-American in this country. 
Suffice to say, there were numbers of whites who were crazy 
for the honor. At the election Mr. Waller carried every 
county, save two, in his state. During the campaign there 
was a greater demand for his services than for those of 
any other man in the state, as the fact that he delivered 
fifty-one speeches for the state and national ticket will 
demonstrate. 

Mr. Waller established The Western Recorder, March 10, 
1882, and published it for three years. The first few issaee 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 191 

were- but a little larger than a sheet of foolscap ; but before 
the paper had been published three months, the editor, Mr. 
Waller, enlarged it to six columns, and in August, 1883, it 
bei-ame a seven-column folio. The Recorder soon took rank 
among many of the leading weekly journals of the state, and 
had a large circulation all over the South-west. In many of 
the Southern states this paper could be found. It was 
republican in politics, and was bold and outspoken upon all 
public questions. 

Mr. Waller and his wife labored hard, night and day, to 
make The Recorded' a success. Upon one occasion, the day 
before the issue of his paper, the typos, who were white, 
struck for higher wages. The editor, hard pressed, was about 
to succumb to the demand of his workmen, when Mrs. Waller 
said: "No, my husband, we cannot afford it. I will get 
the paper out. Let the typos go." Mr. Waller took her at 
her word. She seized a stick, mounted the printer's stool, 
and got the paper out only two days behind time. She 
continued to " set up" the paper more than five months, and 
until the typos, who sought to take advantage of them in 
their weakness, were almost on the verge of begging bread 
in the streets. 

During the three years* existence of The Recorder, Mr. 
Waller was both traveling agent and editor, while Mrs. 
Waller was typo and local editor; but the unceasing labor 
incident to the successful operation of a negro journal at that 
time, soon wore the editor out, and on account of ill-health, 
he was compelled to sell The Western Recorder to Mr. H. H. 
Johnson of Kansas City, Mo., in February, 1885. As editor 
of The Recorder, Mr. Waller attended the Press Convention 
it St. Louis, in 1883, and took an active part in its delibera- 
tions. 

As early as 1883, Mr. Waller placed at the mast-head of 
The Recordtr the following national ticket : For President, 



192 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Hon. John A. Logan of Illinois; for Vice-President, Hon. 
John M. Langston. This ticket drew fire from the opponents 
of the two men named, from all over the country ; but Mr. 
Waller gallantly supported these candidates, so eminent as 
statesmen, until the result of the Chicago Convention, in 
1884, when he hoisted the names of Blaine and Logan. 

It has been alleged that Mr. Waller's first venture in 
Afro- American journalism came out of the unlawful hanging 
of a colored man at Lawrence, Kansas. The man in question 
was one Peter Vinegar, who was suspected as being " parti- 
ceps criminis" to a crime committed by two Afro- Americans, 
King and Robinson. Vinegar was out of the city when the 
crime was committed ; therefore could have had nothing to 
do with it, but was hanged, nevertheless. Our subject was 
employed in the defence of Vinegar, which shortly resulted 
in the launching of Tlie Western Recorder. It was called by 
many " the fearkss and sfaunch friend of the Afro- American 
and the paralyzer of moh violence." 

In P'ebruary, 1888, Mr. Waller, in company with his 
cousin, Anthony Morton, established The American Citizen, 
at Topoka, Mr. Waller being editor and remaining at the 
head of the paper until July, 1888, at which time, he sold 
his interest to Mr. Morton. Those who read The Citizen 
during the canvass for the nomination of president, are 
familiar with the fact that Mr. Waller hoisted the name of 
John Sherman of Ohio, for the presidency, early in March, 
1888, and kept it flying there until the nomination of Gen. 
Benjamin Harrison, when he substituted his name. 

As a journalist, Mr, Waller is fearless, yet courteous, and 
earnest and decided. As a faithful exponent and defender of 
his race, the columns of the two papers to which he devoted 
so much time and hard labor, speak volumes, and clearly 
show the earnest and anxious solicitude with which the editor 
labored for the advancement of the people. His editorial, 



AFRO- AMEBIC AN EDITORS. 193 

after the defeat of the Republican party in Ohio, in 1883, 
and his warning concerning the probable defeat of the 
national ticket, (which proved to be a defeat,) proves that 
our subject is a far-seeing journalist. He says : " For Ohio 
to go Democratic upon the eve of a great national election, 
is fraught with much cause for alarm on the part of Repub- 
licans. It strikes us that the leaders of the party will be 
compelled to change their base of operation, and in the future 
look carefully to the men who are to be nominated. 

" It is an undeniable fact, that the majority of the colored 
men in the Buckeye State supported the Democratic ticket. 
The Afro- American, the most influential colored paper in the 
state, gave all its support to the Democratic ticket. The 
Republican nominee for governor, a Tew years since, reflected 
upon the character of a very worthy colored woman, against 
whom he was prosecuting a "civil rights" case in court; and 
more — it is alleged that Mr. Foraker abused the colored 
race shamefully in his argument before the jury and the 
court, and that he was nominated over the protest of the 
colored people of Ohio, who loudly clamored for the nomina- 
tion of Senator Sherman, who would, as a matter of course, 
have swept the state. 

" There are eighteen thousand colored voters in Ohio, and 
it is to be regretted that their admonition was not heeded. 
We very much regret the result in Ohio, but it need not 
become general. — the defeat there need not become a rout. 
If the Republicans of the country will be cautious and 
discreet in their future nominations, the broken places in our 
ranks will receive the necessary reinforcements to save us 
from defeat in 1884. The colored men of Ohio are not 
Denvocrata; they only meant to chastise Judge Foraker for 
the insult oflFered the race in a court of justice. The Ger- 
mans or Irish would have done a similar thing. The colored 
men who are to the front in political aflfairs now, are they 



194 THE AFKO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

who were childreu during the late war, and thousands of 
them have been born since 1861. These men view politics 
as do white men. We desire to see Ohio reclaimed, and in 
our next issue we will try to set forth liow wc (kink it can be 
reclaimed. It must be borne in mind, that this is the second 
sweeping defeat the Republicans have suflfered there inside 
of two years. The reasons for alarm for Republican success 
in 1884 are well founded." 

Such is Mr. Waller as a man and a journalist. 

Rev. Charles B. W. Gordon, Editor National Pilot. 

The mills of the theological schools grind slowly with us 
as a race, yet when tliey turn out men, in most instances 
they are highly capable, and have always made their mark 
in the religious world. Such was the case with our subject. 
There is probably no young man irrespective of color, whose 
success in ministering to the saint.s and wiel^ling the editorial 
pen has been greater than Rev. Mr. Gordon's. 

Born of humble parentage, in the state of North Carolina, 

November 1, 1861, he luis, by i)rayerful attention to word 

and deed, made his influence felt all over the country, being 

familiarly known as " the young eloquent divine." His early 

life in school was sj^ent under the guidance of Mr. Thomas 

Mixon, on Roanoke Island. From a boy, he has been known 
as a good declainier. A writer, speaking of his early career 

in this resj^ect, says : " Friday afternoon being set apart by 
the teacher for " piece s^^eaking," or speech making, the first 
time that Charles appeared on the programme was an event 
in the history of the school and an epoch in his life. 

"He grew so exceedingly eloquent, that he held his audi- 
ence charmed and si)ell-bound. From that day it became 
known that he possessed great oratorical powers." From this, 
he made rapid progress us an orator. 



196 THE AFRO-AMEMOAN PRESS. 

Having professed faith in Christ, he determined to enter 
the Richmond theological seminary, at Richmond, Va., in 
1881. Completing a course of three years, he was, to his 
surprise, called to the pastorate of a large church in Peters- 
burg, Va. His labors at this church have been highly 
successful. He published, in 1884, a book of sermons, 
preached at various times. It is a volume of four hundred 
and twenty pages, and is replete with evidence of his ability 
as a theologian. 

His journalistic career began with the launching of live 
Pilot, a monthly religious sheet, May 16, 1888, of which he 
was the founder, proprietor and editor. It was at once 
made the organ of the Virginia Baptist State Convention. 
After the suspension of The Baptist Companion, at Ports- 
mouth, the Baptists had no organ through which they could 
speak, until the founding of ITie Pilot, which afforded them 
a mouth-piece. 

The Pilot became popular at once, and in demand. After 
having experienced the ** troubles " of journalistic life one 
year, Mr. Gordon became so pleased with its success that in 
May, 1889, it was issued weekly. It can be said of this 
weekly sheet, as can be said of few others, that it is sustained 
by the Baptists of the state. Virginia is proud of The 
Naiional Pilot, and proud of this young divine. 

In closing this sketch of Rev. Mr. Gordon, we could not 
say more of his present and future career than is said by a 
writer in The Indianapolis Freeman of March 30, 1889, 
which we here quote : 

" To write a full and elaborate estimate of the brilliant 
and growing subject of this sketch, would be impossible in an 
ordinary newspaper article ; therefore, suffice it to say, that 
as an author, orator, poet, essayist and divine, the negro race 
in this country has hardly produced his equal, at his 
acre, 28." 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 197 

Hon. John C. Dancy, Editor Star of Zion. 

T?ie Star of Zion, published at Salisbury, N. C, is one of 
the ablest church organs the Afro- American can claim. Its 
editor, John C. Dancy, was born in slavery at Tarboro, N. C, 
May 8, 1857. He early exhibited a thirst for knowledge, 
and accordingly was put into school after the Surrender, and 
kept there until 1873. He then entered the printing-office 
of The Tarboro Southerner^ where he first learned the 
printer 8 trade, and afterward became very proficient as a 
typo. Upon leaving the office of The Southerner, he entered 
Howard University, and while there was afflicted by the 
death of his mother. 

He has held many positions of public trust. He was clerk 
in the Treasury Department in Washington ; also Register of 
Deeds for Edgecombe County. Being prominent in politics, 
he has held the most conspicuous places in his party's 
organization. He was delegate to the Republican National 
Convention in 1884 and 1888. At the Convention in 1884, 
he attracted wide attention by a speech he made, in seconding 
the nomination of Hon. John A. Logan. Dr. William J. 
Simmons' ** Men of Mark," says : " His eloquent and capital 
effort was greeted with a volley of hand-claps, and round 
after round of applause" He was secretary of the convention 
of Afro-Americans at Raleigh, N. C, in 1887 ; and president 
of the one at Groldsboro in 1881. He went abroad as a 
delegate of the Right Worthy Grand Lodge of Good Templars, 
in 1879. Concerning his eflforts upon this occasion and his 
actions abroad. The Indianapolis Frcenxan says : 

*' He spoke at the great Hengle's Cirque in Liverpool, with 
Joseph Malins, the well-known temperance advocate, and 
Rev. George Gladstone, of Scotland, nephew of the great 
English statesman, to about 5,000 people, and at Crystal 
palace in London, where 40,000 people were assembled. 



198 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Palace in London to about 40,000. He lectured extensively 
in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. 

As a political speaker he is widely known, having taken 
an active part in National and State campaigns, under the 
direction of the National Committee. Mr. Dancy delivered 
an Emancipation address at New Bedford, Mass. The speech 
was published entire in The Daily Mercury of New Bedford. 
Tlie Virginia Lancet, commenting on the speech and the 
man, says: 

*• Hon. John C. Dancy, of Salisbury, N. C, editor of Tfie 
Star of Zion, delivered the oration at the Emancipation 
celebration at New Bedford, Mass., on August 1st. We have 
read the report of the oration, as published in The ^tw 
Bedftrrd Dai/// Mercury, and feel justified in pronouncing it 
a splendid, scholarly effort. His magnificent periods, excel- 
lent rhetoric and practical illustrations, were truly wonderful. 
He is one of the best thinkers of the race, and his progress- 
iveness and intelligence will surely bring him to the top." 

His brilliant career as a journalist begins with the editor- 
ship of 2'he North Caroluia Simiincly at Tarboro, N. C, which 
he managed and edited for three years. This was only a 
forecast of what his journalistic career has since been. 

Being a prominent layman in the A. M. E. Z. church, he 
was chosen by the Board of Bishops, in 1885, as editor of 
their organ, llu: Star of Zion. This paper, under the 
management of Dancy, has become a powerful and self- 
sustaining light in the Convention. The office is well 
equipped ; so also is the man ; hence nothing can be expected 
but a well-prepared paper. 

"Men of Mark" says of it: "Under his management, 
the paper has increased wonderfully in subscription and 
circulation, and is now considered the equal, in ability and 
news, of any religious paper published by the race in 
America." 




HON. JUIIN L. JJASCV. 



200 THE A FRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

Our subject is a reader, and, it follows, can be nothing leas 
than a writer. He reads the best literature and newspapers. 
The Star of Zion is authority for any news it publishes con- 
cerning the race. It is frequently quoted by our leading 
papers, as well as by those of the whites. As a popular 
educator in the religious and moral sphere of our people, it 
has successfully served as leaven, and will continue to until 
we shall rise in light and power. 

The Bu^eman of August 17, 1889, said: ''The Star of 
Zion is one of the most liberal and progressive denomin^ 
tional colored newspapers in the country. It has a good 
word for every creed, and ite editorials are alway spicy and 
pointed." We welcome The Star as one. bright and fixed in 
the planetary system of Afro- American journalism. 

William E. King, Editor Fair Play. 

This brilliant young man, the editor of a paper whose 
name indicates its purpose, was born in Noxumbee County, 
Mississippi, June 7th, 1865. his parents being Richmond and 
Margaret King. Though he was free-born, his parents had 
been slaves. 

Young King was very studious in his youth, and received 
a good English education in the public schools of his county, 
and also acquired considerable knowledge of Latin. He 
engaged in toai'hing from 1881 to 1888. when he began what 
has been his most conspicuous public^ service, journalism. 
In 1888, Mr. King, at the earnest request of the managers, 
went to Helena, Arkansas, and became business manager 
and contributing editor of the Jacob's Ff^icnd, which position 
he filled with satisfaction to his employes, and with much 
credit to himself. 

In February, 1889, in company with Mr. S. S. Jones, a 
prominent young man of Enterprise, Mississippi, Mr, King 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 201 

began the publication of a paper bearing the significant 
name of Ibir Play, which he himself selected. It was printed 
upon the press of The Meridian (Miss.) Daily Ncwb. For 
certain reasons, The News failed to continue printing the 
paper, when Mr. King showed a most heroic spirit in cutting 
the paper from a six-column folio, to one of four columns, 
and printed it upon his job press. The trouble between the 
two papers was, however, amicably settled, and The News 
resumed the printing. The Fair Play is now an eight- 
column folio. Their job outfit is worth over five hundred 
dollars, and they do a large job business. 

Mr. King is a fluent and fearless writer. Whatever he 
conceives to be right, he gives utterance to, regardless of the 
opinions or wishes of others. This is an essential character- 
istic of a good editor. His chief object in life is the elevation 
of his race, and he delights to write and converse on that 
subject. He is wedded to his people, and is an example for 
young men in morals and religion, being a consistent member 
of the Baptist church 

Rev. W. H. Mixon, Ex-Editor Dallas Post. 

Rev. Mr. Mixon, who was born in Dallas County, near 
Selma, April 25th, 1859, (his parents being Andrew J. and 
Maria A. Mixon,) was one of the first men to engage in 
Afro-American journalism in Alabama. His education, 
which is, by the way, a good one, was acquired in his state, 
of private tutors, to whom his father constantly sent him. 
His theological training was greatly supplemented by a 
course he took in the Selma University. 

He is now a conspicuous clergyman in the A. M. E. church, 
having joined the Alabama Conference, under Bishop J. 
Campbell, in 1879, and ordained deacon and elder by Bishop 
A. W. Wayman, before he was twenty-one years of age. He 



202 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Las been a pedagogue in Alabama, having last served as 
principal of the high school at Decatur, with the irrepress- 
ible R. C. 0. Benjamin as his assistant. 

With credit to himself, he has served several churches of 
the Alabama Conference, now being Presiding Elder of the 
Selma District, comprising *a field four hundred miles in 
length. To him is accredited the completion of the Payne 
University, at Selma, Ala. As a journalist, he did much to 
foster and encourage the work in his state. He is a strong 
supporter of The Suuthern Christian Recorder, by pen and 
word. He is the author of '* The Moth of Ignorance Must 
be Destroyed." 

His associates on llie Dallas Post are well-known gentle- 
men, now active members of the craft, viz. : Mr. Jno. M. 
Gee and Rev. M. E. Bryant. They attest that he is a 
sharp-pointed and ready writer. Our subject loves his Grod 
first, then his people. Such a man is bound to be of service 
to the country. 

Thomas T. Henry, Esq., Ex-Editor Halifax Enterprise. 

In the early part oi October of 188G a conference, composed 
of gentlemen representing the Banister Baptist Association 
and the Sunday School Union of Halifax County, met at the 
First Baptist church of South Boj*ton, for the purpose of 
considering the advisability of establishing a newspaper. It 
was decided it should be done; whereupon Mr. Henry was 
chosen as editor, and Rev. J. Russell, Jr., business manager, 
with instructions to prepare a prospectus, at the earliest day, 
setting forth the moral, educational and financial necessities 
of the race, and the line of policy the paper should pursue. 
It was also decided that it should be known as The Halifax 
Enterprise, and that it .should be published in the town of 
South Boston. 



204 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

The prospectus was well received, and was closely followed 
by 500 copies of The Enterprise, which greeted an anxious 
public with the characteristic motto : " We will from no duty 
shrink." On its list of subscribers were soon some of the 
most prominent whites, as well as colored men, of the county, 
with some of the best business houses of Danville, North 
Carolina, and of Richmond, as advertisers. Many compli- 
mentary and substantial messages of appreciation poured into 
the editor's sanctum. We here insert one from T. E. Barks- 
dale, the very efficient superintendent of schools of Halifax : 
** Upon my return home I found the first and second numbers 
of your paper. This commendable eflfort speaks well for the 
advance of your people in the last fifteen years. A strict 
adherence to the design of the paper, as set forth in your 
prospectus — the educational and religious improvement of 
your race — will, in my humble judgment, crown The Enier- 
prUe with success. Please find enclosed subscription for one 
year." 

Mr. Henry, who was born in Richmond in 1852, received 
liis education in the public schools of that city, including 
the high school. He afterwards read law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1882, having as His associate in the practice 
tlie lamented R. Peel Brooks. 

As a keen and magnificent writer, he proved himself equal 
to the task in the editorship of The ErUo-prise. For six 
months he stuck in a most tenacious manner to the following 
text, which stood at the head of its editorial columns. It 
bespeaks volumes for its mission. We here present it: 
*• Educate your children; economize your earnings; acquire 
property; become part owners of the soil of your country. 
We have nailed our flag to this mast, and he who would 
attempt to haul it down, is an enemy to the best interests of 
the negro." 

Mr. Henry resigned the editorship when an attempt was 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 205 

made to make it a political paper, whereupon Mr. J. C. 
darter assumed the position. Under Mr. Carter's manage- 
ment it survived four weeks, when a suspension became 
necessary. 

Hon. S. J. Bampfield, G. W. Anderson, and I. Randall 

Reid : Managing Editoe, and Associate Editors, 

Respectively, of The New South. 

The above gentlemen compose the staff of The New SoiUh, 
a journal of high repute, published at Beaufort, S. C. 
The managing editor was born in Charleston, the fifth day 
of September, 1849, and is now clerk of the Court of Common 
Pleas and General Sessions for the county of Beaufort. Mr. 
Anderson, the senior associate editor, was born in New 
London, Pa., December 2, 1856; while Mr. Reid, the junior 
member of the staff, was born in Beaufort, during the latter 
part of the Rebellion. Mr. Anderson is at present a teacher 
in the Beaufort Normal and Industrial Academy ; and Mr. 
Reid, Deputy Sheriff of Beaufort. 

The early training of these gentlemen was acquired in their 
respective localities ; later on, at different period.^, they entered 
Lincoln University, where each graduated with honors. Mr. 
Bampfield pursued a course of law, until the law department 
of Lincoln University was abolished ; after which he continued 
to study law under the lamented Judge Pieite L. Wiggan, 
and was admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of South 
Carolina, in 1874. They wield considerable influence in the 
community in which they live. 

77ie New South, of which these gentlemen compose the 
staff, is a Republican journal, devoted to education, politics, 
literature and religion, and published weekly at Beaufort, 
Beaufort County, S. C, by the New South Publishing Com- 
pany, composed solely of colored young men of that county. 



206 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

It is issued, primarily, in the interest of the negro race, but 
as well for the vital principles of the Republican party and 
the work of building up and strengthening the material 
resources of its town and section. It is also an advocate 
of the rights of all races smarting under the rod of oppression. 

The absence of a journal in Beaufort, owned and controlled 
by an A fro- American, and conducted with these purposes in 
view, brought TJie New South into the field. Its editors and 
publishers realize that it has met a long-felt want, and in 
that view they are strengthened by a liberal support from the 
better element of their people, and that growing class of 
whites who sincerely desire to see the Afro- American rise in 
the scale of humanity, and show himself worthy of the great 
boon of freedom that has been conferred upon him by the 
recent amendments to the Constitution. 

The paper is published from its own plant, at its office on 
Port Republic street, Beaufort, S. C. This plant is valued 
at $1500, and is entirely free from debt and all encumbrances 
of every character wliatever. It includes a complete job 
outfit, and the company is prepared to do neat job work at 
short notice. The foreman of the office, and all .the help, 
are Afro-Americans. Tlie type and press are of the best 
quality, and capable of doing first-class work. It is a seven- 
column weekly, 24 by 36 inches, issued every Thursday 
morning, at two dollars a year or one dollar for six months. 

Its motto is in the words of the martyred Lincoln — " With 
malice toward none ; with charity for all." It is in this 
spirit that it has entered the field of journalism, to labor 
unselfishly for the object stated above, and it is upon that 
line it proposes to fight it out, " if it takes all summer." It 
recognizes honest difierences of opinion, in all fields of labor 
and among all classes of laborers, and therefore regards it 
the duty of the true laborers to lay aside all malice and 
exercise charity in all things. 




G. W. ANDERSON. 



208 THE A FRO- AMEBIC AN PRESS. 

The future of the Afro-American in this country will 
depend infinitely more upon his own exertions than upon 
any other agency now at work in his behalf. The real and 
substantial work, therefore, must be done among the race» 
and by members of it, and the true Afro- American journalist 
will play no unimportant part in that work. The deeper 
and more intensely that impresses itself upon his mind, the 
better will he be prepared for the work and the more marked 
and certain will be the results in the near future. 

The first issue of The New South appeared on the 23d of 
May, and it has been issued regularly each week since, 
gradually improving alike in mechanical extension and edito- 
rial management, and with a constantly increasing subscription 
list. 

The appearance of The New South created no little amount 
of comment. Its salutatory was telegraphed to The New 
York Herald, and published by that great paper under the 
caption — " The Negro must Help Himself." In that article 
the following sensible words appeared. After citing the fact 
of Afro-American advancement, it says : " These are familiar 
truths ; and yet it is a fact too well known to him, that he 
is denied the actual enjoyment of many rights under the 
Constitution and laws that are accorded to others. Indeed, 
under the laws of certain sections of the country, he is almost 
anything but a free man, — a pariah in his own country. 
Whatever else may have conspired to produce such a condi- 
tion of things, every intelligent, self-respecting negro knows, 
and freely admits, that the main cause is as an unfortunate 
moral, material, and intellectual condition, — a legacy of more 
than two hundred and fifty years of slavery. Until that 
condition is materially changed, no proper recognition of the 
race can reasonably bo expected, etc." 

This but serves to show the spirit of the editor in his 
editorial advice to his race constituents. Tlie South believes 




I- BANDAU, BEID. 



210 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

in a peaceable way to settle the negro problem. The idea 
advanced by many of the North, in advocacy of racial protec- 
tion by an organized force system, is dealt a blow by JTie 
South in a scathing editorial on — "Who will Bell the Cat?" 

These are the closing lines of the editorial, which will 
commend itself to all intelligent and sober-thinking people : 
" It seems to ns that the history of every effort on the part 
of the colored people of the South to organize for self-protec- 
tion, is of itself sufficient to satisfy every intelligent mind of 
the utter helplessness of such an undertaking. It has never 
yet proved effective, and, so far as we can see, never will be 
effective for such a purpose. If for these troubles there can 
be no other remedy suggested by these gentlemen, then we 
are of all races the most miserable, indeed." 

These extracts prove the editorial ability of The New 
Soidh. Its managing editor, with but little previous journal- 
istic training, is a good writer. 

Prof. E. H. Lipscombe, Ex-Editor Mountain Gleaner. 

This cultured gentleman and well-known writer was bom 
in the famous tobacco town, Durham, N. C, September 29, 
1858. His editorial career began while he was a student at 
Shaw University, of which he is a graduate. He became 
associated with Dr. H. M. Tupper (president of that institu- 
tion) and Prof. N. F. Roberts, in the publication of The 
African Expositor, which was then the organ of the North 
Carolina Baptists, as well as that of the University. 

Though the junior member of the staff, he is accredited 
with having been the most classic writer upon ITie ErposUor, 
The secret of his success with the paper was due to the fact 
that all of his articles upon religion, education, temperance, 
and, occasionally, politics, were prepared with the utmost 
care and study, and were said to be of a nervous, concise and 




^ a, LIPSOOMBE. 



212 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

lucid style, which fact always insured him many admiring 
readers. Those of The Expositor always wanted to see what 
Lipscombe had to say; this being especially true of the 
younger class of men, who admired him for the fearless, fiery 
dash, the convincing logic and the captivating rhetoric of his 
writings. His contributions to The Expositor were certainly 
of that nature that furthered its prospects for a successful 
existence. At one time he had special charge of the temper- 
ance department, and being a hearty worker for prohibition, 
he threw many hot shots into the camp of the anti-prohibi- 
tionists. 

In 1882, he was elected by the North Carolina Baptist 
State Convention as one of the editors of The Baptist Stan- 
dard. In company with other gentlemen he established The 
LigfU House, in 1884, being its editor-in-chief. In 1885, 
the paper was moved to Asheville, when it became The 
Mountain Oleaner, he still remaining editor-in-chief, in which 
position he greatly distinguished himself. The paper ranked 
among the ablest edited of the country, though by no means 
the largest. 

The Gleaner worked zealously for the betterment of the 
A fro- American 8 condition, and likewise took a part in 
everything looking to the development of North Carolina, 
particularly the city in which it was published. Editor 
Lipscombe was always invited to the public meetings, regard- 
less of the color of those who called them, and freely 
expressed his sentiments upon the matters at issue. These 
invitations were the result of the ability and influence of his 
paper. Though editor of a publication whose voice was never 
smothered in political battle, or silent when matters of public 
interest were discussed, he was elected to his present position, 
that of principal of the graded school No. 1, in Asheville. 

In his work as publisher and journalist, he owes a debt 
of gratitude to his white brethren of the journalistic turn. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 213 

▼hoee kindness can never be forgotten hj him. The prin- 
cipal of these are the Rev. Dr. 0. J. Bailey of The Biblical 
Recorder, Raleigh, N. C, Mr. Theodore Hobgood of The 
AshevUle Advance, and Mr. R. M. Furman of TTie Asheville 
Oiizen. These gentlemen, while fully according him the 
right to hold opinions diflfereut from their own, notably in 
politics, have nevertheless aided him in standing upon his 
feet, when, without the assistance of strong men, he could not 
have done so. Though holding a situation under a Demo- 
cratic school board, his fair and conservative expressions of 
opinion have given him a right to declare himself upon the 
stump, as to his political preferences. 

In his paper, The Olea?ier, he made a manly fight for 
J. C. Matthews as Recorder of Deeds, whose appointment 
was made by President Cleveland, and was pending confirma- 
tion in a Republican Senate. His editorials upon the subject 
were read far and wide, and clipped by Washington papers. 
A republican, on reading one of his editorials, is said to have 
remarked: This is fair and manly, and should remind us 
that however good republicans the colored men may nat- 
urally be, no policy of political coercion can be a])j)lied to 
them with success." 

Messes. William F. Simpson, Secret Society Editor, 

AND Abel P. Caldwell, Business Manager, 

OF The Monthly Echo. 

Mr, Simpson was born March 15, 1842, in Philadelphia, 
Pa., his parents being Charles and Delphine Simpson. He 
is the Secret Society editor of The Monthly Echo, He was 
sent to the public schools of Philadelphia until the Friends 
opened a school called The Institute for Colored Youths, 
under the principalship of Prof. E. D. Bassett, where he was 
then placed. He here continued his studies with a view to 



214 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

graduation in 1858, bat for some cause he was not permitted 
to do so. 

While in school he acquired the trade of boot and shoe 
maker, also that of a barber, in which he is now engaged. 
He is a great Society promoter. His career as editor of 
the Secret Society department of The Echo dates from 1883, 
which he has filled with credit and ability. He has proved 
a most valuable accession to the editorial staff of The EcJio, 
and being well informed as to the workings of various secret 
orders, he is good authority in matters of that kind. Tlie 
Echo regards him as essential to its existence. 

Abel P. Caldwell, the business manager of The Echo, was 
born in Chapel Hill, N, C, January 1, 1865. His training 
was had through many difficulties, at the North, as well as 
South. He is a young man of fine sense and business ability. 
While managing editor of The Echo, he was selected by the 
U. S. Director General of the American Exhibition, held in 
London, England, to represent the young Afro-Americans, 
which he did with credit. 

Responding to an inclination to do something to his liking, 
with three others, he began the publication of The Echo in 
1882. It was then a small quarter-sheet, with Charles W. 
Simpson as editor, while Mr. Caldwell became business 
manager. Thus The Echo commenced what has proved, after 
more than seven years' experience, a staunch champion of 
the rights and privileges of the Afro-Americans. Mr. Cald- 
well assumed control as editor and proprietor, with his 
brother, in 1884. 

Dr. B. T. Tanner, formerly editor of Tfic Christian 
Recorder, and now Bishop Tanner, says: "In more ways 
than one, Tlie Echo is a model which larger and more pre- 
tentious journals of our people could imitate to their advan- 
tage. With the motto^' To preserve an equable mind,' — it 
pursues the even tenor of its ways, as though it came to stay." 




ABEL P. CALDWELL. 



216 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

The Naticmal Baptist said of Uie Echo, — '* It is evidently 
well edited for an amateur paper, and we are glad to see 
that it contains nothing trashy and sensational." 

The Echo warmly endorsed the Industrial School project 
of Mrs. F. M. Coppin. In recognition of Tlie EcJioa services 
in behalf of this institution, Mrs. Coppin addressed a letter 
to the editors, thanking them for the interest taken in the 
enterprise. It reads as follows: "I am very much obliged 
to you for your excellent editorial on Industrial Education, 
in your last issue. It is impossible to calculate how much 
good is done by a newspaper, in enlightening the minds of 
the people upon great subjects, and, surely, an education 
in the use of tools is of first importance in a civilized country. 
Vii'gil says: *I sing arms and the hero.* Carlyle says: 
* Tools and the man are a far wider kind of epic* 

" Young men, like yourselves, Messrs. Editors, are just the 
ones to speak iijDon this subject. The man that the ^J]loe 
pinches is the one to hollow. The mechanical too of ours is 
very decidedly cramped and pinched by lack of opportunities 
for growth and improvement." 

With a view to enlarging the influence and scope of The 
Echo, the editors constituted themselves a stock company 
in 1888, with Dr. L, J. Coppin and William F. Simpson 
editors, and Abel P. Caldwell business manager. This led 
to an increaiSe in the f^ize of the paper, and also in the 
circulation, and to-day, under the management of an able 
corps of editors, it enjoys a rapidly increasing subscription 
list. 

Rev. W. J. White, Editor Geoegia Baptist. 

At a meeting of the Missionary Baptist Convention of 
Georgia, in May, 1880, at Maeon, Ca., it was decided 
that the Convention rliould establish a newspaper, and it 




Bzv. L. J. mms. 



218 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

accordingly appointed a committee of three to perfect tinB 
requisite arrangements. These decided that the publicatioii 
should be known as T/ie Ghorgia Baptist^ and designated 
Rev. W. J, White as corresponding secretary and general 
manager, with power to issue the paper. 

The Convention having appropriated nothing for the ven- 
ture, Mr. White organized a stock company, and bought an 
outfit for the paper and job office, at an expenditure of $2000. 
Soon he became proprietor and editor, which positions he 
still holds. The religious conventions, associations, etc., 
adopted it as their organ, and for nine years it has defended 
them in their creed and doctrine. 

The first issue, October 28, 1880, consisted of one thousand 
copies, which have gradually increased until the average for 
the succeeding three months, ending January 1, 1889, waa 
three thousand two hundred and forty. This paper goes all 
over the country and is circulated more extensively in remote 
sections of the state than any other journal. It goes also to 
England and Africa. 

The Baptist is not, like some other Afro- American journals, 
a tri-weekly, but a weekly, and has not missed an issue from 
the beginning. It lias never used a patent outside, nor does 
it use any plate matter. This is of course due to Mr. White's 
exalted idea of journalism. The paper has never changed 
hands, he having been editor and business manager nine 
years. 

Mr, White w^as born in Elbert county, Ga., December 25, 
1831, and is accordingly, at this writing, fifty-seven years old. 
His education in the schools was acquired when he was 
quite young, but he is ever a constant student of men and 
measures. 

He served as an apprentice under W. H. Goodrich, an 
extensive house builder, and he worked at the carpenter's 
trade for seven years, after which he learned cabinet making 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 219 

under the Piatt Brothers, for whom he worked until Januaiy, 
1867. 

In the early part of 1866 the Republicans of Augusta 
started a newspaper called The Oolored American, which 
was the first colored paper ever published in Georgia. John 
T. Shufien was its editor and proprietor, but W. J. White 
assisted him in getting it out. After a few issues were 
published, a stock company was organized and the name of 
the paper changed to ITie Loyal Oeorgtian, W. J. White 
was elected secretary ot this company, and took active part 
in the publication of this paper for about two years, the time 
it was published. 

Another company was now organized and The Loyal 
Oeorgian merged into The Georgia Republican, W. J. White 
was its correspondent and canvasser as long as published. 
After the suspension of The Loyal Georgian he acted as 
correspondent for The Atlania Republican and occasionally 
for other papers. Since The Georgia Baptist has been in 
existence he has confined himself solely to its publication, 
the editorials being written exclusively by him. 

Mr. White is pastor of Harmony Baptist church, Augusta, 
Ga., and treasurer of the Shiloh Baptist Association. His 
pastorate of this church has been continuous since May 10, 
1868, when the church was organized. He is trustee of the 
Atlanta University, at Atlanta, Ga., and for eighteen years 
has taken an active part in its management. He is trustee 
for the Atlanta Baptist Seminary, a theological school for 
young men of Atlanta, Ga. He is- a trustee of Spelman 
Seminary and vice-president of the board. This is a school 
for the training of young ladies at Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. White is a strong prohibitionist and has taken an 
active part in the prohibition contests that have arisen in 
his own and adjoining states. From January, 1867, to 
January, 1869, he was an agent for the Freedmen s Bureau 



220 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

and was assigned to the duty of organizing schools in all 
parts of Georgia for the colored children. He encountered 
many dangers in the prosecution of the duties pertaining to 
this office. 

In the spring of 1869 Mr. White was appointed assistant 
assessor in the Internal Revenue service by Captain Edwin 
Belcher, the first Afro- American assessor appointed by Presi- 
dent Grant. When the a.sse88or8' and collectors' offices were 
united by a change in the law, Mr. White was appointed by 
Col. Isham S. Farnin deputy collector, with headquarters at 
the collector's office, a position that gave him charge of all 
revenue matters connected with distilleries and tobacco 
factories. For three years he had charge of a large division, 
with headquarters at Milledgeville, Ga. He served under 
Col. Farnin, Col. E. C. Wade and Col. W, H, Johnson, as 
deputy collector, and resigned voluntarily, January Ist, 
1880. He has taken an active part in public afiairs and 
has been closely identified with the Republican party ever 
since the war. 

The Afro- Americans of Georgia have, during the last ten 
years, held conventions that were intended solely for the 
advancement of their interests in state affairs. The first of 
these met at Macon, Ga., the second at Atlanta, and the 
third at Macon. These conventions have been productive 
of much good to the Afro- Americans of Georgia. Mr. White 
was president of them all. The last convention met January 
25, 1888, and among other things of importance done was 
the organization of the , Union Brotherhood for the unifying 
of the Afro-American voters of Georgia for better state 
government. He is president of this organization. 

He was chosen by the Republicans of his. state as delegate 
from the state at large to the last National Republican 
Convention, and was the only delegate-at-large from Georgia 
that went over to Benjamin Harrison before his nomination. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 221 

(Joining back to oar 8ubject*8 jonmaJistic life, we ascertain 
that nothing was more lucrative and more helpful to him in 
the business than a job office, in connection with the publica- 
tion of The Baptist Mr. White saw this at the very 
beginning, and determined that it should be a first-class one. 
He also determined to employ colored printers, as far as 
possible. This was a hard task, because of the scarcity of 
SQch, He was fortunate enough to secure the services of 
Mr. George W. Gardner, now editor of The Philadelphia 
Sentinel, whom he made foreman of the office. Prof. A. R. 
Johnson, one of Georgia's best young men, to whom he was 
deeply devoted, rendered him invaluable aid in keeping his 
books. John T., George D., Lucian H., and W. J. White, 
Jr., four sons of W. J. White, were put in the office to learn 
type-setting. John L. Blocker, Esq., who has since moved 
to Texas and engaged in the newspaper business, was also 
employed by Mr. White as canvasser and general helper. 
Gabriel B. Maddox, Esq., who has since been foreman of the 
printing department at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
school, Tuskegee, Ala., and, later, associate editor of The 
Cblumbus (Ga.) Messenger, was first devil, with W. J. White, 
Jr., as a good second. 

Overcoming many difficulties Mr. White has persevered 
until ITie Oeorgia Baptist job office has taken a place in the 
front rank. A large amount of pamphlet work is turned 
out ; and in addition to the force of eight to ten men in the 
building, four to six ladies are employed at Mr. White's 
house, of whom Mrs. White has the oversight. Three of 
his daughters, Mary B., Claudia T., and Emily Josephine, 
have learned to bind and stitch pamphlets. 

The entire plant has cost about three thousand dollars, 
and the capital employed in the business is about six thou- 
sand. Thus it is seen that The Georgia Baptist and its 
editor have had a most prosperous career. 



222 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

The IndiaTiapoUa FreeTnan says, in regard to The Baptist : 
" From ten to fifteen hands are employed upon it continually, 
the pay-roll reaching from one hundred to one hundred and 
fifty dollars a week. Take it for all in all, The Oeorffia 
Baptist is one of the positively successful newspaper prop- 
erties in the country, owned by colored men." 

Levi E. Cheisty, Editoe Indianapolis Woeld. 

One of the leading spirits of Indiana journalism is Levi 
E. Christy, editor and senior proprietor of The Indianapolis 
World. He was born at Salem, Ind., 1851, but became a 
resident of Xenia, 0., in 1865, leaving Salem on account of 
the gross mistreatment by the whites of the colored people 
there. 

After spending some time in the public schools of Xenia, 
he went to Indianapolis, when he immediately entered the 
employ of General, now President Harrison. Young Christy, 
knowing fully the value of an education, attended a night 
school, and afterwards took private lessons, paying as high 
as $1 per lesson. 

His industry and perseverance were not without reward, 
for so well had he advanced that in 1870 he was appointed 
principal of one of the leading public schools in Indianapolis. 
After teaching some years at this place, he accepted a good 
school in Arkansas, intending to complete a special line of 
study to which he had devoted himself. He finally returned 
to Ohio and became a student at Wilberforce University. 

In 1872, Mr. Christy was married to Miss Ella M. 
Roberts, a cultured and handsome young lady of Xenia, O., 
and again he went to Arkansas and began teaching. He 
took an active part in Grant's second campaign, and evinced 
considerable talent as a speaker. Returning to Indianapolis, 
he was appointed principal of a school, and held the position 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 223 

until 1885, when he retired from that profession, and has 
aince given his entire time to The World, which passed to 
his control five years ago. 

After fifteen years in the confines of a school-room, the 
active and invigorating life of a newspaper man was a 
welcome change. At that time Afro- American journalism, 
was, to a great extent, an experiment; but Mr. Christy had 
unbounded faith in its ultimate success, and devoted himself 
to his new labor with all the zest of his enthusiastic nature. 

Under his guidance, though at the cost of many sacrifices 
and much personal discomfort, ITie World has become a 
firmly established enterprise, and ranks with the best in the 
land. All its mechanical work is done by Afro-American 
hands, and besides being a leader in the intellectual arena, 
it furnishes an avenue for the employment and training of 
colored men and women as printers. It has introduced more 
new Afro-American writers to the reading public than any 
other journal published by our people. 

As an editor, Mr. Christy is cool and conservative, and 
demands for the Afro- American the same chances and oppor- 
tunities accorded to other American citizens. He appeals to 
the reason and better judgment, rather than to the passions 
or emotions. 

The World is enjoying a season of unprecedented success, 
and is an illustration of what can be accomplished by 
patience and industry, supplemented by confidence and a 
strict adherence to the best business principles. 

Rev. a. E. P. Albert, D. D., Editor South-Western 

Christian Advocate. 

Rev. Dr. A. E. P. Albert, the subject of this sketch, a writer 
of national reputation upon religious subjects, is of French 
descent, his father being Pierre Albert, of Bordeaux, France, 



224 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

and his mother a slave, the property of a Frenchman. 

When the Union army captured New Orleans, our subject 
ran away from home, reaching the Union lines safely. He 
was then but poorly able to speak English ; so he entered a 
private school, taught by Mr. William Earner. After gaining 
some knowledge of English, he attended the Freedmans 
Bureau school, the public schools of Atlanta, the Congrega- 
tional Theological school, and Clark University. 

Entering the Straight Congregational University at New 
Orleans, he graduated as Bachelor of Divinity in 1881. Four 
years afterwards the honorary title of D. D. was conferred 
upon him by the alma mater, and by the Rust Methodist 
Episcopal University of Holly Springs, Miss. At present, 
Dr. Albert is president of the board of trustees of New Orleans 
University, chairman of the executive committee, and lecturer 
on theology in the same institution. He is also secretary of 
the Louisiana Conference Board of Church Extension and 
statistical secretary of the Louisiana Conference. He was 
for a number of years District Dept. Worthy Grand Templar 
for Louisiana, I. 0. G. T. ; was a member of the book commit- 
tee of the M. E. Church; secretary for Eastern Section for 
four years ; a member of the General Conference and secretary 
of committee on the state of the church, at the General 
Conference held in Philadelphia in 1884, and also chairman 
of the colored delegation to the same body. 

After Dr. Taylor's declination, he was desired by the 
majority of the board of bishops to go as bishop to Africa. 
At the last meeting of the bishops, he was appointed fraternal 
delegate to the General Conference of the A. M. E. Zion 
Church. 

Like many other subjects treated in this work, his life in 
journalism has not been as extensive as in that of the 
ministry. It begins with an appointment as assistant editor 
to Drs. Hartzell and Cushman, from 1882 to 1884. At the 



S^- A- E P. ALBEKT, D. D. 



226 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

General Conference in 1884 he received one hundred and 
seventeen votes for the position of editor. Upon the death 
of Dr. Marshall W. Taylor, Dr. Albert was chosen to fill the 
unexpired term. This he did with so much credit, that at 
the General Conference in 1888 he was elected editor without 
an opposing vote. 

Concerning the power and force of The South- Western 
Advocate^ TJie Freeman says : '* The South- Western Christian 
Advocaie, of which Dr. Albert is now editor, is a great and 
powerful church organ, having the largest circulation of any 
paper in New Orleans." The honor of being editor of such 
a powerful religious journal, owned by the General Conference 
of the M. E. Church, is one that no other Afro- American has 
the pleasure to possess; and no one is more able than he 
to wear the honor befittingly. 

Dr, Albert is a reliable, pointed, and pleasing writer. The 
editorial columns of Th^ Advocate are always bright and 
cogent. His ready acquaintance with all questions makes 
Lim able to write in the most inviting way upon any subject 
he may see fit to tackle. The best thing about his succeae 
in life is, that, personally, he had to earn everything with 
which to educate and make himself a man. Learned in the 
Bible, as the lawyer is in the law, he is able to present 
Scripture truths unto a dying generation, with that ready 
vehemence and force that none could do who were less well 
informed. With his practical knowledge and the memory 
of the treatment he was subjected to in his onward march to 
success, he can, in a most prepossessing manner, advise his 
fellow-men what to do in meeting the difficulties incident to 
their religious, moral and social life. Since his journal 
represents thousands of white Methodista, as well as thou- 
sands of Afro- American Methodists, it is read by the whites 
more than is any other Afro- American journal in the Union. 
While he is ready, at all times, to picture the Afro- American s 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 227 

success in the most vivid and enchanting manner, yet he 
points out the many snares and dangers along the paths of 
life, which, if a race fall into, proves fatal to its existence. 

In every way Dr. Albert has proven himself duly qualified 
to honor the race as a knight of the quill, and his journal 
deserves the most hearty support at the hands of a liberty- 
loving and free people. 

In noticing Tfui South- Western Christian Advocate and its 
present editor, its history would be manifestly incomplete 
if we failed to allude to Rev. Marshall W, Taylor, D. D., a 
former editor, who is acknowledged to have been one of the 
most gifted writers and eloquent ppeakei*s the race has yet 
produced, especially in the M. E Church. Dr. Taylor has 
been connected with some journalistic work ever since his 
service as a preacher began. In 1872, while pastor of Coke 
Chapel, Louisville, Ky., he edited The Kentucky Methodist, 
which was looked upon as an able sheet. He was honored 
with the degree of D. D. by the Central Tennes.see College. 
In 1879 and in 1880 he was elected editor of The Souih- 
Western Ch^tian Advocate, a position never before held by 
an Afro- American. He is author of several works, viz. : 
"Universal Reign of Jesus," "Life of Donney," "The Negro 
Evangelist," " Plantation Melodies," and " Life of Mrs. 
Amanda Smith, the Missionary." As one says : " He was 
famous as an eloquent preacher, a safe teacher, ready speaker, 
and an earnest writer ; and we will add, a polished writer. 
Few, if any, can peruse his books without being impressed 
with the deep earnestness of the man, and his evident desire 
to lift his readers to a higher plane. He presents his 
matter in such a way, that none can lay his books aside 
without the consciousness of having been helped by them. 
Previous to his death at Indianapolis, in June, 1888, he was 
mantioned for the bishopric of the M. E. Church. Dr. 
Albert justly holds high the mark set by this worthy man. 



228 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Messrs. R. Jf. Littlejohn and D. A. Williams, Editors 

OF The New Light. 

In Warren County, North Carolina, July, 1855, was born 
Richard D. Littlejohn, whose work in Afro-American journal- 
ism has been marked by many sacrifices, and much diligent 
application. He is well educated, having spent considerable 
time in these universities : Lincoln, in Oxford, Pa. ; Fisk, in 
Nashville, Tenn. ; and Oberlin, in Ohio. He has since taught 
in Mississippi. Fpr eight years he has been a member of the 
teachers* examining board for his county. He is also promi- 
nent in society circles, particularly among the Odd Fellows 
and Free Masons. Mr. Littlejohn has often made use of the 
expression : " The destiny of the negro race in the South 
rests in secrecy and brotherly love." 

When Messrs. Littlejohn and Williams began the publica- 
tion of T/ie New Light in 1886, the community said that it 
tould not continue longer than two or three months, the 
assertion being based on the fact that so many papers had 
been commenced by our people, which seemed to flourish a 
short while, only to die. Many, who really sympathized with 
the new and enterprising project, subscribed for only three 
or four months. 

The paper proved to be a burden to the publishers for 
two years, their disbursements for that time reaching $1160, 
and the receipts $489. But things have changed since, and 
now the monthly receipts exceed the expenditures. ITie Hew 
Light has passed its crisis, and the dawn of a prosperous day 
has come. 

During all its trying and perplexing times, when it seemed 
that both courage and perseverance would inevitably fail, 
Mr. Littlejohn held up the flag with untiring fortitude. All 
the responsibility rested upon him, but he never shrank firom 
duty, nor did he labor in suspense ; for, encouraged by the 




R- D. UTTIEJOIIN. 



230 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

maxim that temperance, justice, and fortitude conquer all 
things, he fought to the end. 

The New Light is now three years old, and is a noble 
reflector of Afro- American sentiments, being the only paper 
published in Mississippi in an office the outfit of which ia 
owned by A fro- Americans. 

Mr. Littlejohn was associated with the lamented Rev. Dr» 
Williams in the editorship of The New Lights to whose 
popularity and influence the success of the paper is greatly 
due. 

Dr. Williams was born in Virginia, February 3, 1839, and 
lived until a few months since, when he fell triumphant 
in the arms of the blessed Savior, having fought in war and 
in peace, first for God and then for his race. 

He published and edited The Peoples Advisery in Jackson, 
Miss., which was a religious and an educational journal. It 
was a strong advocate of temperance and prohibition. 

In 1885 he and Editor Littlejohn associated themselves 
together in the publication of The New Light, to the success 
of which Dr. Williams never failed to contribute, until called 
from labor to reward. He was widely known in the M. E. 
church, to which he belonged. 

J. Dallas Bowser, Editor Gate City Press. 

Among the many weekly journals published in the West^ 
none carries with it such great influence, and none is so 
powerful in the maintenance of right principles, as The OcUe 
CUy Press, published at Kansas City, Mo. It is one of ihe 
largest sheets published by the A fro- American, and one of 
the most substantial. Papers may come and go, but The 
Oate City Press seems " to have come to stay." 

Its editor is J, Dallas Bowser, who was born in the Tar 
Heel State, (North Carolina,) at Weldon, February 15, 1846. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 231 

His career as a good citizen, educator, and particularly as a 
journalist, has been marrelous. He early enjoyed the benefits 
of an excellent public school training, which his parents were 
enabled to afford him by moving to Ohio. Remaining there 
in the schools, he grew up well-educated and well-fitted for 
practical life, and as an upright citizen. 

He moved to Kansas City when quite young, possibly 22, 
succeeding Hon. J. Milton Turner as principal of the largest 
school in that city. He held this position for ten years, until 
1881 finds him a mail-route agent, which place he filled until 
President Cleveland's policy "to turn the rascals out" reached 
him, and out he went. In 1887 he was sealer of weights 
and measures for Kansas City. These positions he filled with 
credit. 

Mr. Bowser is now a journalist. He has been successful in 
all of his journalistic work, and can be relied upon as being 
the hardest newspaper worker in Missouri, among the Afro- 
Americans. He has been constantly engaged thus for nine 
years, contributing largely to the success which now attends 
Afro- American journalism. 

In 1880 H. H. Johnson founded The Free Press in Kansas 
City. Before the second number was issued, Mr. Johnson 
came to Mr. Bowser, whom he knew to be a wide-awake, 
vigilant writer and business man, and stated that he was in 
lack of means to continue the publication of The Press. Mr. 
Bowser, disliking to see the effort fail, immediately took hold, 
and in a few weeks he had organized a substantial stock 
company, which took control of the paper, changing it to its 
present name, ITie Oate City Press. This paper, under Mr. 
Bowser's editorial management, has become a household word 
in the West, and its columns are quoted from by the leading 
journals of the land. 

Mr. Bowser is an editor whose writings command the most 
careful consideration. He is a fierce antagonist of quacks. 



232 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

humbugs, and political mountebanks. A writer, speaking of 
The Press f says : " The Oate CUy Press is one of the strongest 
papers in the United States." The same writer, in referring 
to its editor, says: *' His paper thoroughly reflects the man." 

Mr. Bowser pursues a line of duty in his writings as editor 
which he regards as right, without fear or favor. 

Another thing that has tended to make his paper a 
successful sheet is, the polished writers and astute thinkers 
who are with him upon its staflP. Such men as Profs. W. W. 
Yates and G. N.Gresham.so well known in the literary world, 
are his associate editors. 

Mr. Bowser's editorials always betray him as a defender of 
true Republican principles. The author regards his paper as 
one of the most successful effort.s in the pioneer work of 
Afro- American journalism. Having amassed a little fortune, 
he is enabled to " soap" his Press, which is a mighty lever ia 
the work. 

Not only is Mr. Bowser an able writer, but he is an orator 
as well. In addition to his journalistic business, he is a largo 
coal and grain dealer. 

Hon. James J. Spelman, Editor Baptist Messenger, 

Mr. Spelman was born in Norwich, Conn., January 18, 
1841, and was educated in the public schools of Connecticut. 
He entered upon newspaper work in 1858, in New York 
City, by opening a newspaper depot on Thompson street, near 
Amity, now West Third street. A year later he became a 
contributor to The Anglo- African, published by the Hamilton 
Brothers, and afterwards to The Pine and Palm, its successor, 
edited by James Redpath. He was a frequent contributor to 
the New York daily press, through the influence of Horace 
Greeley, George All'red Townsend, Charles Fulton, Charles G. 
Halpin, William Caldwell, and his partner, Mr. Whitney. 



W 




liOX .JAMliS J. SPKLMAN. 



234 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

During this time, he was also a regular correspondent of 
The Ulevator of San Francisco, over the nom de plume of 
Private L. Overture; of ITie CbBred Citizen of Cincinnati, 
edited by Prof. John Oorbin, now of Arkansas; and of I%e 
Zwna StaTidard and Weekly Seview of New York, edited by 
Prof. Howard Day, having with the last-mentioned paper the 
nom de plume of Paul Pickwick. 

On going to Mississippi in 1868, he became the special 
correspondent of The Neio York Tribune, and wrote to other 
papers in the North diving the period of Reconstruction. 
His letters to I'fie Trilmne afterwards attracted considerable 
attention, and were frequently copied into the columns of 
other papers. Mr. Greeley, on his way to Texas, stopped 
over at Canton, Miss., especially to pay Mr. Spelman a visit; 
but, unfortunately, he was not at home, and he never after- 
wards saw his benefactor alive. 

In 1870, he was elected vice-president pf the Repablicaik 
Press Association, the only colored man who was a member; 
and subsequently he became its president. He has been 
connected, as editor and proprietor, with the following papers 
in Mississippi : Peoples Journal, T%e Messenger and The 
Mississippi Republican. He was as.sociated with the late 
Hon. James Lynch in the publication of The Cblored Citizen 
and T?ie Jackson Tribune; and with the Baptist denomination 
in the publishing of TJie Baptist Signal and The Baptist 
Messenger, of which papers he was editor. 

At the National Republican Convention of 1884, Mr. 
Spelman was the special correspondent of The Evening Post^ 
a Democratic daily paper published in Vicksburg, Miss. 
He is still a frequent telegraph contributor to the press, for 
which he is daily compensated. He contributes an occasional 
letter to the A fro- American press, on matters pertaining to 
the race in the South. 

Mr. Spelman 's connection with the press has been of a 



APRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 285 

nature to secure compensation rather than to gain promi- 
nence, and in this he has succeeded admirably. His work 
has been constant, unceasing, and quietly done. He has 
brought dignity and position to Afro- American journalism by 
his efforts. 

He has occupied excellent political positions, being now 
in the service of the government as special Lumber Agent of 
the General Land Office. 

Rev. Wm. B. Johnson, D. D., Editoe Wayland. Alumni 

Journal. 

Dr. William B. Johnson, the editor of The Wayland 
Alutnm Journal y was born in the city of Toronto, December 
11, 1856. He spent the major portion of his youthful days 
in the schools of Buffalo, New York, and in the city of his 
birth, subsequently attending Wayland Seminary, where he 
graduated with honors in the class of 1879. 

In 1872 he was converted, and was baptized by the Rev. 
J. W. Mitchell, pastor of the Queen Street Baptist church, 
Toronto. In 1875, fired by a desire to work for God, he 
entered the ministry, choosing the South as his place of 
labor. Upon graduating from the Wayland Seminary, fully 
equipped as an expounder of divine truth, he was called to 
the pastorate of the First Baptist church of Frederick, Md. 
After serving the church successfully, and building a fine 
edifice, he left it, beloved by all who knew him, especially by 
thie congregation. Immediately, he was appointed by the 
American Baptist Home Mission Society to be general mis- 
sionary for the states of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, 
and the District of Columbia. 

While young Johnson had a very good education on 
leaving the seminary, his ambition led him to continue his 
studies, and to a special course in mathematics, metaphysics. 



236 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

and the languages, under Prof. Rhoan of the Ck)lumbiaii 
University, which resulted in his election to the chair of 
mathematics and science of government in Wayland Semi- 
nary, where he now is, having the esteem of the faculty 
and the students for his ability and worth. Thus, he stands 
as a remarkable pillar in the Baptist Convention. 

Dr. Johnson has, in his time, read some of the ablest 
papers before deliberative bodies it has been our pleasure to 
hear. When the Baptist State Convention was in session 
at Lynchburg, Va., in 1887, we heard with untiring interest 
his paper on the " Religious Status of the Negro," which so 
forcibly impi-essed the convention that it was ordered to be 
published. The paper proved his high qualifications and 
and worth as a journalist, and his ready ability to present 
matters as they are, — to condemn or defend the race as 
circumstances might require. 

In 1889, upon the retirement of the editor of TJie Baptist 
Ooy>ij)a?iion, the organ of the Afro-American Baptists in 
Virginia, he was chosen as his successor. His management 
of T/ie Companioti showed considerate tact and newspapaper 
strategy, and undoubtedly he would have made that journal 
one of the best religious newspapers, had it not been destroyed 
by fire. This was his first experience as a writer, which was 
acknowledged by the fraternity to have been productive of 
good fruit. 

Recognizing his merit as a ** quill man," Dr. Johnson was 
chosen by the alumni of Wayland Seminary editor of their 
journal, which was known as 27ie Wayland Alumni Journal, 
which, under his editorial survey, has done much for the 
seminary. 

The State University of Kentucky has conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of D. D., making him the youngest man 
in our country with such a title. 

As a preacher, student and writer, "he is able, diligent and 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 237 

forcible.** Says The American Baptist: "His services are in 
•onstant demand at home, in the interest of every good 
work." 

The Journal and its editor have done much in battling for 
the race, and will continue to supply the yearning of many a 
thirsty mind for editorial literature. 

John Q. Adams, Esq., Editor Western Appeal. 

Louisville, blessed in its many worthy sons, is the bii'th- 
place of a man whose prominence in Afro- American journalism 
is familiar to all, — John Q. Adams, who has stood through 
the blasts of forty winters and the heat of as many summers. 
He acquired an early training in the private schools of 
Fon-du-lac, Wis., and Yellow Springs, 0., finishing at Oberlin. 

Not unlike many A fro- American graduates, he entered the 
pedagogic profession, remaining in it until 1873, when he 
was elected engrossing clerk of the Arkansas Senate, and, 
later on, assistant superintendent of Public Instruction. 
Shortly after this he served as deputy commissioner of Public 
Works. So great has been the journalistic career of this 
gentleman, and so eager are we to direct the attention of the 
reader to it, that we will make no further comment on the 
aucce.ss attending his service in these positions than to say 
it was great. 

In 1879, he and his younger brother launched The Bulletiny 
a weekly paper, to battle on the sea of journalism with the 
torbulent waves that might come against it. The Bulletin 
•ontinued to sail, making a successful run until 1885, when 
it was disposed of to The American Baptist. 

Dor subject was wielding the politicaf ax in the quiet 
dialing the life of The Bulletin^ resulting in the occupancy 
•f a responsible position under the Garfield- Arthur adminis- 
tration, — ^that of United States storekeeper. 



238 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Upon going to St. Paul, Minn., in 1886, Mr. Adams 
accept od the pcsition ol" editor of The Western Appeal, which 
wiifs then in a very weak condition. A writer says this of 
27(c Ajfj)cai: " Under hia management the paper has thrired, 
and has become a power in the country." In 1888, Mr. 
Adam.s moved the headquarters of The Appeal to Chicago, 
where, as one says, it has had " phenomenal Buccesa." The 
Indianapolis Freeman says this of The Appeal^ which ex- 
pres^ses our own sentiment, and cannot be bettered: "From a 
circulation of thirty-eight copies, it has, in twelve months, 
increased to over two thousand." Tlie Appeal is published 
simultaneously in Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Looia- 
ville. Mr. Adams has been continuously engaged in 
journalism since 1879, and unless lightning should strike 
him under the j^resent Republican administration, he will, 
in all probability, i'or years to come, be counted among the 
* pencil pushers' of the country." 

Mr. Adams'.s journalistic turn of mind led to the calling 
of tho first Colored National Press Convention, and he was 
honored as its first president. 

But what of his rojaitation as a writer? The success which 
has attended his eli'orts would very probably suggest this 
inquiry. By way of i-eply, we produce a clipping from the 
editorial columns of The Appeal, which, while it shows his 
style, manifests, also, his spirit in defence of the race. 
He refutes, in no uncertain tones, the insult daily put upon 
the colored j^eople in classifying them with the vile and 
degraded. " If a colored man steals a hog, commits a rape 
or nim*der, or engages in a riot, he at once takes a conspicu- 
ous ]>osition in the eyes of the white community and is 
regarded with great interest. The court house is thronged 
when he is tried, and even when he passes along the street 
in custody of an officer, there is great curiosity to know what 
he has been doing. Thus the white community is constantly 




JOHN y- AbAMS. 
■2Hif 



240 THE AFRO-AMERJCAN TRESS. 

being brought in contact with offcaste and outcasts of the 
colored people, and, naturally enough, forms its conceptions 
of all from the bad conduct of a few. But the refined and 
pleasant homes, the thousands of benevolent and Christian 
enterprises that are in constant operation among colored 
people, the well-conducted churches, schools, colleges, socie- 
ties, and other civilizing and humanizing instrumentalities, 
attract almost no attention from the whites, and, consequently, 
exert almost no influence upon their idea of their progress. 
It is a misfortune to both races, that the white people are 
so constantly forced to witness and learn of the bad conduct 
of the saloon-loafers and criminals of the colored race, and 
that they take such pains to keep themselves from witnessing 
the decent and creditable performances of the intelligent, 
virtuous, and industrious ones." 

The truth of the above is unmistakable; and with such 
presentation of facts, the Afro- American editor may live to 
do great good, and the world will be the better for the 
influence he exerts. 

Prof. Julian Talbot Bailey, Editor Little Rock Suy. 

Prof. Julian T. Bailey, widely known as a journalist, was 
born March 22, 1859, in Warren County, Georgia. His 
parents were Pierce and Adeline Bailey of Georgia and 
Virginia, respectively. His sister and father having died 
when he was a lad, he was left with his mother alone, who, 
knowing Julian's desire for an education, promptly resolved 
that she would do what she could to enable him to obtain it 

In due time he was placed in the common schools of his 
county, and having completed the prescribed courses in these, 
he was sent to the Atlanta University, and entering the 
college preparatory class, he graduated from the institution 
with first honors, at the age of seventeen. He then went 




PEOF. JDLIAS TALBOT BAILEY. 



242 THE AFRO-AMERTCAN PRESS. 

to Howard University, where he completed the college coarse. 

Since leaving school, he has been an earnest student, and 
few can equal him in the sciences, mathematics, and lan- 
guages. He is known as a scholar and teacher of the ablest 
kind. He never fails to instill into his pupils the highest 
principles, with pureness of character. He has been actively 
engaged in the school-room during his career. He has had 
the degree of Master of Arts conferred upon him by Howard 
University. 

Soon after leaving college, he accepted the principalship 
of the Roanoke Normal and Collegiate Institute, in North 
Carolina. He has since been professor of natural sciences 
and.belles-lettres in the Philander Smith University of Little 
Rock. He has been professor of higher mathematics and 
astronomy in the Mississippi State Normal College and presi- 
dent of Bethel University of Little Rock. 

In speaking of his political life, a writer in The New Yo^'k 
Fixcman had the following to say : " In politics he is an 
independent thinker and actor, and as such holds a free, 
strong, and independent political position. He has always 
labored to make ai^parent the folly of the present inclination 
in politics, and has advocated free, independent, thoughtful 
action. He bends to no party, and bows to no apparent 
kindness; but stands concientiously upon principle and fitness 
to accomplish the highest good. 

" Prof. Bailey has always taken an active part in the politics 
of his adopted states. As a speaker, he is pleasing, interest- 
ing, and eloquent. He is a man of strong convictions, tender 
synqmthies, great firmness and decision of purpose, with high 
personal character. He possesses severe earnestness, pluck, 
manly courage; aims high, is ambitious and far-reaching, 
with great self-reliance and self-respect." 

Since leaving the school-room. Prof. Bailey has been ac- 
tively engaged in the practice of law, in addition to his 



AFRO-AMERIOAN EDITORS. 243 

editorial duties. He is one of the few of his race who have 
been admitted to practice before the Supreme and United 
States Courts in his state. He has a large and growing 
practice. 

While Prof. Bailey has been wonderfully successful as a 
lawyer, yet his career and experience have been so large 
and varied in the journalistic field, one might think, to look 
at his work in this direction, that he had no time for any 
other. He has been marvelously progressive in journalism. 
Certainly, few writers have been associated with as many 
papers, at different intervals, as Mr. Bailey, and filled such 
positions so acceptably. 

As to his course in journalism before the publication of 
JTie Sun, we call attention to a clipping from The Induin- 
apolis Freeman of February 2d, 1889: "Soon after leaving 
college he went to North Carolina, where ho was principal, 
for some time, of a school known as the Roanoke Normal 
and Collegiate Institute. He also published and edited The 
National Enquirer, in the same state, until the spring of 
1884, when he was offered the editorial chair of The Arkcuisas 
Herald. Considering Arkansas a more inviting Held, he 
accepted the offer. His editorial management of The Herald 
was marked by signal ability and success, in consequence 
of which he at once received encomiums from the leadiriLT 
men and papers, both white and colored, thronghout lia.' 
state. Such was the effect of his ability upon Arkansas as a 
journalist, that scarcely had he edited The Herald a month 
before it was decided by the members of the Arkansas Herald 
and Mansion publishing companies, to consolidate the papers. 
He was then elected editor of the consolidated paper, which 
was at once regarded as one of the leading ncgio journals 
of the country. He continued to edit The Heraid- Mansion 
until the fall of 1884, when he was elected professor of 
mUaral 9C]#ao9 wd beUea-l^ttres in the Philander Smith 



244 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

University of Little Rock. This position he fills with g^eat 
credit to himself, as well as to the institution employing him. 

As expressed by the author, as well as by our most 
eminent men in their opinions in this work, there is little 
pecuniary benefit to be reaped from Afro-American journals, 
in the earlier stage of their existence. This Prof. Bailey 
knew, and so he accepted a professorship in a college, in 
addition to his labors as editor of The LUile Rock Sun. Thus 
he is enabled to support himself comfortably, and have at 
his command increased means for the publication of his 
journal. 

T/ve Sun began publication in 1885, an independent paper, 
with Prof. Bailey as editor. This independent stand it has 
since maintained, and it is noted for its out-spoken senti- 
ments in advocacy of the rights of the race. On January 
1st, 1889, it entered upon its fifth volume. 

Since September 1st, 1888, Prof. Bailey has published two 
other papers, 27ie Hot Springs Sun and The Texarkana Sun, 
(Texas,) three separate and distinct papers, the combined 
weekly "bona fide" circulation of which is over six thousand. 
The Little Eock Sun has as large a circulation as any other 
Afro- American journal in the country, and it is doubtless safe 
to assert that it outranks all others in the number of its 
readers and the weight of its influence. 

Prof. Bailey is a newspaper man, "to the manor bom." 
His success in the work is due, first, to his ability, and, 
second, to his energy and great zeal. As a journalist, a 
writer sums him up thus : ** He has shown from childhood 
an insatiable thirst for knowledge and an immeasurable 
ability for grasping and retaining the most profound truths. 
While at college he distinguished himself as a linguist and 
mathematician. As a literary man, many know him. His 
clear, logical, conclusive, unique, though graceful style, is 
well known to most publishers and readers of the leading 



AtnO-AMEftlCAN EDiTOftS. 245 

papera of the day. His articles are sought eagerly, and are 
published and read with both pleasure and benefit." The 
question with the fraternity is now — "Where can another 
Bailey be found ?** 

David C. Carter, Ex-Editor Virginia Critic. 

The Critic wielded such an influence, and strove so hard 
to extend justice and fair play to both the people it 
represented and to others, that we would not fail to give it 
space in this volume. 

The 8iiJ)ject of this article was born in Staunton, October 
25, 1862, and was educated in the public and private 
schools of that city, and is to-day a trusted teacher in one of 
the Staunton public schools. 

His connection with The Chitic began in 1884, and was 
continued for four years as managing editor. His paper was 
regarded as one of the most telling sheets ever published in 
Virginia by the Afro-American. Since its suspension, he 
has been writing constantly for Anglo-Saxon papers, as well 
as for various Afro- American journals. 

His articles, and especially his editorials, were often found 
in the columns of other journals, either quoted in full or in 
part. Mr. Fortune, in his *' Negro in Politics," clips from 
the editorial columns of The Oritic, The people of Virginia 
lost an able and progressive medium, when The Critic failed 
to criticise the faults of the Afro- American or laud his good 
deeds. 

William Buford, Editor Arkansas Dispatch. 

The editor of The Dispatch dates his entrance into the 
world September 10, 1855, his parents being George and 
Clara A. Buford of Pulaski County, Arkansas. 

When he was eight years old, his father died, leaving him 



246 THE APRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

dependent upon a poor mother. They, however; sunrived 
the harduhips to which they were subject, and William 
received a good, practical education in the schools of 
Arkansas. He taught in the public schools of the state for 
years, always meeting with marked success, as shown at the 
examinations. 

Retiring from the service of a pedagogue in 1884, he 
became editor of The Herald- Mansion, published in Little 
Rock. This is known to have been the first Afro-American 
journal published in Arkansas; which makes him a pioneer 
in the newspaper field, in that state. He served as editor 
of that journal for two years, when a dissolutidn of TTie 
Herald and Mansion was efTected, the paper, though, continu- 
ing, under the name and style of The Mansion, and he as its 
editor and manager. 

The company publishing ITie Mansion sold, in 1887, all 
the good will and material to Editor Buford, and he then 
launched upon the journalistic sea The Arkansas Dispatch, 
In politics, The Dispatch is Republican. It is a six-column 
folio, with the motto: "Hew to the line, let the chips fall 
where they may.'' 

Rev. W. H. Anderson, D. D., Ex-Editoe Baptist Watch- 
tower. 

The race, the pulpit, and the press, vie in their respect 
for the above gentleman, who was born in Lash Creek 
Settlement, Vigo County, Indiana, May 8, 1848. 

His life, which has reached forty-one years, has been 
marked with hardships and achievements, which occur in the 
experience of every one who attains to any degree of eminence 
in the world. He is the possessor of a good English educa- 
tion, obtained by persistent attention to books without the 
aid of an instructor, the foundation having been laid in a 




BEV. W. H, ANDEBSON, D. D. 



248 THE APRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

school which he attended in his own state. He is now pastor 
of McFarland Chapel, of Evansyille, Ind. 

His prominence in political circles has won for him world- 
renowned fame. The press, bbth white and black, have 
given him the palm for his speeches in behalf of the green- 
back party, whose cause he espoused. He was several times 
delegate to the convention of that party. Relative to an 
address delivered at Kansas City once, in the interest of his 
party, the press of that city said : " He handled his subject 
in a calm, dignified, and logical manner. Keep him on the 
stump; he will do good." The Standard of Leavenworth, 
Kan., says: ^'He is a man of considerable ability, and a 
fluent talker." Concerning his ability as a preacher, The Terra 
Saute Express says : " His delivery is good, his pronunciation 
is distinct, and remarkably accurate." " He is also a writer," 
says one. This fact was evinced by his editorship of the 
Indiana Baptist Watch- Tower, published at Evansville, Ind,, 
under the auspices of the Baptist Association, This paper, 
being well edited, took high rank among the best journals of 
the race. The faculty of the State University of Louisville, 
Ky., gave him the degree of D. D., at its commencement in 
1889. Both in speaking and in writing, Dr. Anderson is seen as 
a man of quick, keen perceptions, and broad views. He is 
deeply concerned in all moverrents having for their object 
the development of a higher and a nobler civilization among 
his people. 

Rev. 0. C. Stumm, Editor Philadelphia Depabtment 
OF The Brooklyn National Monitor. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Airdrie, near 
Paradise, on Green River, Muhlenburg County, Ky., April 
11, 1848. His early life was spent in Ohio County, on a 
fiarmi where the only education one could get was what he 




BBV. c. C. ST0MM, D. D. 






260 THE APRO-AMERIOAN PREjsS. 

learned on rainy days and winter evenings, and in what was 

called a subscription school. 

After the training as such facilities afforded he entered 
school at Grenville, where he spent three terms. He then 
went to a white school. This aroused such bitter opposition, 
he soon had to withdraw from the school, and receive private 
instruction. After this he entered Berea College, Madison 
County, Ky., in the spring of 1871, where he continued but 
one year, when he went to the Baptist Theological Institute, 
Nashville, Tenn. ; but ill-health compelled him to leave school 
for a few years. In the meantime, however, he continued to 
study under private instruction. 

After his health was restored he returned to Nashville, 
Tenn. The Ba2>tist Theological Institute had undergone a 
change in the interval of his absence and was now called the 
Roger Williams University. Things were all new when he 
re-entered the university, but he was soon installed again 
in his classes, with the expectation of completing the regular 
course. Other hindrances, however, unfortunately arose to 
prevent this, though he was in the higher classes, and 
making rapid progress. Again was he compelled to avail 
himself of private instruction, receiving lessons in Latin, 
Greok and Hebrew, which were given by some of the best 
teachers of Boston, such as Profs. Perkins, Mitchell and 
Harper. 

Mr. Stumm assumed charge of his first school in the spring 
of 1869, at the age of 20, in Christian County, Ky. He 
continued to teach, at intervals, for fifteen years, in private 
and public schools in Tennessee and Kentucky. The people 
of Hartsville and Lebanon, Tenn., knew him well as a 
teacher. The superintendent of schools of Trousdale County, 
Tenn., had such confidence in Mr. Stumm, he looked to him 
to furnish teachers for the colored schools of the countv, and 
received much valuable aid from him by so doing. 



APftO-AMEtHCAU EblTOtlS. 25l 

A school was successfully taught by Mr. Stumm at Chap- 
laintown, Ky., in the fall and winter of 1870. He and his 
wife conducted a successful school at Elizabethtown, Hardin 
County, Ky., in the fall and winter of 1877 and 1878. In 
January, 1881, he was selected as president of the Bowling 
Green academy, with Prof. C. R. McDowell, Miss M. V. 
Cook, Miss A. M. Stepp, and Mrs. C. C. Stumm, as assistants. 
Prof. G. R. McDowell has since entered the ministry, and is 
the successful pastor of a Baptist church at Hartford, Ky. 
Miss M. V. Cook is now Prof. Mary V. Cook, at the State 
University at Louisville, Ky. Mrs. C. C. Stumm has since 
taught, and has been the matron, at the Hearne academy, 
Hearne, Texas, and is at present connected with The Naimial 
Monitor of Brooklyn, N. Y., having the management of its 
business at Philadelphia. This closes Mr. Stumm's career as 
a teacher, with the exception of his instructing a few young 
men privately, who are preparing for the ministry, whom he 
attends to each winter. 

While we are directing our readers more particularly to 
Rev. Mr. Stumm's journalistic career, we would not omit 
mention of his experience as a pastor. His success in this 
useful department of life's work has been glorious and grand. 
Beginning with the care of small churclies, he worked 
untiringly for the Master, until October 4, 1885. He then 
became pastor of the Union Baptist church at Philadelphia, 
one of the largest churches in the city. 

To show how the people looked upon him as a preacher, 
we reproduce a portion of an article concerning him which 
we have clipped, calling the attention of our readers more 
particularly to what Dr. H. L. Way land, editor of The 
NaiUmal Baptist, says of him : " The ability and high stand- 
ing of Rev. C. C. Stumm caused him to be selected to preach 
a sermon to the Odd Fellows of this city, which elicited 
much favorable comment both from the press and from 



252 THE AFRO-AMEMOAN l>feES8. 

prominent individuals. He preached one of the re-opening 
sermons at Shiloh, and also at the First African Baptist 
church. He has frequently spoken at the Baptist Ministers* 
Conference, which is composed of the leading white ministers 
of the denomination. The paper he read before this body, 
entitled *The Mission of the Negro Baptists,' received the 
highest praise from the Conference and the press. On May 
10, 1889, Dr. H. L. Wayland, editor of The NcUianal Baptist, 
says : ' I take great pleasure in introducing to all members 
of the Baptist denomination, and to other friends of a good 
cause, the Rev. C. C. Stumm, pastor of the Union Baptist 
church in this city. Mr. Stumm studied at Roger Williams 
University, at Nashville, and, more recently, at Boston, 
Mass. He is a highly esteemed member of the Baptist 
Ministers' Conference, and is a faithful and wise pastor and 
a good preacher of the Word. The Conference has com- 
mended him and his church, in their present enterprise of 
building, to all our brethren. I sincerely hope that his 
appeal for aid will meet with a favorable response.* " He was 
several times president of Baptist conventions and associa- 
tions, and has always acted promptly and well on these 
occasions, 

Mr. Stumm*s success in the ministry has not interfered at 
all with his progress in the glorious work of journalism, as 
will be seen in the following account we give of it: His 
career as an editor was begun in 1873, while he was a student 
at Nashville, Tenn. Pursuant to an adjournment, the Baptist 
Convention met with the First Baptist church of that city, 
and an editor of one of the papers asked the pastor. Rev. 
N. G. Merry, to have some one appointed as reporter, and 
the choice fell on Mr, Stumm, who accepted the position with 
some diffidence, but succeeded in reporting the proceedings 
of the meeting, though not in the most satisfactory way to all. 

Subsequently, he became a writer for The Standard^ a 




HON, C. H. I. TAYLOE. 



254 THE AFRO-AMEEICAN PRESS. 

paper publiebed by Elder N, G. Merry; for Ute Bapluz 
Berald, published at Paducah, Ky., by Rev. G. W. Dupee; 
The Ptlot. published at Nashville, Tenn.; 7%e Ammcan 
Bapliat, Louisville, Ky. ; TIte Tribune, a Republican paper, 
published at Danville, Ky. ; and for The Baptist Cbrnpanton, 
published, at fii-st, at Kooxville, Tenn., by Rev. J. M. 
Armstead, and then moved to Portamouth, Va. 

The children's column of 17ie American Baptist was edited 
by him for a while, in which be was known as "Uncle 
Charles." A column for the colored people was conducted 
by him in 2Re Bowling- Qreen Democrat, until some of the 
Bourbons got behind the editor and caused him to discontinue 
it. The Bovtlivg-Oreen Waichman was originated by Messrs. 
Stumm and C. B. McDowell, and successfuliy published by 
them for a few years. 

In June, 1887, he was engaged by the board of managers 
of the New England Convention as editor-in-chief of The 
Baptist Monitor, and held the place until the paper was sold 
to Dr. R. L. Ferry., after which he became associate editor, 
a position he still occupies. 

As a matter-of-fact writer, Mr. Stumm ranks high. He 
has, with hundreds of others, endeavored in every possible 
way to prevent the banner of Afro-American journalism from 
trailing. He is an earnest pastor and teacher, and a vigorous 
wielder of the pen, in any one of which poeitiona he eierta a 
commanding influence. 

The Chrislian Banner, a four-column, eight-page, religioufl 
home journal, was commenced by Rev. and Mrs, C. C. 
Stumm, Januaiy 2, 1890, the former being editor and the 
latter its bufiness manager. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon Mr. 
Stumm May 13, 1890, by the State University of Louisville, 
Ky., Rev. Wm. J. Simmons, A. M., D, D„ LL. D., presi- 
dent. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 255 

Rev. E. W. S. Peck, D. D., Ex-Editor Conference 
Journal and Contributor to Prominent Journals. 

Dr. Peck, a Christian minister of high repute, and a 
writer of good standing, was born of devout parents, Rev. 
Nathaniel and Lydia Peck, in Baltimore, October 31, 1843. 

He received his educational training in the public schools 
of Baltimore, Ashmore Institute, (now Lincoln University) 
and under the private tuition of Rev. B. F. Crary, D. D., in 
St. Louis. He puts his intellectual training to excellent use, 
and is to-day one of the foremost scholars in the land. New 
Orleans University conferred the honorary title of D. D. upon 
this worthy divine. 

From 1865, he served some of the most learned and 
conspicuous congregations of the M. E. Church in the 
Missouri and Washington Conferences. At this writing, he 
leads the Washington Conference in point of popularity, 
intellectual ability, and knowledge of Christian ethics. He 
has been secretary of the same Conference for five years ; was 
its representative in several General Conferences, and went 
abroad as its delegate to the Ecumenical Conference, which 
met in London, in 1881. During his stay in the Old World, 
he traveled extensively in England, France and Ireland. In 
all the walks of life, he has rendered invaluable service to 
his church and race. 

In journalism he has been a success. While in St. Louis 
filling a pastorate in 1870, he edited a local paper called The 
Welcome Friend, in behalf of the religious and educational 
interests of his people. It had a good circulation and was 
warmly received. The Washington Annual Conference 
haying established an organ in 1886, unanimously elected 
him editor, with Revs. Benj. Brown and Griffin, associates. 
The organ was known as The Washington Conference JourrtaL 
Jte cplumna^ week after week, teemed with live, original, and 



256 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

instructive articles; while its editorials were apt, able, 
progressive, and full of the mind and heart of its editors. 
The Journal is no more, but its editor, whose work still 
goes on, reminds us that a serviceable publication was 
gathered into the arms of its projectors. 

Me. S. B. Tuener, Editoe State Capital. 

The Oapitcd has become one of the most reliable papers 
edited by the Afro- American, which is largely due, finan- 
cially and editorially, to the management of him whose career 
we now present. Adhering to the motto — "We advocate 
justice to all ; On this principle we stand or fall,'* it has been 
successful in being a welcome visitor to the homes of the 
masses of Afro- American citizens in and around the capital 
of Illinois. 

The editor, Mr. S. B. Turner, was born July 12, 1854, at 
West Feliciana, La. At the age of fourteen, he was master 
of the rudimentary English branches, having given close and 
diligent study to his books. He worked as an apprentice in 
a confectionery shop at the age of which we speak, but 
afterward became a baker, and a very excellent one. He 
has worked at his trade with considerable success. 

For years he conducted a wood and coal yard, as well as 
being a trusted worker in the office of the secrftary of state, 
Hon, H, D. Dement, at Chicago. At this place he entered a 
business college, completing the course of study, which has 
led to his financial success in journalism. Few men make 
journalism a success, financially. 

When at Springfield he took an active part in politics, 
and received recognition at the hands of his party for faithful 
service. It was on this account he was induced to enter the 
journalistic field, and in 1886, though under adverse circum- 
stances, to establish The State Capital^ said to be the leading 




REV. E. W. B. PECK, D. D. 



25d THE AFRO-AMEEIOAN I>ftESS. 

organ of the race, west of the Ohio river. It is the recog- 
nized organ of the Afro- Americans of Illinois, and wields a 
potent influence in politics. 

Three Afro- American journals have been started at Spring- 
field, but with ill success. Mr. Turner has succeeded, because, 
as he himself states : " Energy, perseverance and individual 
attention to the enterprise, will eventuate in success. Any 
man with good business habits, a fair education, and pleasing 
'address, who will not subordinate his advertising columns to 
trashy local news, can bring to his support a reasonable share 
of business patronage, which always pays well. Short edito- 
rials, brief correspondence from other cities and towns, a high 
moral tone, condemning wrong, defending right, urging the 
payment of subscriptions due, dropping from the list the 
always-promising and never-paying subscribers, will insure 



success." 



Mr. Turner resides with his family at Springfield, where 
he is known for his strict business integrity ; the best evidence 
of which is, his word commands any simi of money desired 
in the management of his business enterprise. About the 
Afro-American in politics and in business, Editor Turner 
says truthfully : " When the negro in America begins busi- 
ness for himself, and accumulates wealth and intelligence, 
the race problem then will be solved. Business must be first 
and politics last." 

Rev. Joseph A. Booker, A. B., Editor Baptist Vanguard. 

The subject of this sketch was born near the little hamlet 
of Portland, Ashley County, Arkansas, December 26, 1859. 
His mother died when he was only one year old. Two years 
afterward, his father, having some knowledge of books, was 
whipped to death for teaching and "spoiling the good 
niggers." 




8.B.TURSER. 



260 THE APftO-AMERlCAN PRESS. 

Upon the death of his father, he was placed in the hands 
of his maternal grandmother, who carefully nurtured him 
^nd looked after his educational interests with true motherly 
zeal. When the free school system was inaugurated, she saw 
that Joseph was one of the fii*st pupils to be enrolled. 
Remaining at school until seventeen, he then became a 
teacher, afterward entering the branch Normal School of 
the University at Pine Bluff, Ark., under Prof. J. C. Corbin, 
the linguist. He also attended Roger Williams University. 
Having been licensed to preach, he here attempted a theo- 
logical course, but relinquished it after one year, and 
continued the regular college course until graduation, which 
occurred May 26, 1886, when he received the degree of A. B. 

On returning home from school, he was appointed state 
missionary of Arkansas, under the joint commission of the 
State Mission Board and the Executive Board of the Ameri- 
can Baptist Home Mission Society. He was engaged in this 
only twelve months before he was appointed president of 
Arkansas Baptist College. As the Convention Board had 
already decided to have a denominational organ in the school, 
(which would be an advantage to the paper and the school 
alike) this brought Mr. Booker in direct connection with the 
paper, in the fall of 1887. He was at once made its 
managing editor. This position he filled creditably, and 
with profit to the paper, notwithstanding the overburden of 
work the young school necessitated, with its very small corps 
of teachers. 

The paper was at first known as TJie Arkamas Baptist; 
but the white Baptists of the state presuming to name their 
paper The Arka7isas Baptisty brought on a business collision 
between the two, and in March, 1889, The Arkansas Baptist 
(colored) changed its name to TJie Baptist Vanguard. 
Under this new title it continued to advance and flourish, 
gaining in popularity and material work. 



262 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

The Vanguard is issued bi-weekly, first as a general 
religious journal, and then as a denominational organ ; but, 
at the same time, it is a strong advocate of education, Christian, 
industrial, and general. Notwithstanding its religious char- 
acter, it does not scruple to discuss such political issues as 
are likely to enhance the welfare of its race or the general 
progress of the country. It has a large circulation, there 
being no other paper of its kind in the state to compete with 
it. It gives special attention to inquiries made for lost 
kinsfolk, separated from their families in slavery days. It 
is the highest ambition of Rev. Joseph A. Booker to make 
The Vanguard one of the best papers in the South-west. 

Rev. Richard De Baptiste, Ex-Editoe Consekvatob and 
Correspondinq Editor Brooklyn Monitor. 

77i€ Conservator, now published at Chicago, with Mr. 
Barnett as editor, began its existence the first of 1878. It 
changed hands about the latter part of that year, when Rev. 
R. De Baptiste assumed editorial control, being then pastor 
of the Mt. Olivet church. Rev. Mr. Boothe was associate 
editor. It was at that time one of the representative journals 
edited by the Afro-American, both for news and editorial 
ability. 

Mr. De Baptiste is from Old Virginia stock, born and 
educated in the Old Dominion, and has proved a valuable 
acquisition to the paper in pushing it into the houses of the 
masses and in satisfying the thirsty intellects of the intelli- 
gent Afro- Americans. 

When he assumed control of TTve Oonservator, he said of 
the paper: '* It will discuss in a fair and liberal spirit those 
questions that agitate and cause an honest difference of 
opinion among citizens, whose aims are alike patriotic; but 
will sive special prominence to such matters as appertain 




BEV. RICHARD DE BAPTISTE. 



264 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

to the intellectual, moral, and social development and business 
prosperity of the colored people, and, at the same time, 
keep its columns open to a fair and courteous discussion of all 
important subjects. * Progress in all right directions,' shall 
be its motto." With tliis in view, Rev. De Baptiste labored 
zealously for the principles he had enunciated. 

As pastor, editor and citizen, he did a work in Chicago 
that will h)ng be felt. He has now the pastoral charge of 
the church at Galesburg. He is also statistical secretary of 
the National Baptist Association. The State University con- 
ferred " D. D." upon him at its commencement, 1887. 

Some of his best editorials while editor of The Conservator 
are: "The Negro in Debt; but who owes him?" *' Colored 
voters and the Republican Party;" "The Emigration Ques- 
tion;" and "Social Equality." Upon these questions, he 
wrote in that style peculiar to the true, able and vigorous 
writer. 

After withdrawing from The Co7iservator, September, 1884, 
he began the publication of The Wesieim Herald, a religious 
journal, which ran until December, 1885. After this he was 
for several years upon the editorial staff of The Brooklyn 
Monitoi' with Dr. R. L. Perry. 

Among the ablest articles appearing in The Monitor from 
his pen, are: " Are we Doing our Duty?" having reference 
to Christians; and "Christian Co-operation." He is a jour- 
nalist whom the race admire and love. The influence he 
has been able to exert through the medium of his pen has 
been uplifting and highly spiritual. The inspiration to a 
better life has been imparted to many a soul by a perusal 
of his writings, and many a one cheered and comforted 
thereby. His work in this direction is missed. Unlike many, 
Rev. Dr. De Baptiste possesses the power to write and talk. 

He has three children, one of whom partakes of the father's 
journalistic nature. 




REV. T. \Y. COFFKK 



266 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAH FBEBS. 

&K?. T. W. OoFTSB, EonoB YntDicATtm. 

The labjeot of this aketoh fint ntw the light on the 4lii 
Abj of Jolj, 1868, in Lauderdale County, AUKmha hJs 
mother was a slave, and the fetters of bondage held him 
daring the first eleven years of his life; but so great was his 
horror of servitude, that he ran away twice before he 
attained the age of twelve. Cruel treatment and his ex- 
treme hatred of slavery caused him to renew his efibrto to 
obtain freedom, and in 1864 he succeeded in finding refuge 
with his father and mother. 

At the age of thirteen he became an orphan, and grew up 
under the most adverse circumstances, with few advantages, 
being in one of the most benighted regions of the state. At 
the age of twenty this child of misfortuue was unable to 
write his name ; but, with the strong determination " to find 
a way or make one/' he, by the assistance of a paid instructor, 
soon learned to write legibly. 

In course of time he entered Le Moyne Institute, at 
Memphis, Tenn., and by close application was, in a short 
time, enabled to pass a creditable examination. He began 
teaching, which calling he followed for several years, with 
great benefit to his pupils, as well as credit to himself and to 
his profession. In 1878, he joined the A. M. £. Conference, 
and has had some of the best appointments in Alabama. 

His first journalistic effort was as editor of The Christian 
Era, in 1887. Though occupying the position of associate 
editor of the paper, he was regarded by many as being the 
actual editor-in-chief. The Era was first published exclu- 
sively as a religious journal; but owing to the fiedlure of 
other Afro- American papers to discuss boldly the issues of 
the day, Mr. Coffee entered the arena of controversy, and his 
keen and polished shafts of logic and sarcasm arrested the 
f^ttention of the leading dailies of the state. After a time 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 267 

the name of his paper was changed from The Christian Era 
to The Birmingham Era. 

In 1888, Mr. Coffee was appointed pastor of a church in 
Mobile, where he commenced the publication of a sheet 
known as The Methodist Vindicator, which, as the name 
indicated, was a religious paper, but it did not fail, ou 
occasion, to give voice to those great race issues which were 
and are now agitating the public mind. The publication of 
this paper was suspended on account of the great demand 
upon the editor's time by urgent church business, and by his 
subsequent removal to Eufala. As soon as he became settled 
in the latter city, he commenced the publication of a sheet 
known as The Vindicaior, an unsectarian paper devoted to 
news and the general interests of the Afro- American race. 

As a writer, Mr. Coffee is caustic and fearless, though dis- 
creet. He knows the right, and dares to maintain it. He is 
destined to become one of the most brilliant journalistic 
lights of the country, and is a man of whom his race has 
reason to be proud, especially in his vocation as a journalist. 

Rev. S. D. Russell, Editoe Torchlight Appeal. 

The motto, " Find a way or make one," seems to have beon 
the principle instilled into Rev. S. D. Russell, the brilliant 
young editor of the only religious paper published at present 
in Texas. Born in the city of Natchez., Miss., August 3, 
1862, of pious parents, he was early imbued with the idea 
of doing work for the Master. After his conversion he 
identified himself with the A. M. E. church, in which connec- 
tion he grew up well educated, and is at present a minister 
of high standing in that denomination. 

But we are to speak of him more particularly as a jour- 
nalist. In this sphere he is making rapid headway. He 
^^eyes, as do most Afro-Americans in like positions, thc^f 



268 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

he cannot afiford simply to labor in the pulpit for his race, 
but must be an editorial agitator, also ; which is well, since in 
this capacity he is an acknowledged power. 

He began a career as journalist in 1885, when he published 
a " red hot" semi-monthly paper, called The Herald of TnUh. 
This he edited with untiring zeal for two years. As editor of 
this paper, he never wavered in contending for the truth and 
right, which are priceless to his people. Having been pro- 
moted to the presiding-eldership of his churfch, the name of 
the paper was changed and became The College JomTial of 
Paul Quinn College, 

The editorship of The Soxdheni Guide, a progressive and 
live sheet, in Texas, has been tendered Mr. Russell, at a fair 
salary. Whether he has accepted the position the author 
is unable at this writing to say. He is now editor of The 
Torchlight Appeal, which is the only paper published in the 
state by an Afro- American, with Confederate sympathies. It 
was started in 1888 a very minute sheet, but under the 
journalistic management of Mr. Russell, it is now a four- 
column, eight-page quarto, being one of the popular religious 
journals published by an A fro- American. 

Mr. Russell is a journalist whose plans are all original, 
and when set into action they take well. As a writer, he 
can hold his own by the side of the best. He has published 
a treatise on Infant Baptism and has a lecture, — Why the 
negro is black ;, which are highly commended by his people. 
The journalistic fraternity is proud of him as a fearless 
editorial writer, and an energetic paper-man who is deter- 
mined to further the cause, and at the same time contend for 
the rights of his people. His ready courage in seeking to do 
this endears him to all. 

N. B. Since the above was written, Rev. Mr. Russell has 
removed to Denison, Texas, where he now edits The Texas 
Jieformer^ 




D. BUSSELL. 



270 TflE AFHO-AMEfilCAN PRESS. 

W. G. Smith, Editor Charlotte Messekgeb. 

William Caswell Smith was bom in Cumberland County, 
N. C, February 12, 1856, his parents being Alexander and 
Violet Smith, both slaves of unmixed negro blood. Alex- 
ander, or Sandy, as he was called, was coachman for a 
wealthy family, and thereby had more privileges, and saw 
more of the world, than the ordinary slave. He was also 
known as the neighborhood fiddler. He was very proud, and 
was popular with the females. 

William was the youngest of three children. He entered 
a public school in 1866, and learned very rapidly, standing 
at the head in nearly all of his classes. His school training 
was limited to about five years, — ^a part of this time being 
spent in school and a part on the farm. Nevertheless, what 
opportunities he had to learn were so well improved, he 
was afterward able to teach, and was thus employed in the 
public schools of his own and adjoining counties. 

In 1873 he entered the printing-office of The Statesman, 
where he learned to set type. He learned the trade rapidly, 
and at the end of the first year he took charge of the office, 
having learned to ** make up forms" and do any other work 
about the office. 

He was one of the founders of The FayetieviUe Educator, 
the first newspaper edited and published by colored men in 
North Carolina. This paper was published by Waddell & 
Smith one year, they doing their own type-setting, writing, 
and everything about the office. Smith acting foreman. After 
publishing this paper fifty-two consecutive weeks, it was 
suspended, and Mr. Smith was employed on The Memphis 
(Tenn.) Planet several months, but disliking the West he 
returned to Washington City, where he was employed as 
compositor on The Peoples Advocate, In 1879, he returned 
to North Carolina and was put in charge of The Star of Zion 



272 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

printing-ofiSce, the second in the state run by one of our race. 
He did the mechanical work on tliis paper in Charlotte, N. C, 
under the editorship of Rev. J. A. Tyler ; also in Concord, 
under A. S. Richardson, Esq. 

In 1882 he established in Charlotte, N. C, The CharhtU 
Mesaengei', which has met with fair success, though by hard 
fighting against intemperance, immorality, and all other evils 
coming in its way. The Messenger is very popular with the 
better class of our people and a terror to evil doers. It has 
experienced some very heavy tilts with contemporaries, 
preachers and others, but has carried off the palm in every 
instance. 

Among the most prominent of the controversies in which 
its editor has been engaged was one with the late Prof. 
Robert Harris of Fayetteville on Sunday excursions, which 
he condemned. Another was on secret societies, which 
he condemned also, and engaged in a lengthy and bitter 
controversv with Rev. C. S. Brown of the Good Samaritan 
order. Brown was driven to the wall, also. Another was 
tlie figlit be made for a college for the colored youth, sup- 
ported by the state. Another was the strong and memorable 
tight he made, and is still making, for a female seminary 
for his church. In this fight he completely demolished the 
brilliant Dancy and all others who dared oppose it. The 
heaviest fight, and the most signal victory this editor boasts 
of, wa5 iho controversy between Bishop S. T, Jones and 
himself. Ho dared to criticise certain remarks in a sermon 
delivered by the Bishop, which he r(»garded as calculated 
to injure his race and church. The Bishop called him to 
account, at some length, in his usual sarcastic way; but after 
this he will inform himself as to the size of the game before 
he makes another attack on a Smith. 

Mr. Smith is a conscientious man, and means to be honest 
in all things. He tries to take the right side of every 



APRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 273 

question, no matter how unpopular it is. He is strictly 
temperate, having signed a pledge in his youth against the 
use of intoxicating drinks and tobacco, and has kept it to 
this day. He is always on the side of temperance, and an 
advocate of prohibition, local option, or anything that aims 
at the destruction of the rum traffic. 

He has used the columns of his paper against the practice 
of Sunday excursions, and the holding of camp-meetings and 
festivals, and endeavors to impress upon his people the 
importance of improving their morals, educating their chil- 
dren, and of the ownership of land. 

Mr. Smith is a member of the Methodist church, and while 
not much of a society man, he has held prominent offices in 
the State Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows and Good Templars. 
He took an active part in politics in 1888, and represented 
his county in the district and state Republican conventions. 
He was elected bv acclamation in the state convention as 
alternate delegate-at-large to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicjigo, in 1888. 

For several years Mr. Smith was the only negro printer 
in the state, during which time he started many colored boys 
in the trade he was following. In 1880, he adopted Char- 
lotte, N. C, as his home, after having spent a few years in 
traveling. 

At the beginning of 1890 he gave up The Char lode 
Messenger he was then publishing, and accepted a position in 
the government printing-office at Washington, where he is 
now employed. 

Mr. Smith may be regarded as a pioneer journalist of the 
•*Tar Heel" state, and is certain to do credit to himself and 
to his race in any position he may assume, for, once taken, 
he will work conscientiously and diligently to discharge 
acceptably the duties of his office. He is a man to be 
depended on, at all times and in all places. 

18 



/ 



274 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Hon. Richabd Nelson, Editoe Freeman's Journal. 

The above gentleman, who is editor of the most influential 
paper published in Texas, was born at Key West, Fla., June 
16, 1842. He obtained his education in the schools of Key 
West, Fla. He moved to Atlanta in 1850, and to Texas in 
1859, where he has since resided. 

Settling in Galveston in 1866, he went into business, and 
here it was that his active mind and great energy soon 
brought him conspicuously before his own people, and the 
public generally, on the question of Reconstruction. His life 
has been one of prominence in politics, as a speaker and 
writer. 

Mr. Nelson has held important positions in political life, 
such as justice of peace and notary public for Galveston; 
postmaster at Highland Station, in Galveston County; and 
inspector of customs for the district of Galveston. He was 
prominently mentioned as a Republican candidate for Congress 
in 1871, and ran on an independent ticket for Congress in 
1884. 

Mr. Nelson is a public speaker of wide reputation, and a 
writer of well-earned repute. He is a race man every inch. 
Concerning his life in this respect, Flake's Bulletin says of 
him : '* His highest ambition is the elevation of his ra^e from 
their former despondency and de^rndntion, to high attain- 
ments in education and the proper discharge of their duties 
of citizenship in this great and free republic." He was 
several times delegate to the state and national conventions 
of his party. 

His experience in journalism has been long and effective. 
In 1873, he began the publication of The Weekly Spectator, 
being sole proprietor and editor. The Spectator must have 
wielded considerable influence. Ex-Gov. E. J. Dana speaks 
of it as a leading Republican paper in the state. 




HON. RICHARD NELSON. 



i 



276 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

The Freanayis Journal took the place of The SpectcUer, 
March 19, 1887. It is recognized as the leading Republican 
newspaper in the state. Mr. Edwin Smith, a reputable citizen 
of Texas, writes about Tfie Journal aa follows : " Temperate 
in tone and conservative in politics, it has gained for the 
colored people of this stat^ a consideration for their wants 
and a recognition of their rights, on the part of their white 
fellow-citizens, that were never before accorded.'* Trained 
by experience, he is enabled to make such a wise use of his 
abilities as to render his paper a recognized power for good 
among all classes. 

His editorial writings, as possibly may be the case with 
a few other A fro- American editoi*s, are commented on fre- 
quently by the leading white organs of the state. There 
appeared in llic Journal, shortly after the beginning of the 
pro.«ent administration, an editoriaUon — "The Administration 
and the Colored Man. Merit and Worth before Political 
Jugglery." This editorial created a stir all over the country, 
both white and black papers commenting and criticising the 
editor, favorably or unfavorably. A portion of the editorial 
we publish below, which was freely commented on, as the 
reader will see, by 27ic San Anfonio Express, San Antonio 
Liqht, and TJic Fort Worth Gazette, all white papers of Texas. 
Editor Nelson writes thus: "The negro must learn one 
great fundamental truth and act upon it, that his color or 
previous condition is not a recommendation to office; that 
when the great Republican party knocked the shackles from 
his limbs, raised him to citizenship and made him the equal 
of the white man under the Constitution, and threw around 
him the full protection of law, its functions cea.«ed, because 
it could do no more ; and it expected him to work out his 
own salvation the same as the white man, and to expect 
no special legislation or favors to his race that were not 
accorded the white race." 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 277 

Concerning the editorial in full, Tlie Fort Worth Gazette 
says: "The utterance of The Freeman's Journal of Gal- 
veston on the relation of the negro to the Federal offices, as 
telegraphed The Gazette of yesterday, is worthy the hearty 
approval of those who sincerely wish for a solution of the 
negro problem. ITie Journal, as its name indicates, is an 
organ of the colored people. Coming from such a publication, 
the following is full of significance:" (Here The Gazette 
inserts the editorial we have alluded to.) 

ITie San Antonio Light says: "An amendment to the 
Constitution emancipated the negroes from physical bondage, 
but left them in a condition of social and political tutelage 
and dependence, where they will remain until they emanci- 
pate themselves by accepting the truth and acting upon the 
wise suggestion contained in the following sentences from 
ITie Journals editorial:" Here The Light introduces the 
editorial and comments further by saying: "These words 
are words of wisdom, by whomsoever uttered. It were well 
for white and colored alike to heed them. The colored man 
is made the political equal of the white man under the law ; 
his place as an office-holder he must make good for himself." 

The San Antonio Express says: " The telegraphic columns 
of The Express yesterday contained the text of an editorial 
which appears to-day in Uie Freeman s Journal. This paper 
is published in Galveston and is regarded as one of the most 
influential journals of the state, devoted to the interests of 
£he negro race." Then 2'he Express quotes the editorial, and 
wisely adds the following words of approval : " The only 
political or social recognition which the negro deserves, or 
will ever get, is that to which his own worth as a man 
entitles him." 

Other prominent papers have commented on Editor Nelson's 
writings, notably The a2. Louis Globe- Democrat-, which, for 
lack of space, we cannot publish. If we say no more, the 



i 



278 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

editorial and its valuable comments will suflSce to prove our 
subject a terse, able, and thoughtful writer. He is an honored 
member of the journalistic corps. 

Rev. F. M. Hamilton, Editor Christian Index. 

The most prominent man, exclusive of the bishops of the 
C. M. E. church, is Rev. Mr. Hamilton. He was born near 
Washington, Arkansas, September 3, 1858. He attended the 
schools of his state, private and public, and afterwards spent 
sixteen months in the Theological Institute at Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. 

He was licensed to preach Nov. 9, 1878. He has served 
in several of the most prominent positions in his denomination, 
among which has been that of Presiding Elder of the 
Wa^jliington district. He had contemplated the practice of 
medicine, and to this end devoted two years' study to fit 
himself for it, but gave it up to accept the positions he now 
holds, — editor of The Christiayi Index and agent of the book 
department of his ehurch. To these he was elected in May, 
1886, at the General ConIoronce,*which met at Augusta, Ga. 
His prominence in church circles has been the cause of his 
being its representative in many of its conspicuous gatherings. 
The Index, of which he is now editor, was the origin of the 
C. M. E. Cliurch. He lias issued two books, with reference 
to the church of which he is a member, viz.: "Conversations 
on the C. IM. E. Church," and, "A Plain Account of the 
C. M. E. Church." 

When he took charge of TJ^e Index, it was is.sued monthly, 
while the outfit for its publication was very limited, the 
entire material l>eing worth but seventy-five dollars. Since 
assuming control, and managing the business for three years 
or more, he has put in one thousand dollars' worth of 
material, and established a job department, in which the 
entire work is done by Afro- Americans, 




EEV. F. M. HAMILl-^ 



280 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Mr. Hamilton uses The Index office in fitting young men 
to become printers. At this writing he has five apprentices, 
whose work is very neatly done. His paper has the reputa- 
tion of being one of the best edited and neatly printed of our 
religious journals. It contends for the religious rights of its 
people, while forgetting not their civil and political rights. 

Mr. Hamilton possesses great aptitude for business; and 
being a quick thinker and a ready writer, he always 
expresses himself in a style that has drawn to The Index a 
large number of readers. 

H. C. Smith, Editoe Cleveland Gazette. 

One of the best Afro- American papers published in Ohio, 
and one of the best edited in the United States, is The 
Cleveland Gazette, whose success has been achieved by the 
persistent efforts of the subject of this sketch, whom we are 
proud to record as its editor and proprietor. 

Mr. Smith was born at Clarksburg, West Va., January 28, 
1863, and is therefore now a very young man. He waa 
taken to Cleveland in 1865, where he attended the schools, 
finishing his course successfully in 1882. 

The next year he devoted his efforts to the study of band 
and orchestral music. His diligent efforts in the direction 
of journalism and music have gained for him the place he 
occu])ies to-day, '* facile princeps" (as a writer says) among 
the first colored citizens of Ohio. He is now leader and 
musical director of the Excelsior cornet band. His musical 
compositions have found ready sale, especially his song and 
chorus — " Be True, Bright Eyes." 

His life since 1880 has been spent mostly in journalism. 
In connection with three others he launched TJie Cleveland 
Gazette, in August, 1883, — and afterward became sole pro- 
prietor. Few Afro- American journals have proved absolutely 



282 THE.AFRO.AMERIOAN PRESS. 

a success, but it can be said that this one has been so from 
its very beginning, until now its power and influence are 
recognized by all. 

This success is not so much due to the abundance of news- 
matter in the paper, as to the vigorous and able editorial 
writings of Mr. Smith. He is known among the white and 
black press as a fearless and brilliant writer. His paper, 
Republican to the core, always defends Republican principles. 

To impress our readers as we desire in regard to Mr. 
Smith's editorial career in politics, we will insert what the 
Hon. Fred Douglass wrote to him in commendation of his 
course. Said Mr. Douglass: "In the midst of hurried 
preparations for a long tour in Europe, I snatch my pen, 
and spend a few iiioiiients in telling you how completely I 
sympathize with yon in your political attitude. I do exhort 
your readers to stand bv you in your effort to lead the 
eulored citizens ot Ohio to wise politieal aetion." 

About our subject's course in politics and other matters, 
another representative scholar and thinker, Prof W. S. 
Scarborough, says: " Tliough at times Mr. Smith ha.s been 
severely criticised, he has never vari«*d from what he 
considered his duty. He believes that the Republieau party 
conserves best the interests of the nrgro, an<l thereupon he 
becomes its able and active detenJer. lie believes that 
mixed schools are the best for all concerned, and especially 
for the negro — as separate schools imply race prejudice and 
race inferiority — and therefore he becomes the relentless 
enemy to the color line in schools. His articles are read 
with both plea.sure and profit, to which fact is largely due 
the increased and increasing circulation of Tlie Gaztiic." 

Judge J. B. Foraker, it is said, owed his first election as 
governor of Ohio more to The Gazette than to any other 
newspaper, white or colore<l. As evidence of the gov- 
ernor's recognition ul Mi'. Smith's work, he secured him an 



AFRO-AMEEICAN EDITORS. 283 

appointment as deputy state oil inspector, the first case of 
the kind North. A bond of $5000 being required, this was 
quickly furnished, three colored men signing it. He has 
discharged with credit the functions of this office for four 
years, — two terms. 

One of the youngest editors of the country, he is probably 
the only Afro- American who has been a member of a white 
press association. All the Afro- American members of the 
Ohio Legislature have been his ardent supporters, and rely 
absolutely upon The Oazetie for information on matters of 
special import to them. 

In January, 1888, when Hon. Mr. McGregor, Democratic 
representative in the Ohio Legislature from Muskingum 
County, introduced a bill to re-enact Section 4008, which 
replaced upon the Ohio statutes a portion of the "black 
laws," Hon. Jere A. Brown wrote Mr. Smith as follows: 
A bill was introduced this forenoon by Mt.'Gregor, of Muskin- 
gum county, a Democrat, to re-enact Section 4008. Sound 
the alarm! Let the friends of equality for all, know that 
again the enemy seeks to re-enact obnoxious, discriminating 
and unjust laws. When the time comes, I propose, with the 
aid of our friends, to oppose it to the death. I write hastily, 
so that our friends may be aroused through our race advocate, 
77i^ Gazeiter 

Editor Smith sounded the alarm, which rang out all over 
the ** Buck-eye State." Said he, commenting on the letter: 
" The above was received as we were going to press. It tells 
every race-loving colored man his duty. Let every Afro- 
American in the state of Ohio who values his rights as an 
American citizen, write the Senator and Representatives of 
his county, if he cannot see them personally, and importune 
them to fight this McGregor bill to the death. We cannot 
afford to lose a particle of the ground gained by the wiping 
out of Ohio's infernal ' black laws,* Let us fight as a unit 



f 



284 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

the effort of this Democrat to re-enact any portion of th% 
infamous laws wiped from the statute books by the last 
Assembly. Now is the time, and here is the opportunity, for 
every colored man (and woman) in Ohio to show his loyalty 
to the race and himself. Eternal vigilance, and good hard 
work, is to be the price of our liberty and freedom as 
American citizens." 

The Virginia Lancet, edited by Hon. W. W. Evans of 
Petersburg, Va., pays a glowing tribute to Mr. Smith, which 
we cannot fail to insert: " The Washington Bee of last week 
contained the portrait of Mr. H. C, Smith, the very able 
editor of The Cleveland Oazette. Mr. Smith has shown 
himself to be an unselfish leader of his people. His editorials 
are among the brightest and most sensible that come to our 
sanctum. If he desires anything under the present adminis- 
tration he should have it." 

The author remembers having received a copy of The 
Gazette shortly after the first issue, and having noticed its 
progress, is prepared to say that it is highly deserving of the 
continued support of the Afro- American. 

We cannot better close this article upon Editor Smith and 
Tlie Gazette than by quoting what Rev. J. W. Gaza way, 
D. D., pastor of Allen Temple, Cincinnati, 0., says about 
them: "The most healthful signs of life and a highly useful 
career are indicated in the existence of TJie Clevelayid Gazette. 
That it is a paper of brain and culture can not be doubted, 
when the fact is remembered that in its columns are found 
communications from the wisest and best minds of our race. 
It is a paper for the people it represents, and can be relied 
upon as a friend of every colored man, though his face may 
be of ebony hue. The Oazette is a practical demonstration 
of what can be done by the young men of our race. The 
editor is a young man who, by dint of industry and economy 
and fair dealing, has succeeded in giving to the colored 




'■> r 



HON CHA8 HENDLEY 



286 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

people of Ohio and the country a paper worthy the patronage 
of all. Having been a reader of The Oazetie since its first 
appearaiice, and having watched its coarse, I feel that in 
justice to the paper, the editor, and the race, I should urge 
upon the people generally to support the paper that is 
practically identified with the colored people, and is in 
harmony with the interests and success of all, without regard 
to complexion." 

Hon. Chas. Hendley, Editoe Huntsville Gazette. 

The subject of this sketch is among the foremost gentle- 
men who are now engaged in the editorial work; and 
in various ways has labored untiringly for the intellectual 
and moral good of his people. 

Born in December, 1855, the youngest child of Charles and 
Polly Ilendley, his education was derived in the schools 
about Huntsville and at the Rust Institute. He began to 
teach in the common schools, and finally became principal 
of the graded school in Huntsville, whore he remained until 
President Harrison appointed him receiver of public moneys. 
He is a mason, and occupies a high position in that fraternal 
order. 

As a journalist, he enjoys the reputation of being the 
editor of the oldest journal now published in the South. In 
1879 the Huntsville newspaper company was organized, and 
Charles Hundley selected as editor and manager of 27ie 
JIuntsvillc Gazette, a weekly Republican newspa])er, estab- 
lished by the company. It has been a successful venture 
from the first, its continued success being due to Mr. 
Hendley 's able management and editorial skill. The OazciU 
has a rapidly increasing circulation. It has no hot-headed 
editorials. The editor is a vivid and soul-stirring writer, 
and is among the few stars on the journalistic stage. 



APHO-AMEHICAN EDITORS. 287 

William Galvih Ghase, Esq., Editor Washington Bee. 

"What is there in a name," one asks. Observing the 
matter closely, we are sometimes compelled to say there is 
Bometbing, after all, in a name. The Bee and its editor, in 
that respect, are fair illustrations. Nothing stings Washington 
City, and in fact, the Bourbons of the South, as The Bee. 

William Calvin Chase, the alert, progressive editor of The 
See was born in the city of Washington, February 2, 1854. 
His father, William H. Chase, having died wh^n he was quite 
young, the burden of his mother's support partly fell upon 
the son, who took, as means to aid her, the selling of 
newspapers. This he continued to do successfully, until he 
came to be a popular ciier of the news. From this he seems 
to have got a journalistic inspiration; for it was not long 
after, before we find him upon the editorial stool. His 
educational privileges were furnished him by the private 
school of John F. Cook and by Howard University of 
Washington City. 

During his youth he was a resident of Methuen, Mass., 
for a while, where he learned the printer's trade, Mr. Chase, 
at this early age, was strongly inclined to the use of the 
quill. He became very proficient in the printing business, 
and was accordingly appointed to a position in the govern- 
ment printing-office at Washington, just al)ont the time he 
was to enter the college department of Howard University. 

He has held other important positions in the public service, 
in office of recorder of deeds, under Hon. Fred DnuirlnsH. 
resigning the position to accept a better place in tlie War 
Department, at the instance of Ex-Senator B. K. Bruce. Mr. 
Chase is a prominent lawyer, having been admitted to the bar 
of Virginia to practice, July 23, 1889, 

His life-work, which appears to be that of a literary 
character, begins with the position of reporter and society 



288 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

editor of The Wttshiuffton Plaindealer, published by Dr. King. 
In this position he was considered a valuable acquisition. 
He resigned, however, not being satisfied with the policy of 
the paper. 

His next journalistic move was his acceptance of the 
editorship of Tfte Argus, at Washington, to succeed Mr. 
Charles N. Otey. About Mr. Chase's course in this new field, 
a writer says : "He changed the name of the paper to TIic 
Free Lance. This change of name excited great feeling 
among the people, as they knew of the vindictiveness and 
determination of Mr. Cliase to expose a fi*aud, and get even 
with those whom he considered enemies." 

Nor did he disappoint them. His first attack was made on 
Senator John Sherman, then Secretary of the Treasury. The 
schools and the police force received attention from his pen, 
as'did also the National Republican committee for taking so 
little notice of colored men in the presidential campaign. 
So great was the feeling of the Republicans against him, 
that the board of directors, who were all ofiice-holders, not 
daring to remove him, sold out the paper to L. H. Dougliiss, 
H. Johnson, M. M. Holland and othei-s, who were likewise 
ofTu^'e-hoKlers, and regarded by Mr, Chai»e as his enemies. 

He next assumed the publication of The Washingion Bee, 
of which he is the pros«Mit editor and proprietor. Many of 
^Ir. Chaso's friends have regarded him as occasionally being 
very indiscroot; but a^^ Burns says, "for a* that" he ha.s never 
failed to exp()St\ in the most condemnatory manner, any fraud, 
unjust attack or (^vil, that caught his vigilant eye. 

Men are not all ^like, and whetlnr we approve or disap- 
prove of Mr. Chase's idea of the mission of the Afro- American 
editor, we commend and admire him for his boldness of 
thouuht and fearlossnefjs of speech. 

The Bcc is read by all, and can be found in nearly every 
house in Washington, from the Executive Mansion to the 



VILUAU CALVJS CHAB£. 



290 THE AFBO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

most humble hut. It is related, that on one occasion when 
Mr. Chase called on President Cleveland, he showed him a 
copy of The Bee, in which he (Chase) had said that in 
consideration of the number of outrages pei-petrated in the 
South upoQ the AfrO- Americans by the whites, it would cost 
the lives of millions to inaugurate Grover Cleveland, if ekcied. 
Mr. Chase did not deny being the author of the article. 
Although Cleveland was elected and inaugurated without 
any bloodshed, and Chase supported in a measure his 
administration, yet he received his discharge a few weeks 
afterward, at the instance of the president and Secretary of 
War Endicott, from the position he held in the government 
printing-office. 

He has since given his whole time to Hie Bee, which stings 
in no uncertain manner. His fearless statements have more 
than once brought him into the courts of justice, having been 
^\Q times indicted for libel, and acquitted in every case 
except one, in which he was fined fifty doUai-s. In the.se 
experiences he has a record not held by any one else of the 
fraternity. 

Mr. Chase delights in newspaper controversies, and seldom, 
if ever, comes out of one worsted. His Bee is known by 
every A fro- American editor, correspondent, or writer, and 
while many do not agree with him, they all admire the 
fltcjulfastness with which he holds to what he thinks is right. 
One has said of Mr. Chase : " He will never give up, as long 
as there is a figliting chance." 

He has read several papers at the various press conventions, 
th^ most noted ot* which was the one on Southern Outrages, 
which was favorably commented upon by the Philadelphia 
Pres5. He is now historian of the National Press Convention, 

It \n our hope that Tlie Bee will live long, and ita editor 
continue to be honored ft« a triie specimen of the Afro^ 
American journalist, 




AUOUSTL3 M HODGES 



292 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Augustus Jtf. Hodges, Editor Brooklyn Sentinel. 



Augustus M. Hodges is the son of Willis A. Hodges, one 
of the early pioneer Afro-American journalists, and evidontlv 
inherits liis fathers journalistic taste. He was born in 
Williiimsburg, Va., March 18, 1854, and attended the 
Ilanipion Normal and Agricultural Institute, from whicli he 
gradutited in 1874. 

Mr. Hodges is one of the prominent young men of the 
race. He has few superiors in the journalistic field. He 
was a trusted and ready writer on The New York Globe, and, 
more recently, on llie Indianapolis Freeman. Lately, he has 
issued a journal of his own, called The Brooklyn SentimL 
which is meeting with much favor. The Ncxu York Press 
of September 15, 1889, pays him this tribute: **He was 
elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1876, bur 
was counted out by the Democrats. He was connected with 
The New York Globe a few years later, and is at present 
upon the staff' of Tlie India7iapolis Freeman, the leadiin^ 
oolored papor of the United States. He was a candidate loi- 
the position of minister to Hayti, receiving the indorsement 
of 509 leading Republicans of the United States. He is a 
French student, a poet, and writer. He stands head and 
shouldors above many colored men who have received more 
reward. As a political leader, he has few equals; as a 
colored journalist, none," 

R. A. Jones, Editor and Proprietor Cleveland Globe. 

Richard A. Jones was born July 16, 1847, in 'Randolph 
County, Georgia. At the age of twelve he was taken to 
Rochester, Minnesota, and being very apt with books, was 
sent to the public school at Rochester, where he received a 




li ^/^" 



iA-;L>^ 



294 THE APRO-AMERtCAN t^RSSS. 

good, thorough training. While at Rochester, he was taken 
into the family of Hon. 0. P. Whitcomb and wife, who cared 
for him until he was able to provide for himself. He came 
to Cleveland in 1873, after having traveled extensively 
through the South and West. 

Mr. Jones is a thoroughly self-made man, and exact and 
shrewd in his business relations. The thoughtful precision 
and self-reliance with which he is possessed, indicate that 
perseverance and push were his chief instructors. 

He figures prominently, not only in political but in the 
social and literary circles of Cleveland, and is well known 
throughout the state of Ohio as an earnest and intelligent 
advocate of race principles. He became a mason in Pioneer 
Lodge, No. 5, St. Paul, Minn.; was ma«lc a royal arch mason 
in 1877, in Cleveland, by St. John's Cliapter; and in the 
same year was dubbed and created a knight templar in the 
Ezekial Commandery. He afterward withdrew from the 
Ezekial Commandery and entered the Red Cross, where he 
has proved a faithful member, giving good counsel on all 
questions of material interest in the lodge. He has held 
nearly all the important positions in these bodies, with which 
he has been connected, and is now a member of the Grand 
Lodge and Grand Cha])ter of Ohio, in which he has been 
very active and prominent. 

Mr. Jones was tendered by President Cleveland the office 
of minister to Liberia, but owing to his urgent duties at 
home, he was forced to decline the honor. Some time 
afterward he was appointed United States deputy marshal 
for the Northern District of Ohio, which position he filled 
with much ability and credit. 

Mr. Jones is a self-made man, possessed of a strong deter- 
mination to pursue to the very end anything he undertakes 
in the interest of his race. He is the father of the Forest 
City Afro-American League of Cleveland, 0., which has a 



AFRO-AM£RiCAN fiDITOHS. i^i 

membership of abont one hundred, and which he represented 
in State League Convention at Columbus, 0., in 1890. He 
is now vice-president of Ohio State League, and is one of the 
organizers for the state, and acknowledged to be one of the 
mDBt prominent negroes in Ohio; and before him lies a 
brilliant career. 

He wa:-* one of the founders of the St. Andrews Episcopal 
church of Cleveland, 0., and has made faithful effort through 
the columns of The Olobe^ of which he is editor and sole 
proprietor, to further the cause of Christian principles and 
right. He now publishes The Clevelayid Globe, and has, by 
his pen, done much to bring about the civil and political 
rights of the negro in Ohio. He has made for The Olobe 
an everlasting reputation as a strong defender of law, rights, 
and Christianity. 

John T. Morris, M. A., Associate Editor Cleveland 

Globe. 

The subject of this sketch, born at Marietta, Ohio, January 
19, 1863, was the son of Thomas J. and Susan Morris, 
whose parents were among the earlier settlers of Ohio. 

Young Morris attended the public school of Marietta, and 
becoming possessed of a desire for a liberal education, at the 
age of twelve he entered Marietta College, the oldest and 
most thorough college in the state. His studies were soon 
somewhat impeded by the sudden death of his father, which 
threw much of the care of the family upon his shoulders. 
He was about to give up the idea of continuing his collegiate 
course, when the corporation came to his aid and furnished 
him with a scholarship, which did away with many obstacles. 
By the aid of his mother, and by his own efforts, he was 
reinstated in his cla&s, and completed the whole collegiate 
ooiine, graduating with the class of 1883, with honor to his 



> 



296 THE AFBO-AMERIGAN PRESS. 

mother, himself, and to his race. He was the only negro 
student in the college at that time, and the third negro 
graduate. After graduation, he went to Washington, D. C, 
and at once secured a position in the office of the register 
of wills, remaining there until a change of administration. 

He always exhibited a fondness for literary work, espe- 
cially for newspapers. Besides contributing frequently to his 
home papers, he was Washington correspondent for Tfie 
Kentucky Republican, of Lexington, Ky. His articles were 
much sought after by the negroes of the South. 

Leaving Washington he went to Alabama, where he taught 
for several sessions until his health became impaired. He 
went to Cleveland in 1887, and was immediately given a 
position on the editorial staiOf of The Cleveland Olobe. Finding 
his duties on T/te Globe could be properly attended to 
without the expenditure of much time, he secured a good 
position in the office of The Brightman Furnace Company 
of Cleveland as draughtsman and stenographer, which he 
now holds with great credit to himself and his race. 

Young Morris has contributed much to the daily papers 
of Cleveland and elsewhere, and has written for several 
magazines. As a reward for his earnest efforts in behalf of 
himself and race, his alma mater has conferred upon him the 
degree of Master of Arts. He is one of Ohio's successful 
young men, and is very popular throughout the state. He 
represented the Cleveland constituency in the National 
Afro- American Convention, held at Chicago, January, 1890, 
and filled the position satisfactorily. 

Aside from his other duties, he still holds his relations as 
associate editor of 27te Cleveland Olobe, and is now corre- 
sponding secretary of the Ohio State Afro-American League. 
He is also corresponding secretary and executive committeeman 
of the local Forest City Afro-American League, Cleveland, 
0., and has figured prominently as one of the founders of the 



2dd 1?Hfi At'RO-AMEBIOAi} PtUSSd. 

St. Andrews Episcopalian church in the city of Clevelaud. 
Mr. Morris may well be regarded as one of the most popular 
men of Ohio. 



The GLEVELAin) Olobe. 

I7i€ Cleveland Olobe came into existence April 4, 1884, 
with R. A. Jones as editor and proprietor. During the 
political controversies that were going on in Ohio over the 
mixed schools and other questions of great importance to the 
negro, The Olobe was always for the highest interests of the 
race, and as a firm defender of right and justice has been 
successful throughout its whole career. 

Tlie Olobe has never been pledged to any particular party, 
and has never sacrificed any of the principles with which it 
so boldly began its career. Nothing could induce it to divert 
from the path of usefulness and right and go blindly into 
issues for mere financial gain. It has stood firmly for the 
race; has waged bitter warfare against Southern outrages, 
murders, and bulldozing, and has done this in a strictly 
non-partisan manner. 

During the short interval in which Mr. Jones withdrew 
from The Globe, owing to the severe illness of his wife who 
subsequently died, its management fell into the hands ot uu 
different parties who made complete failures, when he again 
assumed charge of it. He now became its editor and sole 
proprietor, and it has ever since been under his supervision. 

It has been the advocate of everything that looked to the 
success and prosperity of the race. It is well known in Ohio 
for its non-partisan cast, it always placing race before party. 
It is the ofiicial organ of the Forest City Afro-American 
League of Cleveland, and also of the State League, which 
numbers about twentv thousand members. It is the only 



l^&O-AMERIOAN EblTOM 29^ 

]paper in Cleveland that is thoroughly identified with the 
various negro churches, and in good standing with them. 
It supports all literary and social organizations, and does 
what it can to aid the efforts of the young people. It is a 
general referee in matters pertaining to race interests. 

The Globe is the oldest negro journal in Ohio, and has 
worked itself into popularity by its own diligent efforts, 
fair dealing and generosity. It has a larger circulation in 
Cleveland than any race paper published. It advocates the 
principles it has set forth, and is heartily supported by such 
men of the race as Bruce, Douglass, Langston, Alexander 
Clark, McCabe, John P, Green, Fortune, Price, C. H. J. 
Taylor, Geo. Fields, C. A. Cottrill, H. A. Clark and a host of 
others. The Olobe goes to Europe, Asia, Africa, and Italy, 
as well as all over the United States. It was one of the first 
to favor the formation of a National Afro- American League, 
and has ever since been pushing its cause. 

Rev. D. J. Saundebs, Editor Afro-American Presby- 
terian. 

The Afro- American Presbyterian is a weekly religious 
sheet published at Wilmington, N. C, with Rev. D. J. 
Saunders as its editor. The subscription list reaches nearly 
two thousand, with a daily increasing patronage. 

Mr. Saunders was born in Winnsboro, S. C, February 15, 
1847, and educated in the Brainerd Institute at Chester, 
S. C, and in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny 
City, Pa., graduating therefrom April 24, 1874. 

From May, 1877, to January, 1879, he was the associate 
editor of The Souihem Evangelist. He founded The Afro- 
American Presbyterian^ January 1, 1879. It has been pub- 
lished weekly since, and steadily grown in favor. The editor 
ia a bright, cool, and level-headed writer. 



300 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Upon the race question he very wisely says : " We are of 
that number who don't believe that God will permit the 
Negro Question in this country to be settled wrong. The 
great majority of the Christian and right-thinking people 
will soon see clearly what is now beginning to dawn upon 
many minds, namely : that anything short of Christian educa- 
tion, in the broadest and best sense of the term, and tbe 
exercise of justice and loving-mercy, only t^nds to increase 
the evil which it would destroy. Let this policy be substi- 
tuted for that of repression, now so generally resorted to, and 
the eia of brighter days will begin, and the race question, 
now so universally annoying, will be shorn of many of it« 
harassing features, and its final solution will soon be reached." 

Rev. a. N. McEwen, Editor Baptist Leadeb. 

Rev. A. N. McEwen, editor of TJie Baptist Leader, the 
oflicial organ of the colored Baptists of Alabama, was born in 
LaFayctte County, Mi.ss., April 29, 1849. Although he has 
no alma mater, having picked up his education here and 
there, he is an acknowledged leader of his race. 

lie if* a Baptist missionary preacher. He left Mississippi 
in the fall of 186G, and went to Nashville, Tenn., where he 
met Miss Lizzie Harvel, to whom he was married in Novem- 
ber, 1869. In 1870, while attending a revival at Mt. Zion 
church, he was brought to feel the need of a Savior. After 
his conversion ho united with the Mt. Zion church, and 
was baptized by Rev. J. Bransford. Feeling that he was 
called to j»reach tlie gospel, he petitioned his church for the 
})rivilege to labor among the common peoj^le of the citv. 
This he did with such success, he finally received a license 
to preach, and was called to the charge of a church at 
TuUahoma, Tenn. It was during his pastorate here that his 
ability as a minister began to manifest it««lf. 




BEV. A. H. MoEWEN. 



302 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PBESS. 

He was a lover of books, and an earnest student. He has 
preached several annual sermons before scliool afisociations, 
state conventions, and various societies. He is a natural 
orator, and never fails to capture his audience. He is witty 
and humorous, almost to a fault. It is his aim in speaking 
to tell the truth, and thereby touch the hearts of his hearers. 

Although a busy journalist, he is now pastor of the Dexter 
Avenue Baptist church, whose members are among the most 
refined people of the state, his congregation being largely 
composed of the business men of the city, as well as of 
lawyers, doctors, school teachers, and merchants. The church 
edifice, one of the finest in the South, was four years in 
building, and cost over $50,000. 

Mr. McEwen is a member of the board of trustees of Selma 
University, and chairman of the state mission board. In 
politics, he is a Republican, and is a member of the state 
executive board of the Republican party. 

As a journalist, he stands well with both the white and 
the colored people. In 1886, he began editing The Mont- 
gcytyieiy Herald^ after the Duke trouble, and restored peace 
between the whites and the blacks. At the request of his 
friends, he resigned the editorial control of The Herald, and 
in the latter part of 1887 took charge of The Baptist Leader, 
in the interest of 150,000 Baptstsof the state. This paper 
has a wide circulation, and ranks among the best journals 
of the day. 

Editor McEwen is distinguished as a peace-making jour- 
nalist, and did excellent service when the whites were so 
excited over articles regarded as incendiary, published by 
Mr. Duke, then editor of The Montgomery Herald, There is 
nothing of a fiery nature about his writings. He is always 
cool and deliberate, and a firm defender of race rights 
and race principles. The Baptist Leader ^ of which he is now 
editor, in make-up and appearance shows progress upon the 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 303 

part of the Baptists of Alabama ; while the editorial columns 
tell the world that a man learned in the editorial art graces 
the chair. 

Rev. Mr. McE wen's ability and deliberate judgment as an 
editor are fully illustrated in his comment on I%e Mont- 
gomery Aflveriisers account of Senator Morgan's address 
before the Howard College students. It is found in The 
Leader of May 2, 1889. We reproduce for the reader the 
squib from The Adveriiser, and Mr. McE wen's comment upon 
it: "'If language means anything, then the concluding 
sentences of Senator Morgan's address to the Howard College 
students last Tuesday are tantamount to a declaration that, 
sooner or later, the 15th amendment will be eliminated from 
the Federal Constitution. Speed the day when it is so.' 

"We clip the above from The Montgomery Advertiser of 
May. In the same issue is a comment on a harangue 
delivered by Senator Morgan before the students of Howard 
College, The senator should not forget to tell the students 
that it will cost the same to eliminate the 15th amendment 
that it cost to make it, and the negro will be there with 
every foot up. 

** The Advertiser again, in a complimentary way, endorsed 
the ideas of ex-Senator Alcorn of Mississippi, who says that 
the negro is incapacitated to govern. That idea is absolute, 
and no sensible man doubts the negro's ability to rule ; for 
to rule well, means to rule right. We believe that if the 
intelligent negro were in power and had the administering 
of the law in his hands, he would see that every negro who 
killed a white or colored man unlawfully, was brought to 
justice and punished according to law. He would also see 
that every man s vote was counted as voted, and that the 
man elected held the office." 

Editor McEwen, still fired by the article appearing in 
Jlte AdverHser, and urged on by a question asked by The 



304 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Ituhpavdent — "Should the negro be disfranchised T' takei 
up the Afro- American and his relation to this coontry, in 
I hi' issue of May 9, and discusses him thus: 

" The Independent came to us this week, asking the question 
*Sho\ild the negro be disfranchised?' There is as much 
absurdity in thinking of his disfranchisement, as there is in 
thinking of placing the United States in the center of 
Africa. There have been some curious exaggerations 
]»ievailing concerning the negro, and many have been the 
controveipiea relating to him ; but if he is examined with the 
view of dipcovering his noble qualities, he will be found a 
being made in the image of God, placed in the United States 
there to stay. This is a very broad assertion, but never- 
theless true, and will be fully demonstrated by his not 
leaving. The negro is not confined to one locality, but his 
home or resting-place will be wherever the white man is 
fouurl. Th(^ Souih is the place for the nogro. It is his 
homo; ami as Inna as one grain of corn is lound there, so 
long will th«^ n«^gro be lound. 

''The charco broutrht against the nogro that he has not 
propcMty, au'l can bo gobbled up by tho lower class of whites, 
is truo <»t a vorv fow. There are as true, noble-hearted men 
in tho n«'gro rac'o as can be found in the white. There is no 
(lisfranchisomont for the negro. He, as the white man, or 
one of anv nation, has his aim in life, and he intends to 
roach it. If honesty is equally practiced by the white race, 
as well as by the negro, there will be no need to disfranchise 
either party. But bear in mind, that if the white man 
doesn't tire of the South, the negro will not. He is going 
to stay, and ere long the many wrongs done him will be 
turned into justice. The negro (the upper class I speak of, 
for the lower class of her sister race has never done anything, 
and, I think, never will) is not waiting for his power to 
bring it. Justice is what the negro calls for. Give him that, 



A^RO-AMERICAN editors. SOS 

and he will prove as true a citizen as anybody. Wealth 
has nothing to do with a man's voting. If he can't buy a 
resting-place in the grave-yard, if he is a citizen of the 
United States he has as much right to vote as a millionaire." 
We reproduce these deliberate and well-chosen comments 
to prove Mr. McE wen's journalistic ability. We class him — 
•* A bright star in the journalistic crown." 

Rev. Calvin S. Bkown, Editor Baptist Pilot. 

At Salisbury, N. C, was born Editor Brown, March 23, 
1859, his parents being Henry aiul Flora Brown. He was 
put into school at the age of live years, remaining there 
without intermission until he was seventeen, when his father 
died, which necessitated his beginning to work for the 
maintenance of a widowed mother, three sisters, and one 
brother. This he did by teaching school. 

Some time afterward, he entered Shaw University, with 
the view of fitting himself for the ministry. Entering the 
college department of that University, be grnduated from 
that and the theological department i\4 valedictorian of his 
class. After pjraduation, he was called to the pastorate of a 
large country church at Winton. Since then he has been 
called to three others, making him pastor of I'oiir churches 
with a total membership exceedin,<i fifteen hundred. These 
churches he has ministered t») with signal aMliry. He is 
now secretaiy of several of the prominent Baptist Associa- 
tions ot' his state. 

His work as a journalist began as editor of The Scimaritan 
Joiwnaly organ of the Samaritan Society of North Carolina. 
From this, he entered into journalistic work in the interest 
of his church, in which he has done credit to himself and 
denomination. When he assumed his charge in Eastern 
Carolina — the pastorate of four churches — he was induced to 

20 



306 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

undertake the erection of an institution of learning at Winton, 
it being a most desirable locality for such an enterprise. 
To enlist the sympathy and help of the people, he began to 
issue monthly a paper known as The Chowan Pilot, by aid of 
which, within less than eighteen months, a two-story school- 
building, 60 by 30, was completed' and paid for. 

So brilliant was this brief record of his aa a journalist, 
that in the summer of 1887, at the time of the establishment 
of The Pilot by the North Carolina Ministerial Union, he was 
unanimously chosen editor-in-chief of the paper. After some 
solicitation, he accepted this responsibility, and consented to 
consolidate The Chowan Pilot with this new enteiprise. He 
then took immediate steps toward purchasing a printing- 
press, and to open an office under his own supervision. In 
less than a mouth everything was in readiness for operation. 

Remarkable to say, he begun to issue a bi-weekly paper, 
according to agreement, without any previous training in the 
art of type-setting. He not only filled the position of editor, 
but also compositor. Since its establishment, The Piloi has 
appeared regularly, and has rapidly grown in public favor. 
It is the only paper published in the town of Winton, and it 
is read by a majority of the white citizens, such being 6o/ia 
fide subscribers. It is a neatly printed, twenty-column 
paper, devoted chiefly to the denovnination from which it 
derives its name; but in almost ever v i.s^ue are to be found 
strong articles affecting the race problem of America. The 
editor believes that the press, in the hands of the negro, may 
be made greatly instrumental in his advancement. 

The success of 2%: Pilot is better told by those who have 
visited the office, than by the author. Prof. S. M. Vass of 
Shaw University, upon a visit to The Pilot office at Winton, 
writes thus to The North Carolina Baptist: **It is my 
pleasant privilege to be able to sit in the office of Tlie Baptist 
Pilot and write this short article for the Baptists of North 




EEV. CALVIN 8. BROWN. 



308 THE APRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Carolina to read. I had long cherislied a desire to visit the 
printing de])artnient of 21ie Pilot to learn how Bro. Brown 
could send out such an excellent paper, at such a small 
subscription price — only seventy-five cents a year. Now I 
understand. Of course, the Ministerial Union owns the press. 
That much is sale. Bro. Brown just raises enough money to 
buy the paper. He does all the type-setting himself, agisted 
by a noble and talented young lady, about fifteen or sixteen 
years old, Miss Annie W. Walden, to whom he taught the 
art. And, by the way, who taught him? No one. He 
purchased the press, without the least knowledge of how to 
use it; but by bringing to bear his inborn talent for such 
work, and his iron will, he mastered the eflbrt in a few davs. 
It is, to say the leiist, a tedious work to sit and handle type. 
But the toughest part of all is the process of carrying the 
pjiper through the press. It makes a man sweat and .show 
his strength, and ruins all his clothes with the ink and 
groa.^e and — what not. It takes two persons one whole day 
to do the printing after the type is all set, which consumes 
quite a while, — several days. 

Well, who edits the paper? Brother Brown; he is the 
man. Several brethren promised to assist him ; but the whole 
work falls upon him." 

As to the support that has been gathered to The Pilot, 
it i.< interesting to read what its editor has to say about it : 
''It is gratifying to observe the tide which is swerping iIr' 
state in favor of TJie Pilot, From every quarter, fix in 
hundreds of staunch Baptists whose hearts long for ihe 
prosperity of the denomination, come strong and enthusiastic 
expressions assuring us that the enterprise shall be sustained." 

With Editor Brown's continued persistence in the work, 
we arc forced to believe that the future prospects for The 
Pilot are bright for a race organ, which will prove to be of 
great benefit to it. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 809 

Ebv. Geo&gb W. Clinton, Editoe Afko-American 

Spokesman. 

Rev. Mr, Clinton, who holds the editorial reiua of The 
Afro- American Spokesman, was burn in Cedar Creek township, 
Lancaster County, S. C, March 23, 1859, with, as it has 
proved, many days before him fur journalistic usefulness, as 
well as that of a dispenser of divine truths. 

Mr. Clinton had a little knowledge of letters before the 
war closed, his father having been his tutor. A desire upon 
the part of his mother to have her boy fitted fur the gospel 
ministry, induced her to keep him in school, which she did 
by hard labor. He prepared himself for college, entering 
the State University in 1874, and remained until it was 
closed against the black man in 1877. He then began to 
teach school, with a" tirst-grade certificate, continuing in 
that work for twelve years. 

While teaching, he read law in the office of Allison & 
Connors for six months. During this time he fuUuwed the 
advice of Blackstone, and read the Bible in connection with 
his law books. This resulted in a deeper interest in the Bible 
than for law, and accordingly, after assisting in one oa.se (the 
papers of which were prepared by him^.^ir) he began a 
diligent study of Scriptural truth. He was licensed as a local 
preacher in the A. M. E. Zion church in 1879, and admitted 
to the Travelling As.sociation, November 21, 1881. 

He has had some of the best appointments in the Confer- 
ence, and held some of the most honorable positions in the 
Conference. He was fraternal delegate from the South 
Carolina Conference to the New England Conference, Hart- 
ford, Conn. ; was delegate to the General Conference, at New 
York City, and one of its trusted secretaries; was also a 
ministerial delegate to the General Conference at New Berne, 
IT. C, and general secretary of the same, Bishop Charles C« 



310 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Petty beiug absent a while alter the Conference had convened. 
He has served in uihcr prominent positioni? in church councils. 
He was transferred, in Kuvember, 1888, from the S. C. 
Conference to the Allegheny Conference, and is now serving 
as pastor of the John Wesley A. M. E. Zion church in Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

His career as a public writer began in 1877. Among his 
tirst contributions to Tfie Star of Zion was a poem, entitled 
•' In Memoriam of C. D. Stewart," who was a fellow college- 
mate. The poem was dedicated to Miss Julia Eagles, the 
young lady to whom Mr. Stewart was affianced. 

Hi.< active career as an editor began with his service of 
seven years upon the editorial staff of The Slur of Zion. He 
has written for such Anglo-Saxon journals as The Ktw York 
Weekly Witness, The Ceyitenary, The Charleston Sun, ^scivs 
and Courirr, and others equally prominent. His article to 
The A. M. E, Review on "The Pulpit and School-room ' wa.^ 
very highly commended. 

The Ajro' American Spokesman, of which he is now e<iitor. 
is the only paper published among the A fro- Americans oi 
Pittsburg and Allegheny City. It is su])ported by a s^tock 
company, composed principally of the ministers of the city. 
It began operations on the 30th of May without a subscriber 
or helper, except those of the stock company with th*?ir 
capital shares. 

Mr. Clinton, as a writer, is clean, with great simplicity ol 
style. He uses his descriptive powers to much advantage. 
If he continues in journalism, he is destined to be one of 
the foremost writers of his race. In entering upon his work 
as editor of The Spokesman, Mr. Clinton says : ** While we 
shall devote adequate space to the religious doings of om- 
people and give church w^ork its due recognition, we shall 
consider ourselves at liberty, and to be in keeping wuth the 
aim and purpose of the paper, to give a reason of the faith 




EEV. GEORGE W. CLINTON'. 



312 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESa 

we acknowledge, and express our opinion upon all questions 
that pertain to our people and country. We promise the 
public a paper worthy of their patronage, and our people 
one that will be ever vigilant in their defence when their 
rights, privileges and opportunities are trammelled. We shall 
be no less active in speaking our opinion cciicerning any 
faults, short-comings, and indiscretions of our own people. 
What we desire is to represent the race before the public as 
it is, and see that it has fiedr play; and by counsel and 
encouragement stimulate it to move forward till it has 
attained the highest possibilities of American citizenship." 

The Spokesman, keeping to the line indicated above, will 
ever conserve the best interests of the race, as it under- 
stands them. 

William Bolden Townsend, Editor and Publisheb 

Leavenwoeth Advocate. 

William B. Townsend first saw the light near Huntsville, 
Ala., about the year 1854. Samuel, the grandfather, as well 
as master of the subject of this sketch, was originally a 
Virginian, but returned to Alabama in the early days of 
the slavery agitation, and became a prominent citizen of 
that state. Young Townsend having been sold several times 
was finally bought by his grandfather, and he and his mother 
were emancipated during the year 1857. 

After remaining in Alabama some three years, they went 
to Kansas in the spring of 1860. Here he was given a 
chance for schooling, and he applied himself so diligently 
that in a few years he developed those traits of character 
which have since distinguished him as one of the foremost 
advocates of the ricjhts of his race. 

After finishing a course of study in the common schools 
of his adopted state, he went to Mississippi as a teacher, but 




WILLIAM BOLDEN TOWNSEND. 



314 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

finding the treatment of his people so inhuman, and himself 
meeting many hardships, he again sought the fair and fertile 
fields ot Kansas, where he entered upon a career of usefulness 
which has been almost phenomenal. 

In 1876 he became correspondent for The Colored CUizeth 
a paper published at Fort Scott, Kansas. In 1878 we find 
him an associate editor of The Radical, which, as well as 
Tlie Cbhred Citizen, was published in the interest of his 
race. 

He has held several appointive ofiices, both in the county 
and state in which he lives, and always with credit to 
himself and honor to his race. At the Republican conven- 
tion in 1SS2 he made the nominating speech, and succeeded 
in havin^ix the Hon. E. P. McCable .selected as candidate k'V 
auditor. At the recent convention of colored men held at 
Snlina. aiul coni}>osed of two hundred delegates, he was 
elected eliairinan, and through his influence the Hon. J. L. 
WalltM' was made the choice of the convention as the 
candidate of the colored people for auditor on the Re]>ublican 
ticket. 

He was employed for ten consecutive years as letter-carrier 
in Leavenworth, and only resigned the position for the 
pur}>ose of studying law. He has been one year at the State 
University, and hoi»es to graduate in 1892. 

Always devoted to the interests of his people, Mr. Town- 
send is destined to take rank as one of the foremost leaders 
of his race in this count rv. 

Henry Fitzbutler, M. D. 

The following extract from a pamphlet published in 
Louisville, Ky., containing sketches of colored men in that 
state, will introduce Dr. H. Fitzbutler: 

'* Perhaps the most remarkable man identified with the 




HENBY FITZBUTLEB, M. D. 



316 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

colored race, who has been added to the citizenship of 
Louisville, is Dr. Henry Fitzbutler. Bom December 22, 
1842, he graduated at the Michigan University, in March, 
1872, from the department of medicine and surgery, and 
came to Louisville in July of the same year. Dr. Fitzbutler 
attracted much attention at once, he being the first regular 
physician of the colored race to enter upon the practice of 
medicine in the state of Kentucky. 

"At that time the colored people of Louisville were 
peculiarly under the influences which followed the ante-bellum 
prejudices. There was an admitted guardianship, comprising 
perhaps eight or ten men, who dictated public affairs for the 
colored people in a manner agreeable to the prejudices of the 
white people, and but few colored people sought business or 
notable positions without consulting these * intermediators.' 

*' The subject of this sketch was recognized by the medical 
profession in Louisville, and commended as being scientific 
and proficient in medicine and surgery ; but having neglected 
to consult the colored 'intermediators,' they prophesied a 
short stay for him, and went to work to fulfill the words of 
their divination. However, as Providence and progress would 
have it, eight years have elapsed, and this independent 
business man and philanthropist is still here, and with many 
admirers is beholding the dying prejudices that would bar 
the progress of colored citizenship. 

"Dr. Fitzbutler has not lived a selfish life, but of his 
means from his medical business has contributed largely to 
the literary and political necessities of the colored race. 
When a state convention was called in Louisville, al>out 
February, 1873, to consider the educational interests of the 
colored people of Kentucky, many of the old citizens stood 
aghast, seeming to fear extermination if found participating; 
therefore, no one aspired to the chairmanship of such a 
convention, yet, by request, and to meet the unpopular 



APRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 317 

emergency, Dr. Fitzbutler accepted and filled the position 
fearlessly in the Louisville circuit court room. 

" The resolutions passed in this convention demanded equal 
school privileges for colored school children in Kentiuky, 
and became the basis of the agitation in and out of the 
legislature, which resulted in greatly improving the educa- 
tional facilities in this state. Subsequently, he was the chief 
opponent to a resolution advocating separate schools as the 
will of the colored people, and the best course for all. This 
convention was in Covington, Ky., about 1874. And he was 
a notable member of the State Educational Convention, which 
met in the State House, at Frankfort, in 1883, taking such y 
part in the work as to attract the attention of all classes oi 
citizens throughout the alate. Here, too, he was not ashamed 
to advocate the cause of his race, being ajipointed on 
permanent organization. He succeeded in getting an able 
colored man appointed as one of the secretaries, and anothei 
well-qnalitied colored man a member of an important com- 
mittee. And through all incidental work Dr. Fitzbutler has 
been an active and reliable jihysician, receiving a revenue 
which he has never failed to use to the honor of the colored 
race, being himself the chief support of IVic Ohio Fullti 
ExprcHSiy which has been publishe<l regularly fur nearly ten 
veare, known and felt as one of the most fearless advocates 
of equal human rights. But his ambition has long been the 
establishment of a medical school, with doors ( ] vw to « (.In;, ^l 
medical students as well as white; and manv nuw i< -dee to 
see that design consummated. The legislature of Kentucky, 
at the session of 1888, granted a charter to Doctors 11. 
Fitzbutler, W. A. Burney and R. Conrad \ci condnct, in 
Kentucky, the Louisville National Medical College, and that 
charter was signed by the governor, April 22, 1888. The 
Fcliool is now in operation, with some of the best talent to 
be found in the coautry as students/' 



• 



S18 THE AFRO-AMEBtCAK PRESS. 

Dr. FitzbuUer began journalistic work in the publication of 
The Planet, of which he was editor, and, at the same time, 
the chief financial manager, — Alfred Froman being its origi- 
nator, it having been published in Louisville about three 
years, the first copy appearing in December, 1842. Hie 
Planet was a fearless advocate of equal rights, and was 
devoted to the educational interests of the colored people as 
well. 

The publication of The Ohio Fodla Express has been his 
chief journalistic effort, and has, at all times, and under all 
circumstances, exhibited an intrepidity and discretion, indi- 
cated in the prospectus : 

''The Ohio Falk Express will make its dehut Saturday, 
September 20, 1879; and although the country may seem 
flooded with new.spapers and other literary periodicals, yet 
we have no other apology to offer than that there i.« not 
sufficient space found within their numberless colunms lor 
unprejudiced representation of all races of men; and in the 
opinion of humble thinkers, the cause of the less favored 
will fasior gain respect by a continuous, honest, earnest ami 
amicable etloit on their part. 

•' T/lc Express does not presume to be a leader nor a 
dictator, and is not one of those who regard public sentiment 
ah«l c.-iablislied prejudices as light things that can Ue changed 
in a mumfut, yet realizes the importance of unswerving 
advocacy in liie establishment of justice and true moral worth; 
but does pn'.sunie to avoid the iEolian encomiums sounding 
in the wake of success, regardless of right or wrong. 

*' The editorial stall' wiii lead otl' neither as acuuj) dt^ grace 
nor coup dc t/uii/t, nor open with one grand JnsihttJr upvn 
whatever is noi in accord with their embrvoni'* iud^nient; 
but ho[>e, by adheiinii to fixed data of reasonini:. lo hav*^ 
some ellectivf aililifiv ai command anil briui^ it to bear iu 
accord with timcc and events. 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 319 

" ITie Express has no selfish battles to fight, no unmerited 
commendation to bestow; but will be an advocate in the 
acquisition of wealth, learning, and moral principles." 

The Ohio Falls Express is the first successful newspaper 
effort under the management of colored men in Kentucky, 
all other previous eflforts having failed. TJie Express, though 
Bepublican in sentiment, has not depended upon political 
vicissitudes for existence, but advocating the same principles 
through different administrations of government has relied 
upon its own resources in a business-like manner. It has 
been published weekly, without intermisj^ion and without 
change of editor, since September 20, 1879. 

The following are editorial clippings from the successful 

pioneer of colored papers in Kentucky : " The speculation 

concerning the danger of imbibing the elements contributory 

to disease from the Johnstown bodies in the Ohio River 

water, is not a matter to bring much terror to thinking 

people. The vivdtness of the body of water renders the 

contamination insignificant. Then the changes are very 

brief; the greater portion of man being water, when free 

from the body of which it was a constituent, is again as 

good to form part of another animal body, as any other 

water. Then the other elements composing the tissues of 

an animal body, when free in water, soon become wlmt they 

were originally in relation to the earth. Tlius the chloride 

of sodium, phosphate of lime, carbon in inan. when freed in 

water that has ample connection with the earth, soon beconi'* 

inoffensive, and exist in matter-form as compatihk- lo 

re-construct a new body as when originally taken iniu the 

bodies of Adam and Eve." 

Vital statistics furnish interesting problems, not only to 
the political economist, but to the philanthropist and the 

Christian. In Nashville careful and fairly accurate reports 

for the last thirteen years have been kept. The death-rate 



J 



S20 tHE AFRO-AMEfelCAti PRESS. 

among the colored people has ranged from about 50 per 
thousand in 1875 to 23.50 per thousand during the past year, 
while the death-rate among the whites for the same period 
has been only a little more than one-half as great. During 
the past three years, out of a colored population estimated at 
twenty-three thousand, 951 births and 1,758 deaths have been 
reported. Among the white population, which is about 
twice as great, there have been 1,478 births and 1,600 
deaths. It is possible that all of the births among the colored 
people have not been reported. If they have, it would indicate 
that while the birth-rates are about equal, the death-rate is 
twice as great. 

The causes are numerous, and may be classified under four 
general heads, — poverty, ignorance of the laws of health, 
superstition, and lack of proper medical attention. 

Robert Charles O'Harra Benjamin, Editor San Fran- 
cisco Sentinel. 

R. C. 0. Benjamin was born in the Island of St. Eitts, 
West Indies, March 31, 1855. He was educated at Oxford 
University, England, and after graduation he traveled 
extensively in Sumatra, Java, and other islands in the East 
Indies. Upon returning to England, he took passage on a 
ship goinfT to the West Indies, and visited Jamaica. Antigua, 
and Barbadoes, coming to America by way of Venezuela, 
Curacoa, and l.>einerara. 

Soon alter his nrrival in New York he began taking an 
active part in public affairs, which brought him in close 
association with such prominent men as Dr. Henry Highland 
Garnet t, Cornelius Van Cott, and Joe Howard, Jr. The 
latter, then editor of TJie New Ycn^k Star, employed him as a 
soliciting agent, and when not at this work he was a.«*signed 
to office duty. In the course of a few months, business led 




'• sauum. 



322 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

liim to the acquaintanceship of John J. Freeman, editor of 
The Progressive Avierican, who made him city editor of his 
paper. Since then Mr..Benjamin has owned and edited several 
newspapers: The Cohrred OUizen, in Pittsburg, Penn; The 
Chranwle, at Evansville, Ind. ; and T/ie Negro American, 
At Birmingham, Ala., he is now editing The San Francisco 
(California) Sentinel. The following clippings will give an 
idea of the esteem in which Mr. Benjamin is held by the 
press of the country : 

"Among the most brilliant exchanges that come to our 
sanctum is The (California) S^vtinel, edited by our old friend, 
Hon. R. C. 0. Benjamin. This paper is taking the Pacific 
Coast like wild-fire, and rapidly gaining a national reputation. 
But this could not be otherwise, because Mr. Benjamin is one 
of the most able of the negro writers, lecturers and oratoi-s 
in this country. Others may have a bigger name, but when 
it comes to real talent, versatility, and innate ability, Benja- 
min can swallow the majority of them at a gulp.' 

" R. C. 0. Benjamin, E.<q., editor of llie San Francisco 
Scniincl, is getting out one of the liveliest and best negro 
journals in the country. We wish Mr. Benjamin all possible 
success financially with his Sentinel, — Pine Bluff (Ark.) 
Echor 

" R. C. 0. Benjamin is running a great paper in San Fran- 
cisco. R. C. 0. will be remembered as the editor of 21ie 
Negro- American in this city about four years ago. Benjamin 
is a born journalist. — Birmingham (Ala.) Bulletin.'' 

**R. C. 0. Benjamin, the colored lawyer, author and politi- 
cian, is now editor of The Sm Francisco Sentinel. Brother 
Benjamin wields a vigorous pen, and is making a good paper. 
— So. Cal. Informant, Sin Diego^ 

*' Mr. Benjamin is a ready newspaper man, and we doubt 
not that The Sentinel will thrive under his editorial man- 
agement. — iVoy Ch'kans (La.) Pelican,'' 



AFRO-AMERIOAN EDITORS. 323 

"We welcome to our desk The San Francisco Sentinel. 
This is one of the brightest papers published in the West. 
We are glad, always, to receive such exchanges. There is 
plenty of room for good papers. We wish The Sentinel a 
long and prosperous voyage, for we recognize in it a strong 
and fearless defender of the race. May The Sentinel be a 
.power on the Coast, and always the sentry of the race rights.'* 
— ITie Advocate^ Leavenworth, Kan. 

"This week our table holds Tfie San Francisco Senlinel, 
Vol. I, No. 1, with the gifted R. C. 0. Benjamin, formerly at 
the hesui of The Negro American of Birmingham, as editor. 

The editor of Fcdr Play, and many others of this city, are 
well acquainted with Mr. Benjamin and rejoice to know that 
he again drives the quill. Long live The Sentinel to help 
in the great work of obtaining equal rights and fair play in 
the race of life for every American citizen, without regard to 
race or color." — Fair Flay, Meridian, Miss. 

As a newspaper man. Mr. Benjamin has been a marked 
success. He is fearless in his editorial expression; and the 
fact that he is a negro does not lead him to withhold his 
opinions upon the live issues of the day, but to give them in 
a courageous manner. His motto is: "My race first, and 
my best friends next." Any one reading his paper will find 
that his race has an able champion in him, and one who will 
never fail them. His strictures on the murders and outrages 
of his race in the South, and his demand for an equal chance 
in the race of life for his people, show true manliness. 

Mr. Benjamin is widely known to the newspaper fraternity 
by the nom de plume of " Cicero," a cognomen he adopted 
while corresponding editor of 27ie Nashville (Tenn.)i^*e5 
Lance. He was for some time the local editor of Tlte Daily 
Sun, a prominent white paper, published at Los Angeles, Cul., 
and is the first colored man to hold such a position on a 
white joomal. 



324 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

In the midst of his journalistic work he has found time 
to write several very interesting books, among the moet 
prominent of which are ** The Boy Doctor," " History of the 
British West Indies," "Future of the American Negro," 
*'The Southland," "Africa, the Hope of the Negro," "Life of 
Toussaint L' Overture;" besides publishing "An Historical 
Chart of the Colored Race," and a volume of poems which 
has passed through several editions. 

He is a fluent conversationalist, in both the French and 
Sj^anish languages. He has the credit of being one of the 
finest platform orators of his race in America, and takes an 
active part on the stump in state and national campaigns. 
In 1886 he made a tour through the principal cities of 
Canada, and lectured to large white audiences. 

Mr. Benjamin is also a lawyer, having been admitted to 
the bar in Memphis, Tenn., in January, 1880. His experi- 
ence a,s a practitioner has been varied, and the territory over 
whicli bis legal services have been extended aggregate twelve 
different states. 

In Caliioriiia he is very highly esteemed by both whites 
and blacks. The California Conference of the A. M. E. 
church, has elected him Presiding Elder, his jurisdiction 
comprising the states of California, Oregon, Washington, and 
Nevada. He is also General Financial Agent and Superin- 
tendent of the Connection's Sabbath-school on the Coast. 

At the same time, the bench, the bar, the county and 
city ofTicials of San Francisco, Los Angeles and all Southern 
California recommended him to the Congressional delega- 
tion, who, in turn, did so to President Harrison, for the 
position of consul to Antigua, West Indies. It being 
impossible to give him this particular appointment, the 
president offered him the consulship to Aux Cayes, Ilayti, 
which he declined, preferring to remain at the editorial helm 
C>f his paper, The Scnlind, 





E A. WIUJAM8. 



326 THE APRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

De. E. a. Williams, Editob Joubnal of the Lodge. 

The Journal of the Lodge is the official organ of the 
(colored) Supreme Lodge of the Knights of Pythias of North 
America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa, and has 
been adopted as the official organ of the Grand Lodge of 
Masons of the state of Louisiana, It is edited by Dr. E. A, 
Williams, the Supreme Chancellor of the order, and Grand 
Secretary and Grand Recorder of Masonry and Knights 
Templar of Louisiana. Its columns are devoted exclusively to 
secret societies, and it is especially the organ for which it 
was founded. It« circulation is now over three thousand. 
Its first issue by Dr. Williams was under adverse circum- 
stances. It has just entered upon its third volume, and is 
now upon a solid basis, with sufficient capital to make it a 
permanent journal. 

Prof. Daniel Webster Davis, Editor Young Men's 

Friend. 

When the history of the country and the present achieve- 
ments of the Afro-American are written, it will be seen that 
the young men identified with this race have not been 
inactive. It will be observed that they have performed the 
part assigned them in the race of life with courage and 
fidelity. Upon the shoulders of the young A fro- American, 
man or woman, devolves the solving of the question, com- 
monly called the Negro (Afro-American) Problem. In any 
walk of life, the young man or woman striving to do his 
part in making the race a respected one, must necessarily 
meet with trials and discouragements. It will be the man 
or woman who surmounts them and contends for intellectual, 
moral, and social preferment,. that must be great. Are there 
any thus contending? if so, let history record his name and 



828 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

work. Prof. Davis is of this number. His life is one that most 
meet the general recommendation of men. He was born in 
Caroline county, Va., March 25, 1862. Going to Richmond, 
Va., he was educated in her public schools, receiving medals 
from his instructors on two occasions, for proficiency in his 
studies. He served as an apprentice in a shoe shop, and 
became a first-class workman there. He was elected to t«ach 
in the city schools of Richmond in 1880, where he has been 
since, having attained a good record as an instructor of 
youth. He was selected as professor of mathematics and 
civil government in the summer institutes of Lynchburg, 
Staunton, and Lexington, Va., by the state superintendent of 
public instruction. His ability manifested in these institutes, 
combined with his genial and lovable qualities, did much to 
hold intact the many teachers who attended them. 

Mr. Davis has held many honorary positions. He was 
president of the Y. M. C. A., of Richmond, Va., and is now 
associate to the general secretary. For years he was 
president of tha Richmond normal school alumni, and the 
Garrison and Langston lyceum. He is at present chairman 
of the executive board of the Virginia teachers' reading 
circle; also of the executive board of the Virginia Baptist 
Sunday-school Convention, and is otherwise very prominent 
in the church and Sunday-school circles of his city. He is 
also conspicuous in masonic circles, serving at one time as 
Most Worshipful Master of Social Lodge, No. 6, A. F. & A. 
Masons. He was Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge 
of Alabama, with rank of Past Grand Senior Warden, and 
was also Special Deputy of Grand Lodge of Virginia. He 
is likewise prominent among the Odd Fellows, as well as in 
other societies. He was a director of the Building and Loan 
Association of Richmond City, and a member of the executive 
committee of the late national emancipation celebration. 

Prof. Davis is a great musician, playing on four diflferent 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 829 

instruments. He appears to be a natural poet. His poems 
have been published in tlie newspapers, and read on various 
occasions. Among the most important of these productions 
is — '* De Nigger *s Got to Go," — written for The Planet of 
Richmond, Va., and another for the late emancipation 
celebration, which was very pleasantly commented on by 
The Richmond Diapcdch. Mr. Davis has delivered more 
choice orations on great occasions than any other young man, 
within the recollection of the author. This of itaelf bespeaks 
volumes for his oratorical ability. Upon the following 
occasions he has delivered orations, which drew from his 
auditors rapturous applause and laudatory comments : At 
the memorial exercises of Gen. Grant; graduating class of 
Richmond high school; alumni association, Lynchburg, Vu. ; 
Y. M. C. A. of Petersburg, Va., of Lynchburg, Va., and of 
Norfolk, Va. ; the laving of the corner stone of the Gloucester 
high school; the unveiling of Capt. Emmett Scott's monu- 
ment; the soldiers' re-union at Richmond; and before the 
masonic fraternity of Richmond. 

Mr. Davis is a live, vigorous and happy sjxjaker, full of 
eloquence and oratory. He is daily called upon to speak on 
an occasion of some interest; for which lie is always ready, 
especially if he sees in the movement a rising purpose on the 
part of his race. 

Few of our young men have done much more in the 
journalistic calling than has Mr. Davis. He began this work 
as correspondent for The Baptist Companion, the organ of the 
Afro-American Baptists of Virginia; also, for The Boston 
(Ma.ss.) Advocate. In like capacity, he has served admirably 
The liichniond Planet^ The Lunrhhurq, (Va.) L'lhonn-, Th'i 
Masonic IL'.rald of Philadelphia, The JL/.^onir Vi/ilor of 
Petersburg, Va. ; and also 21u', Youmj Jf/i'.s Frirnd, before 
he assumed the editorship. 

The Young Metis Friend is the organ of the colored 



630 THE Ai*RO-AMERtOAN t&ESS. 

Young Men's Cliristian Association of Richmond City. The 
purpose of this periodical is to supplement the work of the 
association in promoting the educational, moral, and religious 
endeavor of the young men. Its motto — "Young Men for 
Christ," is indicative of its aim and purpose. To edit this 
organ, no young man better fitted as a Christian and an 
educated gentleman could have been selected out of the 
association than Mr. Davis. He is a quiet, Ood-fearing 
young man, who is of the opinion that all our success comes 
from God, and for the ultimate salvation of the race we must 
rely upon Him. Such a man we must all concede to be the 
proper editorial director of the young men. 

Mr. Davis is a man of brilliant thought and correct 
judgment, and what he thinks he says in choice, expressive 
English. His career promises great things for the Afro- 
American press. Believing as he does in the enlightenment 
of his country and the salvation of his race, coupled with 
the entire Christianization of the masses, he will wield a 
facile and vigorous pen for it^ accomplishment. 

The subscription of The Diend has already increased under 
the editorial management of Mr. Davis, and a bright future 
is predicted lor it. Long may it live for God and humanity. 

Rev. Matthew Wesley Clair, Editor Methodist 

Banner. 

This gentleman is one of the young men connected with 
the Washington Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, whose outlook is for a profitable life in the ministry 
and as an editorial dispenser of religious, moral, and social 
truths. 

He began life in Monroe county, W. Va., where he was 
born of humble parentage October 21, 1865. He secured 
what rudimentary knowledge he could possibly attain in the 



AFRO-AMERICAN EDITORS. 8dl 

schools of his county. He was converted in 1880, and joined 
the M. £. church, which marked a turning epoch in his life. 
Having been moved by the Spirit to begin the work of a 
teacher of divine truth, he applied for an exhorter's license 
and received it at the hands of R^v, S. A. Lewis, and 
subsequently was the recipient of orders as a local preacher 
from Presiding Elder Samuel G. Griffin. 

Having the good sense to know that a man, in these days, 
who enters the ministry, must be trained for the position, he 
applied for admission at Morgan College, one of the schools 
controlled by the FreeJman's Aid and Southern Evangelical 
Society, located at Baltimore, Md., and was received there. 
His attendance at this institution Wius under some great 
sacrifices, and therefore he could spare no time for idleness. 
He at once took a prominent place among the bright 
students with whom he Wiis associated, and won the G. V. 
Leech prize for excellence in theology in 1884, and received 
the Baldwin prize for English oratory in 1887. He is a 
graduate of the normal, classical, and theological departments 
of that college. He was examined and admitted to the 
Traveling Connection of the Washington Conference of the 
M. E. church, in March, 1889, and was stationed at Harpers* 
Ferry, W. Va., and was sent back in March, 1890. He is 
one of the best pulpit orators among the young men of that 
Conference. He is winning in his manner, and at the same 
time he impresses upon his hearers the divine teachings of 
the Master with force and power. 

For some time before Mr. Clair entered the Washington 
Annual Conference, it was a great question with the members 
whether a local organ could not be established and maintained 
by that portion of Methodism. Several attempts to do this 
were ma<le, among which were The Conference Journal and 
The Centred Methodist, noted in other chapters. The Banner 
is only a resurrection of The Central Mdhodist, after a year a 



832 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

suspension. It is published as a local religious paper by the 
members of the Conference, who are known as a typographical 
association. It is oflScered as follows ; Rev. W. T. Harris, 
president; Rev. W. P. Ryder, vice-president; Rev. S. A. 
Lewis, secretary ; Rev. I. L. Thomas, treasurer. 

At a meeting of the association in Frederick City, Md., 
in March, 1890, Rev. M. W. Clair was elected editor, and 
C. L. Harris business manager of The Banner, The present 
is the third volume of The Banner, and though yet in its 
infancy it is a newsy and well-edited paper. The aim of its 
projectors is best understood as they have expressed it. 
Says the editor : " The Bayiner is now in its infancy, but it 
is hoped that it may be waved in every home and its news 
cheer the hearts of thousands." 

Mr. Clair is a good practical writer. His editorials are 
read for the good advice and sound common sense to be found 
in them. Much can be done for the race, if The Banner 
continues to wave on the present pinnacle of moral and 
religious endeavor. 

Mrs. F. M. W. Clair, the beloved wife of Rev. Mr. Clair, 
does much to assist him in his editorial labors. Her 
contributions to the editorial columns share alike with his 
the commendation of a reading public. She was born, and 
reared mostly in Baltimore, Md., being the youngest living 
daughter of Rev. Perry G., and Mrs. Mary E. Walker. She 
was educated at Morgan College, and is a graduate of its 
normal department. Until she assumed the duties of a wife, 
she was a teacher in the schools of Maryland, and, lastly, 
an instructor in the Baltimore Qi^y Academy. She is well 
known as an essayist, and as an associate upon the editorial 
staff of TJie Banner, She has the following to say of the 
press: "The object of the press is to elevate humanity. 
It is one of the greatest means of bringing our people to the 
level of those who have had centuries of privileges." 



CHAPTER XIX. 



ILLUSTRATED AFRO-AMERICAN JOURNALISM. 



THE illustrated paper, among all classes and conditions, 
has met the most cordial reception. To read of an occur- 
rence, or }il)out a fixed thing, and to observe the same 
illustrated, teiifls to fix in the mind of the reader the facts 
more impressively ; it also better enables him to grasp the situ- 
ation as intended. He also is enabled to see the purpose 
sought; and he sees without effort the picture the article 
intends to have the imagination form. The necessity of 
such a phase of journalism among any people admits of no 
argument. With this idea in view, Edward Elder Cooper of 
Indianapolis, Ind., issued The Indianapolis Freeman, (the first 
and only illustrated journal of the Afro-American race.) con- 
sisting of eight pages, July 14, 1888. To say that this was 
a most commendable step upon the part of Mr. Cooper, is to 
say the least of it. While the Afro- American seems hardly 
prepared for a very high plane of journalism, from a money or 
intellectual consideration, and certainly not from experience, 
yet in this, as in other phases of the work, he has shown his 
possibilities, and maintains his stand. The journalist of color 
finds it a matter of some thought when be first launches his 



336 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

paper as to whether such support will gather about it 88 the 

enterprise deserves. 

This may have been so with 27ie Ireeman, yet it was sent 
foith in the belief that the race would accept a good, worthy, 
ideal paper, when presented to it; and there was no 
disappointment in this case, for I7ie Freeman at once 
drew for itself a hearty, enthusiastic, and lasting support. 

The race owes a debt to the man whose experience, money, 
self-sacrifice, brain and brawn, keep alive this sheet, which 
is one of the brightest stars in the unrecorded history of 
A fro- American freedom. A world of thinkers and readers 
concede its relative superiority. Success with it has been 
simply phenomenal. The meed of authority as a newspaper 
has been freely accorded it by its contemporaries and indi- 
viduals, all over the Union. The white journals of the 
country, without hesitation, term it the leading paper of the 
race. In proof of this fact it has upon its exchange list a 
class of papers and periodicals that no other colored paper 
has. Among the many can be found the leading white papers 
of Chicago, Baltimore, New York, Boston, Indianapolis, St. 
Loui.-^, and Cincinnati. 

Besides this honor accorded to TJic Freeman because of 
its worth and ability, it has ali*o been the recipient of 
flattering notices from acknowledgc*<l white organs, as well as 
from its race con temporal ies. 77!^? Indianaj^oUs Journal, 
the most popular Anglo-Saxon journal of Indianapolis, says: 
" So far as we are acquainted with colored journalism, the 
best paper published in the interests of the colored people 
is The Freeman of this city. No other paper is doing as 
good work in the special field indicated. Its advocacy of 
the interests of the colored people is able and dignified, and 
its illustrated sketches of the colored literary men and women 
are exceedingly well conceived and executed." The ancm- 
nati Commercial Gazette^ Murat Halstead, editor, saj^s : •* Uie 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNALISM. . 837 

Freemofa is by far the best and ablest newspaper the colored 
people have ever had." The Advocate of Leavenworth, Kan., 
contributes the following to The Freeman s glory: "The 
iUustrated Freeman of Lidianapolis, Ind., is to the colored 
people what Frank Leslie is to the whites." The National 
Leader remarks: " The F'eeman of Indianapolis, Ind., E. E. 
Cooper, manager, is the only colored pictorial published in 
the country. Though in its infancy, it has taken front rank 
in illustrated newspaperdom. We consider it the Harper's 
Weekly of the colored race." Admitting the advance of the 
Afro- American in this great pursuit of life, another says: 
" It is a credit, too, and shows the progress the colored race 
is making in journalism." 

It will be interesting for one to note the particular charac- 
teristics of this journal in question : As a news paper, it gives 
a complete review of the doings of the Alio- Americans 
everywhere. As a political paper, it is independent, com- 
mending the good and condemning the bad in both parties. 
As an historical paper, it devotes unceasing research to the 
hitherto unpublished history of the A fi'o- American, and from 
time to time it prints and illustrates the legends and 
romances of the Afro- American, written by Afro-American 
authors. As a literary paper, it keeps pace with the educa- 
tional and literary progress of the race. As an illustrated 
paper, it portrays the Afro- American as he is, and not as so 
often represented by many of our white journals. As a 
general new.'jpaper, it is the peer of any in the land. 

\\Tien> he came from; how he has reached his present 
eminent position in life; what he has done for his race and 
how he is honored by them ; his future service to his people ; 
are the points to which we shall be pleased to call the 
attention of the reader, in dealing with the life of Mr. Cooper. 
This done, without exaggeration or embellishment, we shall 
stop, feeling, that then there is much more to be said. 

22 



538 THE A]?RO-Ai£fiRlOAN P&fiSS. 

As is true of the great majority of our really eminent 
Afro- Americans, Mr. Cooper is a southern product ; but early 
in life, without money or friends, yet full of pluck and 
ambition, he selected the North for his future home and field 
of operations. From the South, he went to Philadelphia; and 
from thence he turned his attention to the setting snn, 
selecting Indianapolis, the Hoosier metropolis, as his perma- 
nent home. Here he entered school and graduated first in 
a class of sixty-five, all being white, save himself. 

In 1882 we find him in the United States railway mail 
service, soon becoming one of the most efficient men in that 
difficult and exacting branch of government work, having 
gone from class 5 to 1, at the time of his retirement from 
the service. In 1886 he had full charge of his car, being 
the only A fro- American that ever had a corps of white clerks 
under him. 

In the spring of 1883, though still in the government 
service, lie, in connection with Edwin F. Horn and others, 
began tlie ]niblication of The Colored World, issued at Indian- 
ap<.)li.s. The venture was a success from the beginning, but 
owing to a cliange of "runs," Mr. Cooper was compelled to 
sever his connection with the paper, and a stock-company 
then took hold and ran it. 

Leaving the government service in 1886, he once more 
connected himself with lite World, ih^n, as now, known as 
lite Infllf(?i(tj)()lis World, and from a puny weakling, head 
over heels in debt, run without svstem or method, with a 
half-paid circulation of less than five hundred, within six 
months he booked a bQ7ia fide circulation of two thousand, 
on a .<^olid and paying basis. One year later, selling out his 
interest, he left it. one of the best equipped, best paying, more 
widely read and clipped newspaper, than any other that had 
been published in the Union by colored men up to this time. 
He then began the publication of Tlui Freeman^ 



ILLUSTRATED JotJRNALISM, m 

As an all-around newspaper man, — ^that is, in all that 
pertains to the conducting, preparing, printing, and publishing 
of a newspaper, we pronounce him America s greatest Afro- 
American journalist. There are men, perhaps, who, in 
certain specific fields, may equal or surpass him ; but there 
is not one who has begun to get near him in the possession 
of all the forces that go to make up the newspaper man of 
the very first class, 

Mr. Cooper is a remarkable and striking character. One 
18 taken with his affableness in a short time after meeting 
him, for he is always pleasant and agreeable. He believes 
in system and order, and transacts business with a dispatch, 
known only of the shrewdest business characters. A glance 
at his editorial desk reveals the kind of man who sits upon 
the bench. He has been, and is to-day, a great but careful 
reader. A profound classical student, he is also a master of 
the English language, and perhaps the best grammarian of 
the negro press. As a writer, he is pointed, terse, clear. 
As a talker, he draws from a well-stored mind, and is always 
interesting and instructive. In politics, he is independent ; 
as some one has put it, a negrowump, placing his race above 
his party. 

In closing a sketch of our subject in Th^ New York Age, 
W. Allison Sweeney, his friend and neighbor, very eloquently 
says: "For my part, I am glad that Edward Elder Cooper 
belongs to the negro race. His glory shall be my glory ; 
his achievements, my achievements. A personal friend that 
is forgotten now. Such as he, belongs to the whole race, not 
to the clique, or to the few. He is not coming ; he is here. 
Let us arise and go to him." 



CHAPTER XX, 

»»ROMINENT AFRO-AMERICAN CORRESPONDENTS. 
CONTRIBUTORS AND REPORTERS. 



Prof. Daniel Barclay Williams, A. M. 

ALL is the giii of indii.stry ; wliate'er exalts, embellishes 
and renders lite delightful." 
Prof. Williams, by far one of the most polished and 
ready writers of which the race can boiist, was born in 
Richmond, Va., November 22, 1861. His mother, a woman 
of marked industry, early recognizing the capabilities of her 
ton, gave him the advantage of the public school training to 
be had in that city. He graduated from the Richmond 
Normal School in 1877 ; then entered the Worcester Academy, 
Worcester, Mass., in the fall of 1877, through the influence of 
Prof. R. H. Manly, and Miss M. E. Knowles. He graduated 
from this school in 1880, and in the same year matriculat^jd 
in Brown Universitv. He was, however, unable to remain 
there to finish, but subsequently pursued, and privately com- 
pleted, the course. He then began the life of an educator, 
filling the most responsible and creditable positions of that 
nature in his native city and county, until, in 1885. he was 
elected to the chair of Ancient Languages and Instructor in 




l.oAutlQQ^JM^'yyy^- 



342 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

methods of teaching and school management in the Virginia 
Normal and Collegiate Institute at Petersburg, Va., which 
position he still holds. 

The professor has had ten years* experience as an educator, 
and few can be found who equal him. He possesses executive 
ability of a high order, and his decisions may be generally 
relied u])on. He is a popular linguist, reading with ease 
German, French, Hebrew, Latin and Greek. Our subject has 
a wide reputation as a brilliant orator and conversationalist. 
His services in this respect have been constantly in demand 
for ten years. He is one of the best known men in his state, 
and has a national reputation as well, and has been frequently 
honored jus a distinguished leader of his people. T/te Xcw 
York Sail of May 15, 1887, presented an excellent tiit on<l 
sketch of him, with those of Frederick Douglass, Dr. A. 
Stiaker and others. The same adorned the columns of The 
Chvc/and Gazette; and his is given in Dr. William J. Simmori-s' 
book as that of " a man of mark." 

One of Virginia's noblest sons, we have given but the 
briefest record of his life thus far. We now point the readei 
to a brilliant picture of his literary and journalistic career. 
The writer regards this as the brightest j)aj-t of his record. 
His career in this respect began in 1883 and 1884, whwi he 
contributed a series of articles to Tfic Imhistrial Ilerahl i\\\A 
EicJiiiumd Planet on "The Latin Language," and ''The 
Education of the Negro." In 1884 he contributed another 
series to TJie Baptist Compamon, on ** Why we are Baj^tists." 
Their range of history and philosophy, and pleasing and 
attractive style, added much to the popularity of the paper. 

He has, at diilcrent times, contributed to different pnpei-s 
on niis(*ella?KM)iis subjects. He now corresponds with 1%: 
Naitonal J^i/ot, The Home Mission Moidhhj, The Frcnnan, 
an<l T^ie A. M. E. Chureh Review. He is also editor of the 
department of Theory and Practice of Teaching in 77/f 



CORRESPONDENTS AND REPORTERS. 343 

Progressive EdwcaJUyr, of Raleigh, N. C. He is one of our few 
successful Afro- American authors. In 1883 he published his 
"Negro Race, a Pioneer in Civilization/' In 1885 he sent 
^ from the press his " Life and Times of Capt. R. A. Paul," 
and " Why we are Baptists." These works had a good 
circulation. In 1886 he wrote "The Theory of Rev. John 
Jasper concerning the Sun," in "The Life of Jasper." 

We here quot« the following words of Prof. R. W. Whiting, 
in regard to his " Science, Art, and Methods of Teaching," 
published in 1887 : " The crowning act of his life, and the 
brightest star of hope for the future negro author, is the 
success of his work, * Science, Art, and Methods of Teaching.* 
This work is the rose of English literature and the standard 
work on the subject among our people." Another of his 
works ** Freedom and Progress," is now in press. 

Prof. Williams is a strong, versatile writer. Having a 
massive brain, from which thought after thought freely 
emanates, he is enabled so to attract a reader as to receive 
from him the palm of being a brilliant author. He has a 
style wholly his own, easy and mellifluous. Then his thoughts 
are original, and are expressed with clearness and force, and 
in language rich and mellow. Nothing in the lea.st objection- 
able to the most refined mind can be seen in his writings. 

Articles from Prof. Williams are eagerly sought. Tlie 
Progressive Udu^atw has been made a most popular publica- 
tion among pedagogues by Prof. Williams' contribution on 
" Theory and Practice of Teaching." If he should espouse 
the calling of an active journalist, the race would have in 
him an advocate not surpassed by any other people. In 
our years of friendship with him, we have watched his 
upward flight, have read his pithy and convincing writings, 
have heard his eloquence, and listened to his instructive 
utterances, and now, in amazement, we pause for words to 
express our admiration of one who has overcome such 



344 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

apparently insurmountable obstacles, and attained to the 
eminence he occupies. In conclusion, we are Ipd to exclaim: 
*' His lite is gentle, and the elements so mixed in him, that 
Nature might stand up and say to all the world — ' This was a 
manl'" 

John Edward Bruce, {Bruce OriC). 

February 22, 1885, in the town of Piscataway, Md., the 
above all-around newspaper man was born of slave parents. 
When but four years old, he moved with his mother to 
Washington, his present residence, where he attended the 
private school of Miss Smith, and also the Free Library 
school. In 1872, while Gen. 0. 0. Howard was president of 
Howard University, he took a course of three months at 
that institution, and, after this, some private instruction from 
Mrs. B. A. Lockwood, once the female candidate for president, 
on the equal rights ticket. 

At an early age, he developed a taste for journalij?m, 
receiving his first lessons in 1874, in the office of L. L. 
Grouse, an associate editor of The New York Times. In the 
same year he became special correspondent for Tfie Pro- 
gressive American, published by John J. Freeman, a pioneer 
journalist. His first contribution to ITie Atnei^ican, was 
under the caption, ** Distillation of Coal Tar," which evoked 
many complimentary expressions. 

From this he began a career as a general news-man, which 
has hardly been surpassed by any of his race. Under the 
ncytn de />/«W2i' of " The Rising Sun," he wrote Washington 
letters for The Richmond (Va.) Slar^ and over his own 
signature sent letters to The Freeman s Jouimal of St. Louis, 
The World of Indianapolis, and The St. Louis Tribune. To 
these papers he wrote from 1877 to 1880. Having now 
gotten fully into the work, young Bruce became special 




JOHN EDWARD BRUCE. 



346 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Washington correspondent of The Chicago (111.) Oonservakr, 
27ie North Carolina Bepubliean. Tlic Erderpriae, of Fayette- 
ville, N. C, The Neio York Freeman, The Reed City Clarion, 
(white), The Detroit Plaindealer, The Christian Index, and 
The Cherokee Advocate ; the latter being published in English 
and Cherokee, by the Cherokee nation. 

Mr. Bruce may be called, with due propriety, the prince 
of Afro- American correspondents. He is not only sought for 
by our race journals as a news-gatherer, but by those of the 
Anglo-Saxon, also. He has, at times, contributed special 
articles to TJie New York Ha^ald, Titnea, World, Mail amid 
Express, 

Not only has he been a correspondent for other journals, 
but has actually established several journals himself, wha^se 
editorial management was brilliant. He publi.shecl Tiic 
Argiis, at Wa.shington City in 1879, with C. M. Otey, A. M.. 
editor, which he published nearly two years, when it was 
turned over to a stock-company, and finally died. TJte 
Sunday Item, established in 18S0 by J. E. Bruce and S. S. 
Lacy, was the first Sunday paper ever published by Afro- 
AmericaFis, and was fairly successful as a newspaper venture. 
It, like many other of our journals, lacked capital to put it 
properly on its feet, and hence had to ** die the death of 
the righteous." 

The Witshinyton Grit was founded by Mr. Bruce, in 1884, 
as a campaign sheet, he being the editor and proju'ietor. 
This sheet, like all others established by him, was a staunch 
Rej^ublican paper, not hesitating to speak out in advocacy of 
Republican principles. It was quietly gathered unto its 
projector's arms in the latter part of 1884, conscious of the 
fact that it had done all it could for the election of the 
Republican ticket. lie also established, at Baltimore, Hie 
Commonwealth, which survived six months; but the principles 
for which it contended triumphed, viz., the obliteration of 



CORRESPONDENTS AND REPORTERS. 847 

the word "white" from -the constitution of the state, the 
repeal of the Bastardy law, and the modification of the 
odious distraint law. 

Our subject, at various times, has been upon the editorial 
stafirf of I'he Exodica of WaHhington, (in 1880), llic Mai-yland 
Director, and ^he Bee and Leader, of Washington, D. C. Ho 
now writes for Tke OazcUe of Cleveland, and The New York 
Age, as " Bruce Grit." He is a successful gatherer of what- 
ever news is afloat; more so than most of the Afro-American 
reporters, in that he can more readily got an intorview with 
noted men, such as senators and representatives at Washington. 

He distinguished himself, some time since, by an expression 
he got from Senator Hoar, relative to an assertion accredited 
to him. It was heralded through the country in many 
papers, complimenting Mr. Bruce on his .shrewdness in getting 
the sentiment from Senator Hoar. One doscribos him as 
"vigihmt, shrewil, active, progressive, and always on the 
alert for the messenger news." His exprossion in The Bee, 
relative to the Payne and Derrick controversy, was full of 
suggestive thoughts. He is always square upon a matter at 
issue. " Bruce Grit" never flinches from what he regards a 
just and frank opinion. 

Rev. 'W. H. Franklin, Special Contributor to The 
New York Age and Knoxville (Tenn.) 

Negro World. 

In our eflforts to give the history of a work so wide and 
comprehensive as that of Afro-American journalism, the 
special correspondent of llie New York Ane and Negro 
World comes in for a place. His letters have been racy and 
of interest to the many readers of those papers. This gentle 
man, whose writings measure well, in every respect, with tho 
^Vfro-Anierican editor, was born at Knoxville, April 16, 1852, 



848 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

His father died in 1868, or when he was but 16 years of age, 
but his mother is still living. 

His education was received in the schools of Knoxville 
and at Maryville College, he being the first Afro-American 
to graduate from that institution, which event occurred in 
1880. His theological training was had at the Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary, Cincinnati, from which he graduated in 
1883. The Cincinnati CbniTnercial Gazette and The JJro- 
American, edited by Prof. Peter H. Clark, paid high tributes 
to the scholarship and oratory of young Franklin. He is at 
present pastor of the Presbyterian church at Rogersville, 
Tenn., and principal of the Swift Memorial Seminary, a 
school of high grade. 

Beginning to write for newspapers when quite young, his 
experience and ever-increasing knowledge made him promi- 
nent as a correspondent, and his articles are read by all. 
He began his newspaper work in 1878, when he became- 
correspondent of 27i^ Knoxville Exavibier^ W. F. Yardley, 
Esq., editor. He has also given articles to The Star, of 
Tennessee, Herald Freshytei% Critic, and other papei'S. He 
now writes for T'Jie Nexo York Age, and The Knoxville 
Negro World, two representative Afro-American journals. 

Rev. Mr, Franklin is one of the most conversant corre- 
spondents that now write for the press. His articles are 
always fresh and well received, and demand careful thought. 
He is logical, argumentative and free from abrupt phrases. 
We wish to reproduce a few extracts from articles of \i\», 
which have appeared in various issues of The Age and World, 
In one in The Age, Mr. Franklin fears that the present 
administration will mistake the difference in the Afro- 
American of four years past and the Afro- American of to-day. 
He very fittingly writes: "If the present administration 
thinks that it has returned to power, and found us where it 
left us when it went out of power, it makes a great mistake* 




BET. W. a. FBANELBH. 



850 T?flE APRO-AMfitllOAM t&fiSS. 

If it thinks that we have been at a staud-still, it errs. The 
negro, fresh, anxious and ambitious, has been exerting 
hinjself, wherever opportunity has oflFered, to improve his 
mind and to prepare himself for the complicated duties 
imposed upon him in consequence of his citizenship. The 
great majss, it is true, have not made very much progress. 
It will require a long period, under the most favorable 
circumstances, for light, intelligence, and culture to leaven 
the whole mass. Education and intelligence have not 
reached every individual in the most favored parts of our 
Union. But it can be truthfully said that even the mass of 
negroes are not what they were four years ago. They have 
learned something and made some progress. Much more can 
be said oi individuals in every community. These individuals 
may be divided into two classes; One consists of the politi- 
cians and leaders who were active in former times; the 
other consists of young men who had reached their majority 
and who had been, and have been, qualifying themselves for 
usefulness and leadership. The Reconstruction perioil, the 
sudtlen enfranchisement of the negro, the pressing demand 
for persons to fill responsible positions, developed many 
incompetent and unworthy leaders; a very natural thing, and 
one which has happened many times before. The incompetent 
and the unworthy were not acceptable to the more resj^ectable 
and thoughtful of the race. Many of them were as creditable 
and capable iis their neighbors. In view of all the circum- 
stiuices they did well, notwithstanding the strong indictment 
of Mr. Hampton to the contrary." He then reaches the main 
and vital point, which every one will admit is a serious 
matter for consideration. Says he: "There are also a 
number of deserving young men. Some of them were born 
just before the struggle; some of them in the midst of the 
struggle; and some of them just after the struggle, which 
gave birth to their freedom. They found their way eai'ly 



eOIlfi£sJ>ONi)£NT?S ANf) REi^OETERS. §5i 

into the school-room, provided by generous friends of the 
North and finally by the states. They studied hard in school 
and out of school. They have been forced to be students of 
public affairs and public men. Their opportunities, their 
studies, and their training, have given them both character 
and position in their respective communities. They are 
univei-sally recognized as men of ability and worth. They 
are editing our newspapers, teaching our schools, filling our 
pulpits, pleading our causes, healing our diseases, advocating 
our rights, handing us out goods, building our houses; indeed, 
filling every vocation in our busy and complicated life. 
They have sprung up everywhere, and are capable, energetic, 
and aspiring. I am writing from knowledge and observation. 
I see about me what I have written. I have traveled in 
other sections, and seen and noted the same. If our party 
and our friends are to know what we are and where we are, 
they cannot afford to ignore these facts. If they are to deal 
with us justly and fairly, they must neither shut their eyes 
to the truth nor suffer themselves to be deceived by a 
perversion of the truth. I have often been surprised at the 
ignorance which prevails at the North, in regard to the 
political, material, social, and religious eoiKlition of the 
negro. It does not seem possible for people who live so near 
us to have such mistaken views, and yet it is true. Our 
condition is bad enough, without exag^i^ation. We have 
burdens enough to bear, without suffering from the mistaken 
views of those who ought to help and encourage us," 

Mr. Franklin discusses the famous Dortch bill, introduced 
in the Tennessee Legislature, and does it from the most 
encouraging stand-point, claiming that the bill will redound 
to the intellectual benefit of the race. In another issue he 
comments in a vigorous way upon the opinions in TIic New 
York Independent on Dr. A. G. Haygood's answer to Senator 
Eutice'8 letter in ITie Forum^ expressing himself in this wise 



i 



I llil 



f ll,. 



t„ r„l,.v:„. 1,„M,.„. rrm.,,.l„ 
will helji us to retain what we 
lating a great deal more. The 
wealthy men is due to the caref 
and methods enumerated above, 
and follow tUeir methods, we sh 
prohability is that we shall gaii 
while doing able service as a i 
wise advocate in the editorial cfa 

Ma. J. GOBDOM ST&E2T, Repoi 
GENERiL COBKESFOMDEIIT . 



"J. Gordon Street," stud T. ' 
Riidd of The American Calholk i 
two had, Bome time ago, in Be 

best newBpaper correspondent* in 

Mr. Stiept is a West Indian 

light May 25, 1856, in Kingston, 




J. QOBDON STREET. 



854 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

In November of the same year a very excellent offer was 
made him by the proprietor of The New York Olobe to take 
the Boston correspondence of that paper, which was accepted. 
Shortly after, Tfie Neio York Olobe suspended publication, 
and when T. Thomas Fortune established The New York 
Freeman, Mr. Street was requested by him to act in the 
same capacity for The Freeman in Boston as he had done 
for The Olobe, and he did so from November, 1884, to March, 
1888, when he gave it up to go to Zion Wesley College, 
Salisbury, N. C, to take charge of the agricultural depart- 
ment, which the faculty had decided to institute. 

Returning to Boston in the summer of 1885, he was 
engaged by the editor of The Boston Beacon, the leading 
white society paper, to furnish it matter. The proprietors, 
on finding that a black man was employed in such a position, 
objected to it, and of course he had to go. 

Tliongh feeling keenly the prejudice with wliich he had to 
contend, he w:i8 not di.^heartened, but rather resolved not to 
give up tlie content for a fair and equal chance in the race 
of life. Accordingly, in about five or six weeks, he went to 
27ic Boston Eccninij Bccord and asked if they would like to 
buy whatever news he might have. The city editor said 
" Yes," and the colored news-gatherer went to work to collect 
the matter. Every man in the office was white ; in fact, it 
might be said right here that there was not a colored man on 
any of the Boston dailies, at that time, and it was supposed 
by all tliat he was connected with The Boston Record, Item 
after item was brought in, accepted and published. 

One day Street went to the Boston museum of fine arts to 
possess himself of some news which none of the other papers 
had learned of. In making inquiries about it, one of the 
autliorities of the institution asked him for what paper he 
sought the information; the reply was, The Boston Record, 
and the official cheerfully furnished the facts, so that a 



COKHESPONDENTS AND REPORTERS. 355 



i* 



valuable item was obtained. It was learned by the city 
editor that Street had used The Record'a name in securing 
this bit of news, and so he was summoned to appear before 
that gentleman. He went, and the following is the colloquy 
that ensued : City Editor — " Did you go to the museum of 
fine arts and represent that you were connected with The 
Records* Street — " I did, Sir. I supposed I had a right to 
say, when questioned by persons for what journal I desired 
any information I might ask for, that it was for The Record^ 
City editor — " You had no right to state you were connected 
with The Record, We do not consider you are ; and, further- 
more, we do not care to have you here any longer." Very 
well, Sir," was the answer made by Mr. Street. About three 
months after, he secured a position on The Boston Heralds 
reportorial staflf, where he has remained until the present 
time. 

In October, 1885, he again became the Boston correspondent 
of The Freeman^ and continued as such until the paper 
changed hands and name, in 1887. In May, 1888, he took 
hold of Tlte Philadelphia Sentinel, then almost unknown to 
Boston people. How well he has done with that journal, the 
circulation of the paper at the present time tells more conclu- 
sively than anything that could be said here. Mr. Street is 
also the Boston correspondent of TJie Indianapolis Freeman 
and of The Colored Ulicstrated Weekly, That he is a man of 
unusual push is made evident by his ceaseless activity. Not 
content with the accomplishment of what most men would 
feel satisfied with, he is ever on the alert for other openings 
for the exercise of his hand and brain. It was this sleepless 
desire to be doing something for the good of his fellow-man, 
especially for the advancement of his Afro-American brother, 
that led him to establish Tlt£ Boston Courant, of which he is 
both editor and proprietor. It needs no prophetic eye to 
state, that if Mr. Street's days are prolonged he will win for 



S56 THE APRO-AMEftlCAN PREOS. 

himself a name not soon to be forgotten ; and thoee of his race 
who are anxious to see their people attain soon to that 
position they believe their Creator has designed for them, 
must feel that he is to be an honored instrument in bringing 
it about. 

Bishop Henry McNeal Tubner, D. D., LL. D., Ex- 
Editor Southern Recorder, and Well-known 
Contributor to the Afro-American 

Press. 

For us to give an elaborate history of this Afro-American 
ill all of his connections in life, would be to devote an entire 
volume to him. Assnming that the public generally know 
of his fidelity to the race, and his labors in the church and 
state for tlieir welfare, we will devote the most of our sketch 
to his work for the Afro- American press. 

Mr. Turner was born near Newberry Court House, S. C, 
February 1, 1833, being the oldest child of Howard and 
Sarah Turner, As one savs: "His life is full of most 
important events. He is a man of great nerve, strong 
character and deep convictions. He was admitted to the 
Missouri Conference of the A. M. E. church in 1858, having 
l)eeu licensed to preach by Rev. Dr. Boyd in 1853, and has 
served, in his course, from the humble circuit rider to tlie 
bench of bishops, to which he was elected May 30, ISSO. In 
1S72 the University of Pennsylvania conferred the honorary 
title of LL. D., upon him, and Wilberforce that of D. D., in 
1873. 

He h;is held, all along, most responsible positions in his 
church, as well as under the various Republican administra- 
tions. In 1876, he was elected bv the General Conference of 
the A, iL E. church as manager of the publication department, 
located in Philadelphia, Penn. Wliile at the head of that 




UlSHOP UE^'KV McNKAL TL'RNEk, 1>. li,, l.u D. 



i 



358 THE AFRO-AMEMCAN PRESS. 

department, he wrote much for 2%« Christian Beccrder, and 
became noted for his forcible and weighty sentences. Bat 
few men in the United States have ever equaled him in that 
capacity. 

Being a man of great nerve and strong character, the 
missiles he would throw from his pen would rarely ever fail 
of their mark, and through his wisdom he directed and 
wrote much Sabbath-school literature, which was circulated 
all through the United States and fell into the hands of 
many indolent persons, acting upon them as an incentive 
for future endeavors, which demonstrated the £act that the 
press, in the hands of the Afro- American, was, and will ever 
be, a mighty power. 

After serving the time allotted him by the Convention, he 
compiled a hymn book for the A. M. E. church. He also 
wrote a standard work, entitled *' The Methodist Policy," 
defining the duties of the officers of the Conference and the 
functionaries of the church. This work he has revised 
recently, and it will soon re-appear, more instructive than 
when it was first introduced. 

In 1886, he became convinced that the church needed an 
organ in the Southland, through which its ardent laborers 
could express themselves that many might be edified, which 
could not otherwise be accomplished. Consequently, he 
caused to appear on the 25th day of September, 1886, a neat 
sheet, known as The Soiithcim Recorder. This paper, from 
the time of its appearance to that of its becoming a church 
organ proper, he so managed as to quicken the dormant 
faculties of many, which resulted in so great a demand for 
space that he was compelled to enlarge his sheet, long before 
it was a year old. Daily its subscription list increased, until, 
at the expiration of a year, thousands were blessed with the 
privilege of its columns — its editorial columns especially — in 
which could be found witty and wise expressions, coming 




W. ALLISON SWEENEY. 



860 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

from the pens of learned divines. Never tiring of his task, 
he continued to cause The Recorder to appear until May, 
1888, at which time, the General Conference made it an 
official organ. 

Through the whole course of his life Bishop Turner has 

-proved a success, ever and anon giving something to the 

world to inspire those who were willing to make something 

of themselves to an effort to do so; and this he has done 

by untiring industry, ever remembering that 

<* Height, by great men reached and kept, 

Were not attained by single flight; 
But they, while their companions slept. 

Were toiling upward in the night.*' 

Mb. Robert T. Teamoh, Reporter Boston Globe. 

Among the rising young journalwts is one who, for the 
past year and a half, has been engaged in work upon one 
of the leading dailies in Boston, — Mr. Robert T. Teamoh. 
whose experience in newspaper work has been wide and 
varied. He was born and educated in Boston, having been a 
pupil in the Boston Latin school. In 1879 he took a diploma 
from the industrial <lrawing school of that city, after which 
he entered the photographic profession, and, later on, went 
into photo engraving. He opened up a business in this craft 
in New London, Ct., and met with much success, applying 
himself to his work steadily for four years. A special feature 
was the making of instantaneous pictures of sailing vessels 
and .4toam craft, wliicli plied Long Island Sound as far as 
New London. Just before going to Connecticut he began 
newspaper work in Boston upon Tlie Observer, a paper which 
was run in the interests of the colored people by a few of 
the young men of the city. Its existence, however, was of 
short duration. Soon after, TJtc Boston Leader came out 
with Mr. Howard L. Smith managing editor, and Mr, 



CORRESPONDENTS AND REPORTERS. 861 

Teamoh, city editor, which thrived for some time longer than 
its predecessor. While in New London Mr. Teamoh was an 
occasional contributor to The Boston AdvocaU, and under the 
worn de plume of "Scribbler," contributed some excellent 
letters to that journal. He wrote a number of pamphlets 
upon tariff reform, during the Cleveland-Harrison campaign, 
that were widely read and discussed. He has contributed to 
several Connecticut papers, and also several articles to TJie 
New York Age. 

At the close of the political campaign, Mr. Teamoh accepted 
an offer upon the reportorial staff of The Boston Daily Olobe, 
where he has been working steadily ever since. He is, what 
is known by newspaper people, a " hustler," and has made 
for himself, since his connection with that paper, an enviable 
reputation as a news-gatherer and writer, and has turned out 
many important readable articles. His style is terse and 
crisp, and his stories are well written and interesting. Many 
of his articles have been accompanied by illustrations, some of 
which have been photographed by him for cuts. These 
photographs were developed in a dark room, which has been 
assigned him for this purpose in the Globe building. 

There is no distinction made between him and the other 
"boys" on The Olobe, He is not only a member but a 
director of the Globe Athletic Club, having been re-elected 
twice. He is also one of the trustees of the Tremont Co-opera- 
tive Investment Association, and is the only colored member 
of the organization. 

Mr. Teamoh is considered an all-around good fellow, and 
takes an active part and lively interest in all the questions of 
the day. He is the corresponding secretary of the Colored 
National League, and was one of the delegates from Boston 
to the Colored Men's National Citizens* Convention, held in 
Washington, February 4, 1880. Personally, he is a fine- 
lookins youne man. He is tall and well-built, and is affable 



/ 




JOHN DUKUAM. 



Till-' C'lillfman i^ ftinoug 
a--. II,. Wii-^ honi in luiliai 
[iintioii of bin time to journ 
productive of much good. 1 
notably among them the one p 
which ia spoken of as having 
sheets ever edited by an Afro-A 
it, for from what we have seen 
can readily class him as an ab 
T/ie IntfianapoHa Freeman on t 
Lett«rs, and Noted Black Men, 
i-eader vho delighted in cbBff> 
arrangement of sentences. Aboi 
of a friend : " For my part, I an 
race." To aspiring journalists wt 
model. Study him." 

These correspondents and repot 
sj-e aa numerous as the leaves on 
means all capable as writers. It 
the race to see themselves in prii 
fondly imagine themHel""- -'' 




JOHN G WHITING. 

(Sh Fi(* lU.) 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



HamiltoD, are two excellent writers. They are the bom of 
the Teterao jouraalist of Abolition times, Mr. Robert Hamilton, 
Sr., and were brought up in the editorial and compoeing 

rooms, BO to speak. Mr. William Hamilton is with The 
Evcidrxg Poet, and Mr. Robert Hamiiton is a general gatherer 
of iiewa for the New York papers. He (Robert) was upon 
liie'staffof 2%< ^fefotor-, at San Francisco, aud Tk« Pngreame 
Attierican in New York. Of late, he has been upon the 
staff of one of the Brooklyn daily papers. He is a terse and 
ready writer. 

We must not omit to mention a 
Virginia lawyer, R. W. Rose, of 
Lynchburg, Va., a brilliant writer, 
lately associated with 77ie Indus- 
trial Say as corresponding editor. 
Mr Rose was an associate of the 
author on 27ic Lynchburg (Va.) 
Laborer and is a mellifluous 
writer He vtas. for a short time, 
owner of that jourml Mr Rose 
biinga to bear upon his contribu- 
tions vast esperience and practical 
judgment 
la a fair writer on The Vrwj Orleans 
lies in the profession he may jet attain 
topomeemin nee editoriall} 

John G \\hitingof Fort Smith Ark is a coming writer 
of some fime He wis for a while assocnte editor on Tlie 
Peoples Piotfctor an interesting paper at the place where he 
resides 

There are many able writers whose articles appenr over 
noms deplume which we could not begin to mention. Suffice 
it to f^y, the force is e£Ecient, and is destined to be more 
so in the futile. 




. H HAM1LT0^ 



Crusade) li lie contin 



CHAPTER XXI. 



AFRO-AMERICAN WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 



Prof. Maey V. Cook, A. B., {Grace Ermine). 

• 

REWARDS to the just always find a grateful heart. God 
has so ordered, that nothing but God can prevent their 
bestowment where due ; and even he, the God of justice, 
"would have to reverse his character to do this. There is 
divine poetry in a life garlanded by the fragrant roses of 
triumph. Aye, this is the more so, when there lies within an 
earnest heart of an obscure woman a towering ambition to do 
something and be something for the purpose of en ri falling the 
coronet that bedecks the race ; and it enlnmces the hiurels it 
wins in the domain of mental, moral and soojal conquest. 
There is romance, rich and rare, in the life of such an one. 
It attracts, too, like the needle to the Polo, and it charms 
one to know such a case. The phenomenal ri.<(^ f.f Prof. Mary 
Virginia Cook to her present position of usefulness and honor 
is an example to those who still lie in the shadows of obscu- 
rity. Let the reader do his part well, remembering that 

** Honor and shame from no condition rise. 
Act well your part ; there all the honor lies." 



i 



368 THE APftO-AMEWOAN PIlESS. 

Born of a loving mother, Ellen Buckuer, Prof. Cook partook 
of her gentle and mild manners. Her birth-place, Bowling 
Green, Ky., like meet Southern towns, had nothing exciting or 
of special character that would impress a child of her refined 
nature. There was much to give pain and wound a tender 
heart, in such a hard life as was hers. The unsettled state 
of affairs at the time had much to occasion alarm. The war 
was in progress, and with beating heart the mother awaited 
the settlement of those great questions that had been appealed 
to the sword, the rifle, and the cannon. On the decision 
depended the question whether little Mary should rise to the 
splendid heights in the power of the free, or sink to th« 
insignificance of a fettered slave, with crushed powers. 

To one familiar with history, it need not be recounted that 
she had little chance for learning; she had the appetite, bnt 
the food was not at hand. Little by little, she advanced in 
the inferior schools of the place, till, by her winning manner- 
and perfect lessons, she was acknowledged to be the be>t 
scholar in the city. She won signal honor in the small private 
scliools, which is as grand a thing among the home lolks, as 
larger prizes among strangers. Three schools were in a 
spelling contest tor a silver cup which was offered by Rev. 
Allen Allensworth, a gentleman who did much to encourage 
her; and being last on the floor she was proclaimed victor. 
Again, in a teachers' institute. September 30, 1881, a lx)ok 
was offerc'l by a Mr. Clark, a white gentleman, who was 
>tationer in the city, for the best reader; and amid the 
crowd gather* 'l from near and far the book was awarded to 
her. The jury was a mixed one, of white and colored citizens. 
The judges selected the piece to be read, after they assembled. 
She repeated these triumphs in the State University. 

When the Rev. C. C. Stumm, pastor of the State Street 
Baptist church, of which she is a member, started an acadesiy, 
he called her to assist him. The pay was small, and she 




PKOF. MARY V. COOK, A. B. 



370. THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

had the largest number to teach ; and one day, as she stood 
at her work, with tears in her eyes, occasioned by some 
misunderstanding about her share of the monthly recei2>t8, 
she said : *' The sun will yet shine in at my door." A tew 
hours later the pastor put in her hands a letter from Dr. 
William J. Simmons, president of the State University, Louis- 
ville, Ky., ofiering to defray her expenses through the 
American Baptist Woman's Home Society of Boston. This 
was October 15, 1881. He had seen her before, while on a 
trip securing students, and said to her: "Would you like 
to go to Boston to school?" She replied: "Yes, so much." 
He was impressed with her amiable, meek, Christian spirit, 
coupled with her reputation for goodness, of which he had 
heiird Irom various citizens. 

She entorcMl the State University November 28, 1881, and 
became a member of the third normal class. Her decorum 
was such, that the president testified, on the night of h»"T 
graduation from the normal course, in a cla.^s of thirteen, 
as ho gave h<a' tlie Albert Mack valedictorian's medal, that 
she had never been spoken to once, by way of discipline, 
during her entire course. lie afterwards, in writing of his 
graduates, sai<l ol her; "As a student, she was prompt to 
obey and always ready to recite. She hiis a good intellect 
and well developed moral faculties, and is very refined, 
sensitive, benevolent and sympathetic in her nature, and 
well adapted to the work of a Christian mi.ssionary.** 

On enterintr the Universitv, she was almost immediately 
chosi-n by tlie president as student-teacher and dining-room 
matron, and during the year of her graduation she taught 
live classes a dav. The students honored her with the 
presi<bMicy of the AtlienaMim and the Young Men and 
Wnniens Cliristian Association. Though she worked all the 
time, y«'t in her graduating year she entered the examination 
and gained the highest mark, 95 per cent, and obtained the 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 371 

valedictorian honor of her class. This same year, Dr. E. S. 
Porter offered a gold medal to the best speller in the school. 
Accordingly a contest was held. The work was written, and 
a large number of picked students entered, and again Miss 
Ox>k triumphed. Immediately after, she took a silver medal, 
offered by Dr. D. A. Gaddie, for oral spelling. When the 
judges made the reports, the students were loud with 
applause, and made her the center of many demonstrations 
of rejoicing in her honor. But this was not all. During the 
same week she took a silver medal, offered by Mr. William 
H. Steward, for neatness and accuracy in penmanship. She 
was never beaten in a contest. 

On her graduation, May 17, 1883, she was elected perma- 
nent teacher, and made piincipal of the normal departmont 
and professor of Latin and of mathematics. This position 
she still holds, embracing the largest department of the 
University. By special vote of the trustees she was per- 
mitted to keep up her studies in the college department, and 
at the end of four years she completed tlu^m. She was 
examined, and took the degree of A. B., May, 1887, with her 
class. 

Miss Cook is a bright-faced, intelligent little woman, — 
what the French would cull petite, and until recently did 
not weigh 100 pounds; but intellectually she weighs 1000. 
She is quite studious, and is deep in many subjects. She i.^ 
especially fond of Latin, biography, and mental and moral 
philosophy. She has a wonderiul influence over her pupils, 
and is much respected by her teaclKTS. She gives heart and 
hand to every good cause. Her sympathies are quickly 
touched by the tale of want, and her pocket ever opens to 
the needs of her pupils. Every public charity pains her ear. 

While not a member of the Berean Baptist church, fIic 
has labored with it, and in their University society she has 
been elected president, consecutively, from 1884 until the 



372 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

present writing. The Baptist Woinen*8 Educational Conven- 
tion siiw in her the fit material for a worker, and elected her 
second vice-president in 1884, and a member of the board of 
managers. In 1885 she was elected assistant secretary of the 
Convention, and continued on the board. In 1886 she was 
made secrotarv of the board, and in 1887 the Convention 
made her its corresponding secretary and its executive officer 
for the work of the board of managers. 

Her position is one of vast influence among the women of 
her state. She has appeared on the Convention platform 
several times, and did so at the jubilee meeting, January 18, 
1889. At that time The Ameriain Baptist said of her: 
*' The history of the Convention, by Prof. Mary V. Cook, their 
corresponding secretary, was a concise and comprehensive 
l>aiM'r. She left the well-beaton tracks of most of the lady 
speakers, and dealt entirely with tacts, and without sentiment 
traced the Convention from its incipienty until the present 
time. It was an interesting paper, brimful of information, 
and was well received. Miss Cook is never more in earnest 
than when saying a word for the women's work." 

She has appeared on the public platform often ; notably, 
befure the AmtM'ican Baptist National Convention at Mobile, 
Friday ni^lit, August 27, 1887, when her subject was 
*• Woman's work in the denomination." The article received 
the warmest praise. And again, she read before the Ameri- 
can Baptist Home Mission Society, in its special meeting, 
September 25, 18S8, at Nashville, her subject being " Female 
Education." Before the National Press Convention, which 
held its session at Louisville, she read a paper, — " Is juvenile 
literature demanded on the part of colored children?" This 
was in 1887. She was again appointed to read a paper at 
their session at Nashville in 1888, but could not attend. She 
read a very strong paper on " Woman, a potent, factor 
in Public Reform," before the Kentucky Stat€ Teachers' 



OtJtl WoMEil III JOXjRllALISM. 8V3 

Association in 1887. On tliis subject she is not a loud 
clamorer for "Rights," but, nevertheless, she quietly and 
tenaciously demands all that is due her. 

Her newspaper work began in 1886, and she was then 
introduced to journalism and the fellowship of the fraternity. 
Her contribution, "Nothing but Leaves," in The Ametican 
Baptist^ is indeed one of her ablest efforts. The following 
strong sentences are worthy of note : " We are pointed to 
great men who have made themselves famous in this world. 
Some are praised for their oratory, some for their fine learning, 
some for their benevolence and various other qualities, which 
are all good enough ; but they, within themselves, are nothing 
but leaves, which fall to the ground in their autumnal days 
and return to dust. True fruit is holiness of heart, and 
clusters, ripened by the grace of God, be they found in 
persons ever so lowly, hang higher than all the growth of the 
intellectual powers. Fruit is the evidence of culture. 
Leaves grow with little care, and they, with all their beauty, 
are not the essential part of the plant ; but the chief aim of a 
plant, and the object for which it spends its whole life, is to 
bear fruit. So the highest aim of God's creation is our fruit- 
bearing." 

Having been converted in 1876, she herein shows the 
character of a developed spirituality. She is a noble-hearted 
woman, full of blessings and love; a woman with a soul 
deeply divine. 

In 1887 she edited a column of The South Carolina Tribune. 
At the same time she controlled a column in The A7neri/:an 
Baptist She writes under the name of Grace Ermine. She 
is a strong, graceful, vigorous writer, and tends to tlie 
argumentative, pointed, terse style. One understands what 
she means when she speaks. When writing concerning the 
outrages in the South, she said : " White faces seem to think 
it their heaven-born right to practice civil war on negroes, to 



S74 THE A^RO-AMERtCAN PRESS. 

the extent of blood-shed and death. They look upon the life 
of their brother in black as a bubble to be blown away at 
their pleasure. The same spirit that existed in the South 
twenty-four years ago, is still recognized in its posterity. 
Tlie negro is still clothed in swarthy skin, and he is still 
robbed of his rights as a citizen, made dear and fairly won 
to him by the death of those who fell in the late Rebellion. 
This outrage cannot endure. God still lives, and that which 
has been sown shall be reaped." 

Speaking of our people once, she wrote : " As a people we 
are not easily led, and we often slaughter the one who 
attempts it. There is always fault to be found, which thing 
should be left to our enemies, while we, like faithful Aarons, 
should uphold the arms of those who have dared to strike 
for us. There is a natural antipathy «n«^' linst our leaders. If 
they act as gentlemen, dress decently, and have ability, we 
call them stuck-up and big-headed; and often a majority 
will join hands with the Irish, or some other nationality, to 
get them defeated." 

Iler position as editor of the educational department of 
Our Womry\ and Children, publit:lied in Louisville, gives her 
wide scope for editorial work. She is gifted with the pen, 
and in the near future will become an author. She is 
ascending slowly the ladJer of fame, as the morning sun 
climbs the heavens to the zenith to shine for all. She is 
a vast readtT of the best works, and keeps abreast of the 
times. She is making herself efficient in short-hand and 
type-writing, and has many accomplisliments that mark her a 
cultured lady. She is molding the lives of many, and. as the 
sun, gives light to them. ^lay heaven bless her. Let those 
who read be encouratred that poor girls can rise, and gain 
the good opinion of their elders who will help them. The 
close of a life like hers must be grand and will bless the 
world. 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 375 

Mbs. W. E. Mathews, (Victoria Earle^ General News- 
paper Reporter and Novel Writer. 

While journalism among the Afro-Americans has been 
and is honored with many lady writers, none are more 
popular than Victoria Earle. She was born May 27, 1861, at 
Fort Valley, Ga. Her mother, Caroline Smith, being a 
Virginian, was a slave, and subjected to the most cruel 
treatment by her master. Several times she attempted to 
escape, and at last succeeded in reaching New York, leaving 
her children in Georgia, in the care of an old nurse until 
she returned. For eight years she toiled, hoping to amass 
enough money to go back to Georgia for her children. When 
at last enabled to do so, she found only four living, Victoria 
being among them. After considerable legal trouble, she 
succeeded in gaining possession of her children, and returned 
with them to New York, stopping on the way at Richmond 
and Norfolk. 

Victoria had no chance for an education until her arrival 
in New York, when she attended the grammar school, 48. 
Later, her circumstances "were of such an embarrassing nature, 
she was forced to leave school and go to work. Though 
compelled to launch out into the world for her su])port, she 
was ever a diligent student. Her newspaper labors began 
on a larger scale than that of most female writers. She was 
first a *'sub" for reporters upon the large daily papers of 
New York, such a.s TJie Times, JTcnthJ, Mail and Express, 
Sunday Mercury, TJ\^ Earth, and The Phoimaraphic World. 
This kind of work being her forte, she continued it, in 
addition to being New York correspondent to 21ic National 
Leader, Detroit Plaindealer, and The Southern Christian 
Becorder. She has also contributed to The A. M. E. Church 
HevieWf and has written for various papers at different times. 
The A&o- American journals are always anxious to get a 



376 THE AFJlO-AMERICAN- tfeEsS. 

letter from Victoria Earle. Some even dispense with their 
editorials to make room for her letters. She has written for 
our brightest and best papers, such as ITic Boston Advocate^ 
Washington Bee, Richnond Playict, GcUholic Tribune, Cleveland 
Gazette, New York Olobe, New York Age, and The New York 
Entei'prise, No other Afro-American woman has been so 
eagerly importuned for stories and articles of a general news 
character, by the magazines and papers of the whites, as has 
Victoria Earle. 

She has met with marked success in story writing, and 
tales written by her expressly for Tlie Waverly Magazine, 
The New York Weekly, and Tlic Family Story Paper, have 
readily found place in the columns of those publications. 
She is indeed entitled to the highest honor from her race by 
her efforts to dignify her work, and eminently prove 
Afro- American journal i.sm to be the peer of any. 

In closing the life of this honored lady journalist, we could 
not sav more of her than The N:xc York Jonmal dooj^ in the 
following: "Victoria Earle has written mucli ; her dialect 
tid-bits for the Associated Press are much in di-mand. iSlie 
has ready several stori^-s which will appear in one volume, 
and is also preparing a series of historical text-books which 
will aim to develop a race pride in our youth. She is a 
member of the Women's National Press Association, and no 
writer of the race is kept busier." 

Miss Lucy Wilmot Smith, Editor Woman's Department 
Our Women and Children Magazine. 

The enthusiast who writes the historv of a life of modern 
times is too apt to paint the virtues of hi^j Fubjt'ct in such 
glowing colors, that, on becoming acquainted with the party, 
we hardly recognize the person as the one described. 
With this in view, we wish to state the points of Mis.i 




UBS. W. E. MATHEWS. 



m THE AFRO-AMEMCAN PRESS. 

Smith's career in journalisin, in the light of truth and justice 
to herself. She is the daughter of Margaret Smith, who 
welcomed this child upon the arena of life November 16, 
1861, at Lexington, Ky. 

Her education was obtained with much difficulty, owing to 
the fact that she had nothing upon which to lean for support, 
save her hard-working mother. She was forced to teach 
when quite young, in 1877, serving under the Lexington, 
Ky., school board. However, she graduated from the normal 
department of the State Univei-sity in 1887. She was, for a 
long time, private secretary to Dr. William J. Simmons, by 
whose aid she was introduced to the world of thinkers and 
writers in newspaper life. Dr. Simmons himself testifies of 
her that she is careful, painstaking, and thoughtfully helpful. 

She is a prominent member and officer of many of the 
female societies, looking to the advancement of religious truth 
and action in her denomination, the Baptist. She is now 
one of the faculty of the State University. Several papers 
which she has read before national bodies show carefulness 
of thought, as well as logical arrangement of her subject- 
matter. 

We have referred to the fact that it was through Dr. 
Simmons she began, in 1884, what has resulted so successfully, 
her newspaper work, when she controlled the chiMn-n - 
column in The Amcrkan Baptist of Louisville, Ky. She \v,i- 
for quite a wliile on the staff of The Baptist Journal, of which 
Rev. R. 11. Coles of St. Louis was the editor. She recentlv 
furni.shcd sketches of some newspaper writers among the 
A fro- American women for The Journalist, a paper published 
in New York in the interest of authoi*s, artists, and 
publi.shers. These articles were highly complimented by the 
editor, and were copied, and the cuts reproduced, in T7te 
Boston Advocate, The Freeman of Indianapolis, and other 
papers. 




MISS LUCY WILMOT SMITH. 




380 1:flE AFRO-AMERiCAN PRfiSS. 

Miss Smith is a writer of good English, and prodaoea 
sensible reading matter. She tends to the grave, quiet and 
dignified style. Her best efforts have been for Our Wcmm 
and Children Magazine, published in Louisville, Ky. The 
department of " Women and Women's Work" receives the 
benefit of her cultured hand regularly. She is deeply 
interested in the elevation of her sex, and is a strong advocate 
of suffrage for women. Upon this subject she wrote these 
strong words : " It is said by many that women do not want 
the ballot. We are not sure that the 15,000,000 women of 
voting age would say this ; and if they did, majorities do not 
always establish the right of a thing. Our position is, that 
women should have the ballot, not as a matter of expediency, 
but as a matter of pure justice." It cannot be denied that 
the women have done great and lasting work, that needs our 
encouragement. Miss Smith is a member of the Afro- 
American Press Convention. 

Our assertions as to her editorial ability are backed by 
some ot tlie prominent writers of the country. The editor of 
The Amcrk'an Bajdist says: "She frequently writes for the 
press, and wields a trenchant pen. Is ambitious to excel, 
and will yet make her mark." Mrs. N. F. Mossell says: 
" Miss Smith writes compactly, is acute, clean and crisp in 
her acquirements, and has good descriptive powers. Of 
strong convictions, she is not slow in proving their soundness 
by a logical course of reasoning. Her style is transparent, 
lucid, and in many respects few of her race can surpass her." 

To show the reader Miss Smith's idea of the women in the 
field, we clip the following from her " Women as Journalists:" 
*'The educated negro woman occupies vantage ground over 
the Caucasian woman of America, in that the former has had 
to contest with her brother every inch of the ground for 
recognition ; the negro man, having had his sister by his side 
on plantations and in rice swamps, keeps her there, now that 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 381 

he moves in other spheres. As slie wins laurels, he accords 
her the royal crown. This is especially true of journalism. 
Dooi*s are opened before we knock, and as well-equipped 
young women emerge from the class-room, the brotherliood of 
the race, men whose energies have been repressed and 
distorted by the interposition ol circumstances, give them 
opportunities to prove themselves; and right well are they 
doing this, by voice and pen." 

Miss Lillian A. Lewis, {Bert Islew,) Boston Corre- 
spondent OF Our Women and Children and 
Ex-Editress of The Advocate. 

Miss Lillian Lewis is among the youngest and briglitest of 
the Afro- American women writers, and her career in 
journalism, although a comparatively short one, has been 
exceptionally brilliant. Naturally of a literary bent, and an 
excellent scholar in literature and composition, she showed 
marked talent in this direction in her earlier days. 

During her successful school life, she wrote, besides essays, 
a number of lectures upon various topics. There was a vein 
of humor running through each, but under it all was a deal 
of practical thought. Her first eflurt in the lecture field was 
upon temperance, she, on several occasions, addressing tem- 
perance societies. She also wrote and delivered lectures 
upon "Man's Weal and Woman's Woe," — and "Dead Heads 
and Live Beats ;"and was eminently successful with the one 
under the caption: "The Mantle of the Church covereth a 
Multitude of Humbugs." This discourse, with dashes of per- 
tinent witticism, struck at the root of a good deal of pious 
hypocrisy which is constantly practiced. This was delivered 
by the young writer four or five times in Boston, and two or 
three times in small towns in the sn])urbs. The innate love 
of composition alone tempted Miss Lewis to enter the lectui'e 



i 



882 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

domain, where her career was brief, lasting but one short 
season. 

All this time she was attending the girls* high school, and 
additional and more difficult studies claiming her undivided 
time and attention, she was obliged to close her lecture 
career. She could not be induced to give up her studies in 
music and elocution, but pursued them for a year or more. 

Upon graduating from the high school she immediately 
turned her attention to literary work, and the next winter 
was spent in the preparation of a novel, "Idalene Van 
Therse," which is not yet published. Shortly after, she began 
newspaper work, and contributed special articles to ITie 
Boston Advocate. The Advocate, at that time, was the victim 
of much adverse criticism, and was rapidly losing ground 
with its Boston readers. Miss Lewis at once perceived the 
cause, and immediately set about to meet the exigency, if 
possible. Her aim was to edit a column of matter that 
would take witli all classes and all ages, and the result was 
the "They say" column, which has for about two years 
become proverbial with readers of The Advocate, At first 
the paragraphs were short, crisp, and breezy ; but later on 
Miss Lewis began to add comments and criticisms on what 
"they say," which wsis a happy thought, and made the 
column more attractive than before. The Advocate soon 
began to regain its former popularity, and subscribers 
increased, until to-day there is scarcely a colored family of 
intelligence in Boston that does not read The Advocate and 
Bert Islew's gossip. 

A short while ago, Mr. Powell, the proprietor and editor 
of The Advocate, offered Miss Lewis the society editorship, 
which she accepted, and which position she now fills; and 
what was generally known as "They say" column, is now 
virtually the society department of the paper. While writing 
for The Advocate, Miss Lewis contributed to I7ie Eichvumd 




mss ULUiS A. LEWI& 



884 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Planet] but pressing and urgent duties soon forced her to 
discoutiime the work in that direction. 

About two years ago, Miss Lewis took up stenography, 
and after much diligent study and careful instruction under 
an excellent teacher, succeeded in mastering Graham's system. 
It was then that she obtained the position of stenographer and 
private secietary to the widely-known Max EUei, of The 
Boston Hciald, who is one of the cleverest woman writers 
and critics in the country, and who occupies an important 
editorial position on the staff of The Herald. 

Finding that her duties as a private secretary called for a 
knowledge of type-writing, she set herself to the acquisition 
of that art, and is now able to write from dictation with ease 
and rapidity. In fact, her record for taking copy verbatim 
ranks among the highest in New England. Miss Lewis al.-o 
does good reportorial and special work, as well as work in 
the society department of The Herald, uj)on the staff of which 
paper she is a regular salaried employee. Miss Lewis is 
peculiarly fitted for the position she holds. 

Mrs. LrcRETiA Newman Coleman, General Newspaper 

CORRKSrONDENT AND WrITER. 

The truth is expressed in the sentence which says : ** Mrs. 
Lucretia Newman Coleman is a writer of rare ability." 
Discriminating and scholarly, she possesses, to a high degree, 
the poetic temperament, and has acquired great facility in 
verse. She was born in Dresden, Ontario, being the fourth 
child of William and Nancy Newman. Her father died 
when she was quite a child, and her mother soon after the 
death of her husband became an invalid, and died after 
thirteen months' suffering. The household duties then fell 
upon this "petted child." 

Inspired by the words of her dying father and mother, she 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 385 

withstood temptations, patiently bearing the burdens laid 
upon her, and led a pure, Christian life. She obtained her 
education in the common and high schools, and graduated 
from the scientific department of Lawrence University. She 
began to teach soon afterward, and continued to for some 
time. 

During her life she has filled many good positions, which 
came without her seeking them. She has been successful as 
a teacher in high schools, a teacher of music, and as a clerk 
in dry goods stores. In 1883, she was assistant secretary 
and book-keeper in the financial department of the A. M. E. 
church. While at this work she begfln to sail upon the 
journalistic ship, which has been one of continued ])rogi'ess. 
Thj& Ainei'ican Baptist^ then edited by Rev. William J. 
Simmons, contained an account of her career in one of its 
issues of September, 1884, which gives her standing at that 
time: "As a writer, her fame is itust spreading, not only in 
one or two states, but throughout the United States. Should 
she continue with the same success in the future as she has 
had in the past, she will be equal to Harriet Ward Beecher 
Stowe, if not her superior. 

Since then she has steadily progressed, until now she may 
be looked upon as indeed our " Harriet Ward Beecher Stowe." 
Ab a poetic writer, there is possibly no female Afro- Ameri- 
can of her age that can surpass her. Concerning her poetic 
and scientific writings, we can say no more than a well-known 
writer has in the 27ie Indianapolis Freeman : " Her last 
poem, 'Lucille of Montana,' ran through several numbers of 
the magazine Our Women and Children, and is full of ardor, 
eloquence and noble thought. Mrs. Coleman has contributed 
special scientific articles to The A. M. E. Review and other 
journals, which were rich in minute comparisons, philosophic 
terms, and scientific principles. She is a writer more for 
scholars than for the people. A novel entitled ' Poor Ben/ 

25 




886 THE AFBO-AMEBICAN PBESS. 

whicli is the epitome of the life of a prominent A. M. E. 
bishop, is pronounced an excellent production. Mrs. Coleman 
is an accomplished woman and well prepared for a literuy 
Ufe." 

Afro-American journalism among our women has been 
brought to a grander and nobler standard, by the lofty tone 
our subject has given it. Mrs. Coleman continues to devote 
her time to literary pursuits, and ranks among the most 
painstaking writers. 

Geobgia Mabel De Baptiste, Contbibutob to Oub 

Women and Childbek. 

This young lady, with more than ordinary accomplish- 
ments as a writer, was born in the city of Chicago, November 
24. 1867, her parents being Rev. Richard and Georgia 
De Baptiste. Her father (who appears in tliis work) was a 
prominent writer and preacher, from whom Georgia seems to 
have inlierited a love for literature. Her mother having died 
when she was only six years of age, she grew up to woman- 
hood sadly feeling the need of a mother's care and devotion. 
True to the prorai)ting3 of a good child, she learned early 
the need of a Savior's love and protection, and when only 
twelve years old was converted to God, baptized by her 
father, and received as a regular member of Olivet Baptist 
church, Chicago. 

Having a desire to obtain a good education, both literary 
and musical, in order that she might lift the burden of her 
support from her father and be able to cope with the 
brighter intellects of the land, she began the public school 
course. Graduating from the grammar school and receiving 
a diploma, she entered the high school. Her stay here was 
brought to a close by her removal to Evanston. She, however, 
took a modern language course in the high school. While 




GEORGIA MABEL D£ liAFi'ISTi:. 



388 THE AS'RO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

in Chicago she took music in connection with her school 
duties, and by continual study has become very proficient in 
that line. 

Her life as a writer began in Evanston, being inspired 
thereto by an article she read from the pen of a lady friend. 
So well received was her fii-st production, she became a 
regular correspondent to The Baptist Herald^ for which she 
wrote two years, or until its suspension. Since then she has 
written for The Baptist Headlight, and The African Mission 
Herald, and is, at the present, a regular contributor to Our 
Women and Children, an excellent magazine published at 
Louisville, Ky. 

Miss De Baptists is fully alive to the needs and necessities 
of the race, and will yet make a brighter life for herself in 
this* field. She is regarded as one ot the most gifted writers 
on the staff of Our Woinai and Children. 

Concerning her bent and purpose in life, she writes to a 
friend as follows : ** I am fond of literary work, and I hope 
to become a writer of real power of mind and character, — 
with true dignity of soul, and kindly bearing toward all 
among whom I may be thrown; not for mere social 
attainments, but that such may be the outward expression of 
inward grace and courtesy.'* We predict for Miss De Baptiste 
continued success in her literary eflforts. 

Miss Kate D. Chapman, Newspaper Correspondent and 

Poetical Writer. 

The future of no female writer is prospectively brighter 
than that of Miss Kate D. Chapman of Yankton, Dakota. 
First seeing the light February 19, 1870, at Mound City, 111., 
she now, at the age of nineteen, enjoys the reputation of being 
above the average lady correspondents and writers of poetr}'. 
Born of poor parents, Charles and Laura Chapman, she had 




HISS EATE D. CHAPMAN. 



^■.,.-^^,m■■n ..L llf ;i-.- of . 
^i'<j<l, all thiu^^ coudidL'i'e 
Btegititiing her corresponds 
the summer of 1888, she m 
her lively and interesting &; 
77ie Christian Recorder and , 
regular coiitribiitor to Our 
and we occasionally find t 
Indianapolis Freeman. One 
thought and unique in ei^iiesi 
Aa a poetical writer, the 
Afro-American women who Oi 
the lively and vivaciooa, n 
hiiraorous. We reprodnce o 
in The Indianapolis Freettu 
condition of the Afro-Americ 
ance. It is entitled 

"A QUESTIOS 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 391 

" Human we are, of blood as good; 

As rich the crimson stream ; 
God-planned, ere creation stood. 

However it may seem. 

*' Oh 1 sit not tamely by and see 

Thy brother bleeding sore; 
For is there not much work for thee, 

While they for help implore? 

** From Wahalak came the news, 

Our men are lying dead. 
Did it not hatred rank infuse 

When word like this was read ? 

" And now White Caps, with hearts as black 

As hell, — of Ku-Klux fame, 
Still ply the lash on freedman's back; 

And must he bear the same?" 

Thus said a woman, old and gray, 

To me, while at her door, 
Speaking of what so heavy lay 

And made her heart so sore. 

" What, woman 1 dost thou speak of war. 

The weaker, 'gainst the strong ? 
That, surely, would uur future mar. 

Nor stop the tide of wrong. 

" We must be patient, longer wait. 

We'll get our cherished rights. — " 
" Ves, when within the pearly gate. 

And done with earthly sights, — " 

Replied the woman, with a sneer 

Upon her countenance. 
" You men do hold your lives too dear 

To risk with spear or lance." 

" Naomi, at Fort PUlow fell 

Three hundred blacks one day ; 
The cannon's roar their only knell, 

In one deep grave they lay. 

•* Our men have bravely fought, and will, 

Whene'er the time shall come ; 
Bat now we hear His ' Peace, be still I' 

And stay within our home. 



392 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

" Let but our people once unite, 

Stand finnly as a race, 
Prejudice, error, strong to fi^t, 

Each hero in his place^— 

** And not a farored few i^T^imil 

Bribes of gold, position, 
While many freemen In our land 

Bewail their liard condition^— 

** Liberty, truly, ours will be, 

And error pass away ; 
And then no longer shall we see 

Injustice hold her sway. 

** As Americans we shall stand. 

Respected by all men ; 
An honored race in this fair land, 

So praised by word and pen. 

" And those to come will never know 

The pain we suffered here; 
In peace shall vow, in peace shall plow, 

With naught to stay or fear." 

Said Naomi : " You may be right ; 

God grant it as you say. 
I've often heard the darkest night 

Gives way to brightest day." 

Tliis young lady, as will be seen from an extract of a letter 
to the author which we take the liberty to produce, is fully 
alive to the work of the press and the demand for active 
laborers. She writes : " Allow me to say, that I think my 
work as a writer but barely begun, for, God helping me, I 
mean to become one of no mean caliber. I regard the press 
as one of the mightiest factoi*s that move this universe of 
ours. So great is its influence, so powerful its results, I 
verily believe that if we, through any unseen force, should 
lose our free press, our republic would be shattered. It is 
my aim to become an authoress, because, chiefly, having been 
strengthened by good books myself, I would like to give to 
my country ^nd people a like pleasure," 



OUR WOMEX IX JOURXALISM. 303 

Would that all A iVo- American women were inspired with 
the same zeal and determiuatiou found in this young lady. 
Journalism will be brightened by the poetical and prose 
writings of Kate D. Chapman ; for, as Miss L. W. Smith says 
of her — " She has read much, and will write much." 

Mbs. Josephine Tubpin Washington, Prominent News- 
paper CONTBIBUTOE. 

Mrs. Washington first saw the dawn of day in Goochland 
county, of the Old Dominion state, July 31, 1861. Her 
parents were Augustus A., and Maria V. Turpin. She was 
taught to read by a lady who was employed in the family. 
Subsequently moving to Richmond, she graduated from the 
normal and high schools and the Richmond Institute, now 
the Richmond Theological Seminary. From there she entered 
Howard University, graduating from the college department 
in the class of 1886. She has held positions in both of her 
alma maters, having resigned the one in the latter to marry 
Dr. Samuel H. H. Washington, now a practising physician in 
Birmingham, Ala. 

She is a scholarly woman, and has acquitted herself 
most creditably in many walks of life, which have necessi- 
tated a highly intellectual brain and a pureness of heart. 
She has held a position as teacher in Selma University, Ala., 
and also as copyist under Hon. Fred Douglass, when Recorder 
of Deeds for the District of Columbia, to whom she owes a 
debt of gratitude for kind acts and personal friendship. 

Mrs. Washington gained her literary reputation while Miss 
Turpin. Just where she began her work is not definitely 
known, but it seeniB as though she were born with an 
inclination to write, so early did she manifest a disposition to 
do 80. Her first publication appeared in The Virginia 8tar^ 
10 1877, regarding which a writer says: "About this time 



394 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

her first contribution to the public press was xoade to The 
Virginia Star, then the only colored organ in the state. 
This article was entitled ' A Talk About Church Fairs/ and 
was a protest against selling wine at entertainmenta given by 
church members for the benefit of the church. It elicited 
much favorable comment; and from that time on, Miss 
Turpin continued to write at intervals for the newspapers, 
always finding ready welcome and generous encouragement 
from the press and people.*' 

With an irrepressible desire to continue her literaiy work, 
she has written for The Virginia Star, Industrial Herald, 
Planet, New York Globe, New York Freeman, Christian 
Recorder, and also for The A. M. E. Church Review, and is 
still a contributor to some of them and other journals. 

Concerning some of her best contributions to the press, 
Mrs. Mo.sseIl, the gifted writer, says: *' Her subjects have 
been various, — eduoutional, moral, social, racial, and purely 
literary. Among her moj^t popular productions are probably 
the following: A series of descriptive papers written to The 
Indicstrial Ilcrakl, of Richmond, during a six-weeks' stay in 
Now York an<l Boston, in the summer of 1883; "Paul's 
Trade and the U.se he Made of it," read before the Baptist 
Snnday-soliool Union of ^Va^^hington, 1). C, and afterwards 
published in T/ic Chnsfifin Recorder; "Notes to Girls," a 
series of letters in 27i€ Peoples Adcocafc; "Higher Education 
for Women," an oration before the Young Ladies' Literary 
Society of Howard University, at tiieir j»ublic meeting in 
1885, and subsequently printed in The Ptvple's Advocate; 
"The Hero of H.irpcrs Ferry," delivered at the junior 
exhibition of the I'lnss of 1886 of Howard Univei*sity, of 
which she was a m«^niher; a reply in T/ic New York Preenum 
to Annie Portnr, who ha. I pnhlished in The Independent a 
vigorous onslangliL nL'iinst the negroes: "The Remedy for 
War," — her graduating oration, since given to the public in 




MBS. JOSEPHINE TURPIN WASHINGTON. 



896 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PBESa 



ITie 4* Jf- E. Church Review; and " Teaching as a ProfesBion,'* 
published in the October number of Uia Review. Mrs. 
Washington continues to write, and productions from her pen 
are welcomed alike by publishers and the public. 

Miss Alicb K McEwek, Assooiats Editob Baptist 

Leader. 

On Hardings street, in the cily of Nashville, July 29, 
1870, was bom the above-named young lady, whose work 
in the literary sphere has been marked with that success 
which would attend many a person's life whose aim is light^ 
and whose dependence is God. 

Of Christian parents, Rev. and Mi*s. A. N. McEwen, she 
grew up a God-fearing child, receiving a religious as well as 
an intellectual training. She acquired the rudiments of an 
education in the Nashville public schools, and subsequently 
attended Fisk University, (1881) and, after the death of her 
mother, Roger Williams University, (1884.) She did not, 
however, finish the prescribed course here, as her father, 
knowing the care a motherless girl requires, and feeling that 
a ladies* institute would best supply the need, sent her to 
Spelman Seminary, at Atlanta, Ga. This was in 1885, which 
also dates the preparation and publication of her first article 
for the press, which was printed in The Montgomery Serald, 
under the caption of " The Progress of the Negro. 

During her school life at Spelman, she " wrote various 
articles for the newspapei's, until her .graduation, May 24, 
1888, at the age of eighteen. She was then engaged as 
associate editor to her father. Rev. A. N. McEwen, who was 
editor of The Baptist Leader, a five-column, four-page journal, 
neat]y printed, and presenting as attractive an appearance as 
the average race journal. 

Miss McEwen is a journalist under the guidance of her 




HISS AUCE £. McEWEN. 



8d8 THfi AFBO-AME&IOAN PBESS. 

father, and her fame is extending all over the land. She k 
widely known by her having appeared before several national 
bodies to read some of her productions. She read a paper 
before the last National Press Convention, at Washington, 
D. C, upon " Women in Journalism ;*' also a paper before the 
Women's Baptist State Convention, at Greenville, Ala., the 
same year. The paper before the Press Convention was 
afterward published in The Leader, It is indeed a fine 
presentation of the subject, showing thought and careful 
preparation. She opens with a statement of the success which 
has attended the efforts of our women ; then, in speaking of 
the field which this work offers to women, she says: 
''There is no work which women can engage in that its 
influence will be brought to bear upon the public more than 
this. It is here that their utterances will commend themselves 
to the mind of the young. America has furnished her share 
of noble women in this work, and they have done much in 
molding the national life. Their words found, and are 
still finding, an echo in the life of the nation. They were 
thrilled with the forces and vitality of their age, and by their 
noble words helped to mold the destinies of coming 
generations." She then discusses at length the women whose 
work has been glorious, and closes with an eager apj)eal to 
our women to engage in this work, as the foUotving lines 
will show: "While we appreciate the work that has been 
done by these women, yet we must not think the work 
completed, This century opened with as broad a field as 
did the other," 

** Let us not merely speak of the praise due, but show our 
heartiest thanks by taking up the work where they left it 
and carrying it forward, even to a higher 8ta,ndpoint. If we 
will nourish the seed sown by them, I believe we, in the 
near future, shall garner a glorious harvest, while women 
advance to high moral and intellectual development. Let 




MBa C. C. STDMM. 



400 fd£ A^BO-AME&tOAN t^UBSS. 

us not undervalne the work of these noble women. The 
wisdom of the philosopher, the eloquence of the historian, 
the §agacity of the statesman, the capacity of the general, 
may produce more lasting effects upon human minds, but they 
are incomparably less rapid in their influence than the' gentle 
yet wise words of these women." 

'' All praise to these noble women. May their names ever 
live upon the lips of all true Americans." 

MSS. C. C. StUHH, BtJSIKESS MaKAGEB AUD CrOBBE- 

SPONDEKT National Monitor and Oua 
Women and Children. 

Mrs. Stumm, daughter of Thomas and Eliza Penman, and 
wife of Rev. Mr. Stumm of Philadelphia, Pa., was born iu 
Boyle county, Ky., March 25, 1857. Her father died when 
she was quite young, yet the inflexible zeal of her mother 
insured a good schooling for her child. She remained in 
Berea College for two terms, gaining a fair amount of 
knowledge, which has been added to since by her personal 
efforts. She has taught in private institutions and public 
schools, having been employed in Hearn academy, Texas, and 
Bowling Green academy of Kentucky. 

Mrs. Stumm 8 journalistic work began in 1879, at Eliza- 
bethtown, Ky., in a newspaper discussion with a preacher 
upon a Certain question, which resulted in a victory to her. 
She contributed occasional articles to The Bowling Oreen 
Watchvuxn, (Ky.) and while she was in Boston, she worked 
as agent and contributor for The Hub and Advocate^ and 
other Afro-American journals 2)ublished in that city. She 
has since resided in Philadelphia, and has energetically 
acted as Philadelphia agent for The JVcUional Monitor, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and for Our Women and Children magazine, 
at Louisville, Ky. 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 401 

Mrs. Stumm is a good thinker and a florid writer, and 
from what her pen has already produced, it is safe to predict 
she is destined to accomplish much for her race. 

Miss A. L. Tilohman, Editob Musical Messenger. 

Miss A. L. Tilghman was born in Washington, D. C, her 
parents, Henry H., and Margaret A. Tilghman, being among 
the oldest and most highly respected citizens of that city. 
Miss Tilghman was a student at Howard University, and 
graduated with high honors from the normal department in 
1871. For fourteen years she was a teacher in the public 
schools in Washington, and was considered one of the finest 
teachers and most successful disciplinarians in the corps, so 
much so, that when pupils were sent out from the Miner 
normal school to visit other schools and receive ideas on 
teaching and governing, the superintendent almost invariably 
selected her school as one among the number to be visited. 

She has been regarded for several years one of Washington's 
finest vocalists.. In December, 1881, she was engaged to 
sing in New York ; and the New York press spoke of her as 
"The bursting forth of a musical star, whose singing com- 
pletely captivated the praise and admiration of the critics of 
the metropolis, and elicited their concession to her richly 
earned title of * Queen of Song.' " In 1881 she was engaged 
to lead the Saengerfest, at Louisville, Ky. ; and in 1883 she 
traveled as leading sopranist for the Washington Harmonic 
company. It was while she was with this company that she 
was severely hurt, in walking up a street in Saratoga, 
N. Y., by the falling of a brick from a structure in process of 
building. Her skull was much fractured, and it was some 
time before she could resume her duties. This accident 
impaired her chances in life, since she had to abandon the 
stage, and give up teaching. Upon resigning her position as 

26 



I, 

4 



402 THE AFBO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

teacher in the Washington public schools, she was highly 
complimented bj both trostees and superintendent. 

As a musician, she is of the highest order. Her training 
was received at the famous Boston Conservatory^ of music, 
with private instruction under Prof. Jameson of Boston. 
Upon leaving that city she was engaged to teach a large 
class of pupils in Montgomery, Ala., which she did with 
remarkable credit to herself and class. While in Montgomery 
she was constantly engaged in devising some new step for 
the further development of her race. The greatest musical 
entertainment ever known in Montgomery, namely, the 
cantata of Queen Esther, was presented by Miss Tilghman, 
with a chorus of sixty singers, all in full stage costume. 
The following is the press comment upon Miss Tilghman as 
" Queen" and as manager: "Miss Tilghman represented the 
beautiful queen, and she manifested that solemn, pathetic, 
and dramatic force throughout the play, which gave it 
life-like appearance, as one would picture it as he reads it 
in the Bible. The highest praise is due her for the 
presentation of this cantata. She was the sole organizer, and 
deserves the thanks of the citizens generally for her interest 
in everything which tends to the improvement and elevation 
of our race." 

It was while in Montgomery that Miss Tilghman first 
published lyie Musical Messenger, In December, 1887, she 
was invited by the faculty of Howe Institute, New Iberia, 
La., to take charge of the musical department of said school. 
After receiving many urgent letters, she concluded to accept 
the position, and amid the regret of the entire community, 
she left Montgomery and went to New Iberia, where she was 
much needed. After remaining there one school year, she 
w^as induced to return home on account of the continued 
illness of her mother, and now resides there, teaching music 
and publishing The Musical Messenger, 




'i..i'5>''''"l'(j.J' 



3 A. L. TILGHMAN. 




_\f... 



J tlK' 



iiiijj>! lUu light oil our moi 
Americana iu a most pro 
"Stand fairly and squarely 
and whenever there comes 
money clash, then stick to 
and ill the end you wilt reap 
Ci-ilw pays her this tribute: 
The Musical Messenger, editi 
is a perfect sheet, of good 
editor, and hope 6ur peopl 
opportunity to learn somethi 
can accomplish much in her w 
energy, and it naturally foUo' 
will be supported. 

She has for an associate i 
known Lucinda Bragg Adan 
be the success of 27i^ Meest 
valuable acquisition to the 
Georee F R™"-- •-■ - 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 405 

Review, which drew much attention and many compliments. 
Her composition, "Old Blandford Church," which was dedi- 
cated to Hon. John Mercer Langston, had a profitable sale. 
27te Messenger, with Mrs. Adams' aid, will be a paper of 
commanding influence in Afro- American journalism. 

Mes. N. F. Mossell, Cobrespondent Indianapolis Free- 
man, AND Our Women and Children. 

To every reader of Afro- American journals the above 
name is familiar. Beginning as a journalist when quite 
young, Mrs. Mossell has, for sixteen years, continually written 
for our race journals, and reported for the foremost white 
papers in Philadelphia. Her first article, an essay on 
Influence, was published by Bishop B. T. Tanner in T/ie 
Christian Recorder when she was a mere school girl ; and up 
to the present day she has written essays, poems, short 
stories, and race sketches, which have been published far and 
near. 

She was especially sought for, and assumed the position of 
editor of the woman's department of jyic JVeiu York Frctmiayi 
and The Philadelphia Eclw. While engaged upon these 
papers she also reported for Tlie Philadelphia Press and IVie 
limes, two of the most widely circulated papers in the 
country. She is now upon the staff of correspondents of IVie 
Indianapolis Freeman, Tlie Richmoyid Rankin Institute, and 
Our Women and Children. Though a regular contributor to 
these papers, she nevertheless writes for other race journals, 
from the great A. M. E. Review to the smallest paper 
published. 

Mrs. Mossell has selected journalism as her profession, 
believing, as she expressed herself once, that the future of 
women, especially of Afro-American women, is on this line of 
literary work. In her writings she deals particularly with 



406 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

the women and the Afio- American race as a whole. Sh« 
hopes to write a book of some value to our literary world. 
She is alive to all the interests of our race; and since 
journalism is her mission, she is ever on the alert to ascertain 
some way in which to make it a success. As a writer, the 
reader may readily learn how Mrs. Mossell ranks, by her 
very pleasing and interesting articles, *' Power of the Press" 
and "Women in Journalism." 

In writing to TJie New York Age concerning the means by 
which success may come to us in journalistic work, she says : 
" I hold that no colored journal yet has done all it could do 
for itself, or has had all done for it that might have been by 
its friends. Now I have some suggestions to make, which I 
believe would help our papers to succeetl. I have never yet 
seen a colored newspaper sold on the »^treets by a newsboy. 
We sell at the newsdealers; we get subscriptions; we sell 
through agents; but the main means why white papers 
succeed, we do not use at all. Sunday morning I am 
awakened by the white boys shouting their papers. The 
Sunday Mercuri/, with its colored column, 'Items on the 
wing,' is sold all through the street. Now we live in 
sections; our boys would not have to walk their legs off. 
See to it that boys are j^ut on the streets Sunday morning, 
and on Saturday night where colored people market. Call 
out the name of the paper and what it contains of interest. 
Hundreds of papers would be sold. 

"Next, the papers could contain more valuable articles. 
Let The Age^ The Indianapolis Freeman, Detroit Plairuieal^^ 
Washington Peoples Advocate, and Philadelphia Sentinel, or 
others in widely separated sections, form a syndicate and pay 
the best colored writers to write on a given subject. Each 
could pay three or five dollars, and good articles could be 
written. Very few people t-ake all these papers; so even if 
they do not appear on the same date, it would be of little 



OtJR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 40? 

matter, if only it came the same week. The most successful 
articles could be put in tract form, and kept for sale by an 
open letter agency of the syndicate," 

Mrs. Mossell is a telling writer, her thoughts being clear 
and clean-cut, in the main. We append the following tribute 
to her from The Indianapolis Freeman : " Mrs. Mossell is one 
of the most gifted as well as versatile women writers in the 
country, and rightly does the race honor and appreciate her 
genius.'* 

Miss Ida B. Wells, {Tola,) General Newspaper Corre- 
spondent AND Associate Editress. 

That "perseverance overcomes all obstacles," is fully 
verified in the life and character of Miss I. B. Wells, who 
was born at Holly Springs, Ark., and reared and educated 
there. Her parents died while she was ati ending Rust 
University, which compelled her to leave school in order that 
she might support her five brothers and sisters, all being 
younger than herself. 

She taught her first school at the age of fourteen, and with 
this work and journalism she has been an incessant laborer. 
She has taught in the schools of Arkansas and Tennessee, 
and has at various times been offered like positions elsewhere ; 
but preferring to teach her people in the Soutli, she has 
continued to labor there. For six years she has followed her 
vocation as teacher, in the city of Memphis. 

During this time she began to write for the press. Her 
first article was a '* write-up," at the request of the editor, of 
a suit for damages, in which she was the complainant. This 
paper was The Living Way, which she contributed to for the 
space of two years. This engagement introduced her to the 
newspaper fraternity as a writer of superb ability, and 
therefore demands for her services began to come in. 



■„„'l„l,rj-l„-i..ri,.n I„.h,- 



ILwl Li'jhl. and eaitiesK of tli. 
Woiiuni and Chitdren, of whiul 
publisher. Decidedly, " lola" is 
and we cau but feel proud ot 
energy aervea to make her bo. 
journaliBte of Afro- American coi 
her election as aesintaDt secret) 
American Frees Couvention, at L> 
her unanimous election as seer 
Convention, which met at Washin 
Miss Lucy W. Smith gives an accoi 
which " lola" has contributed. 

In summing up her character i 
"Amen" to what Miss Smith sa; 
Wells, "loia," has been called th 
and she has well earned the ti 
fraternity not excepted, haa been 
none struck harder blows at the 
the race. 




IDA B. WELLS. 



408 THE AFBO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

T. Thomas Fortune, after meeting her, wrote as fbllowB: 
"She has become fieunous as one of the few of oar women 
who handle a goose-quill, with diamond point, as easily as 
any man in the newspaper work. If lola were a man, she 
would be a humming independent in politics. She has plenty 
of nerve, and is as sharp as a steel trap.*' 

She is now the regular correspondent of 2%e Detroit 
PkundecUer, Christian Index, and The People's Choice. She is 
also part owner and editor of ITie Memphis Dree Speech and 
Head lAgkt, and editress of the " Home" department of Our 
Women and ChUdren, of which Dr. William J. Simmons is 
publisher. Decidedly, " Ida" is a great success in journalism, 
and we can but feel proud of a woman whose ability and 
energy serves to make lier so. She is popular with all the 
journalists of Afro-American connection, as will be seen by 
her election as assistant secretary of the National Afro- 
American Press Convention, at Louisville, two years ago, and 
her unanimous election as secretary of the recent Press 
Convention, which met at Washington, D. C, March 4, 1889. 
Miss Lucy W. Smith gives an account of the many papers to 
which '* Tola" has contributed. 

In summing up her character as a writer, we can but say 
"Amen" to what Miss Smith says of her: "Miss Ida B. 
Wells, "lola," has been called the "Princess of the Press," 
and she has well earned the title. No writer, the male 
fraternity not excepted, has been more extensively quoted; 
none struck harder blows at the wrongs and weaknesses of 
the race. 

"Miss Wells' readers are equally divided between the 
sexes. She reaches the men by dealing with the political 
aspect of the race question, and the women she meets around 
the fireside. She is an inspiration to the young writers, and 
her success has lent an impetus to their ambition. When the 
National Press Convention, of which she was assistant 



410 YdE Ai'RO-AMti&IOAK t'fifiSS. 

secretary, met in Louisville, she read a splendidly written 
paper on " Women in Journalism; or, How I would Edit." 

" By the way, it is her ambition to edit a paper. She believes 
that there is no agency so potent as the press, in reaching 
and elevating a people. Her contributions are distributed 
amoug the leading race journals. She made her debut with 
The Living Way, Memphis, Tenn., and has since written for 
The New York Age, Detrcii PlcdndeoUer, IruUanegpoUs Worlds 
Qate City Press, Mo., LUtle Bock 8un^ American Baptist, Ky., 
Memphis Watchman, ChaUanooga J%uAce, ChariBltian Index^ 
Fisk University Herald, Tenn., Our Women and Children 
Magazine, Ky., and the Memphis papers, weeklies and dailies. 
Miss Wells has attained much success as a teacher in the 
public schools of the last-named place." All in all, we are 
proud to own Miss Wells as our " Mrs. Frank Leslie." 

Miss Ione E. Wood, Editress Temperance Department 

Our Women and Children. 

Among the young writers of to-day, few have gained a 
wider celebrity and a more deep-rooted recognition in the 
popular niiiid than lone E. Wood. Being only about twenty 
years old, and hence with but a brief experience in journal- 
ism, the rank attained by her exhibits her ability in a 
wonderful degree. 

She wa.s born in New Jersey. At an early age she 
attended the public schools in Burlington, and afterward the 
mixed high school in Atlantic City. After the establishment 
of the State University, Louisville, Ky., by her uncle, Dr. 
William J. Simmons, she was enrolled as a student of that 
institution for the purpose of pursuing a liberal education. 
So diligently did she prosecute her studies that the institu- 
tion, in seeking an assistant teacher, found in her the material 
for that position. Filling the appointment with such general 




lONE E. WOOD. 




Ai 



, Ml..- Wou.l 



!'■' 



jj.l ij 



gaiiiL'il populiirity, Aa a 
vigoroua. Her subject is a. 
managed. Her language is 
by-words, and is smooth, ag 
and natural, devoid of all 
sentences drop like the oar 
turn of mind little imaginat 
much use for tropes and figui 
remarkable clearness of ezpres 
lake. From the first, one cai 
writer aims. She pursues it w 
ing to neither side, and has 1 
leave a point when made. 7 
writer are clearness, force, sin 
ness and agreeableness. 

Miss Wood is now a stock-ho 
dren, aa well as a regular c 
assigned her is the promoti 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 113 

ori^inalitv and no veil y lends to make us victims of cruel 
deception. Language is often used to give color and attract- 
iveness to vice and heartless fashion. In view of this, it is 
no small compliment to say of this young writer she has the 
Christian ingenuity to intermingle much practical piety with 
what she writes. Herself a staunch Christian, her writings 
in no respect belie her good profession of faith. 

Mbs. Lavinia B. Sneed, Contributor Afro-American 

Press. 

This lady, a regular and excellent writer, was born near 
New Orleans, La., May 15, 1867. Upon moving to Louisville 
she entered the public schools, and afterward attended the 
State University which was established in 1881. Being a 
new institution its students encountered many obstacles 
common to such enterprises in their incipiency. Mrs. Sneed, 
desiring to enhance its prosperity, was one of the first to 
travel with a concert troupe for the purpose of raising funds 
for the furtherance of the work. She labored zealously for 
the institution; and is one of the few women who have 
received the title of A. B., having graduated from the college 
department of this university as valedictorian of the class of 
1887. She is a singer of merit, as well as an elocutionist of 
superior ability. 

While her journalistic life has not been as great as others, 
yet she has written much for our magazines and papers. 
Her contributions are always looked upon as choice English, 
'while the thought is pure, clear, and easy to catch. She is 
indeed a writer for the populace, in that she writes so that 
the meagerly educated may understand the purport of her 
articles. In most of her writings her decided ability has 
been made apparent. 

In the summer of 1888 she married the highly intellectual 




UBS. LAVINIA B. 8NEED. 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 416 

Prof. Sneed, by whase side she stands with unswerving 
fidelity. Her journalistic future is bright and promising, and 
the idea that she will do much for her race, through the 
medium of her pen, is the thought of many. 

Miss Maby E. Britton, (Meb,) Ex-Editor and Con- 
tributor Afro-American Press. 

Miss Britton was born in Lexington, Ky., thirty-three 
years ago, and still resides there. She was educated in its 
schools, and at present is a teacher in one of the public 
schools of that city. 

Her first literary publication was an address delivered at 
the close of her school. It was published in 2'he Ameiican 
CUizeny a Lexington weekly, now extinct. One who knows, 
says: "It was a strong paper, showing the relation of 
parent, teacher and pupil." Her next publications were in 
the interest of the Afro- American cause, and were published 
in The Cincinnati Commercial, in 1877. Mrs. Amelia E. 
Johnson says: "She has an excellent talent for comparing. 
explaining, expounding and criticising, and has made no 
small stir among the city oflScials and others for their unjust 
discriminations against worthy citizens," Articles of sucli 
nature were published oft^n in The Daily Transcript, a 
Lexington paper. 

She wrote regularly for the women's column in Tlie 
Lexington Herald. Through the columns of this paper she 
agitated a reformation in society, total abstinence from 
alcoholic liquors and tobacco, and the importance of active 
work and the influence of example upon the part of teachers 
and preachers. She wrote for TJie Herald under the nom de 
plume of " Meb." 

She has contributed literary productions and discussions 
to The Courantf an educational journal published in Louisville, 



416 THE AFPwO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Ky. ; to The Cleveland Oazelia, Ohio ; and to The Indianapolu 
Wwld, Ind. She wrote for 27^€ iry, a paper edit^ and 
puplished at Baltimore, Md., in the interest of children and 
youth. Her 7io7n de plume while writing for Tlie Ivy was 
"Aunt Peggy." Her contributions to this journal were 
chiefly philosophical, and written in a simple, pleasing and 
instructive manner; and many were the compliments they 
received from the young folks, who thoroughly enjoyed her 
articles. In 1887, a paper on "Woman's Suffrage as an 
important factor in Public Reforms," was published in The 
Atnerican Catholic Tiihune, at Cincinnati, O. She writes now 
for Our Women and Children, and for TJie Courant, 

Miss Britton claims to be neither a poet nor a fiction 
writer; but she is a prolific writer on many subjects of a 
solid, practical, forcible character. Teaching is her forte, 
and she prefers to perfect herself in both the science and 
art of the profession. As a teacher, she is greatly re.*=pected 
and esteemed. A writer to The Indianapolis World, Ind.. 
refers to her and her work in the following appreciative 
terms: "The city (Lexington) officials are building the 
colored people a school-house on the corner of 4th and 
Campbell streets; and Miss Mary E. Britton, the "Meb" of our 
literature, smiles even more pleasantly than usual. 8ht* has 
done a great deal to educate the youth here, under the 
most vexing circumstances; and none can appreciate or 
rejoice more in better facilities than she." 

Miss Britton is a specialist. Recognizing the fact that one 
can not satisfactorily take in the whole field, she wisely 
concludes to pursue and perfect herself in such branches of 
it as she feels confident are hers by adaptation. Such a 
course can not fail to give success to the one pursuing it. 
She is an ardent stiident of metaphysics, and a firm believer 
in phrenology, and had her phrenological character written 
out by Prof. 0. S. Fowler. He describes her predominant 




mSS MARY E. BKITTON. 



418 TEE AFBO-AMEEIOAN PBE88. 

characterifitic as "ambitioas to do her level best.*' He 
speaks of her as ** thoroughly conacientions, and actaated by 
ihe highest possible sense of right and duty ; as frugal and 
industrious and adapted to business." This description, 
added to her natural force, resolution and vim, can be fully 
corroborated by those who are intimately acquainted with 
Miss Britton. 

When connected with The Lexington Herald as editor of its 
women's column, she was an indefatigable worker, and 
rendered efficient aid. She was spoken of by that jonmal as 
follows: '*The journalistic work seems to be the calling of 
Miss Britton. No other field would suit her so welL In 
manner and style, her composition is equal to any of her 
sex, white or black. As an elocutionist, she stands next in 
rank to the accomplished Hal lie Q. Brown. No literary 
programme gotten up by the Lexingtonians is complete 
without the rendition of some choice selection by her, — Miss 
Britton. She is a hard student, a great reader, and a lover 
of poetry. Miss Britton is an acknowledged teacher, of high 
intellectual attainments." 

The above speaks well indeed of this energetic young 
woman, while, with reference to her ability as a writer. Hie 
Ainei'ican Catholic Tiibune (Cincinnati), has this to say: 
*' It is with pleasure that we call the attention of our readers 
to a paper read by that talented young woman and rising 
journalist, Miss Mary E. Britton, at the State Teachers' 
Institute, held in Danville, Ky., last week. Without comment 
on the terms it proposes, we give it to the public for careful 
perusal." 

Tlie Christian Soldier (Lexington), says: "Miss Mary E. 
Britton is one of the brightest stars which shine in Dr. 
Simmons' great magazine, Oar Women and Children; and the 
magnitude of those stars is national. Lexington never gets 
left, when it comes to pure, good and sensible women.** 



\. 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 419 

Who can say that the perusal of this sketch can fail to 
benefit and inspire our yoang girls. Does it not show what 
can be done by them, if they will ? Miss Britton is not an 
isolated case of hardships surmounted, — an honorable place 
gained among the world's busy workers ; for the colored race 
possesses many women of brain, nerve, and energy, who, 
when left to wage a hand-to-hand combat with adversity, 
fight along bravely and well; and in the end come off 
victorious. 

Miss Meta E. Pelham, Reporteb fob Detroit Plain- 
dealer. 

This lady, a writer of much culture, was born in Virginia. 
Her parents, when she was quite young, moved to Detroit, 
and Meta found her way into the mixed schools of that city, 
where she graduated as valedictorian of a class of fifty-three 
pupils, only four of whom were AtVo-Ameiicans. She after- 
ward took a normal course at Fen ton College of Central 
Michigan. She began to teach school, but owing to declining 
health she had to return home, when she entered The 
Plcdndealer oflSce, and began a most successful career as a 
writer for newspapers. 

• She is a woman of most excellent traits of character, and 
has a prolific and productive brain. In her newspaper 
experience she has written for other publications, but her 
work on The Plaindealei' has been marked with the most 
fruitful results. 

Miss Pelham is not so well known as many lady writers of 
less ability, — ^because, in her entire writings, she has used no 
fumi deplume^ or signature. It is thought that she will soon 
edit a particular part of Tlie Plaindealei\ As it now is, she 
is a general writ-er upon the editorial staff. 

2%e Plamdealer^ in its anniversary issue of May, 1888, 



420 THE AFRO-AMEBIGAN PRESS. 

speaks at length eoncerning the achieyements of the Afro- 
Americau woiuan in newspaper life. It has the following iii 
regard to Miss Pelham and her connection with the paper: 
''Since the inception of The Plaindealer, the influence of 
woman luus sustained it in adversity; the product of her 
mind Las given lustre to its columns; and now, more than 
ever, much of its success in the character of its productions is 
due her. To Miss Meta Pelham is due the credit of this 
aid, who has always taken an active interest in the paper, 
and' often contributed to its columns. For the past two 
years she has become one of its essentials in the office, and 
she devotes her whole time to the work. She was among 
the first A fro- American graduates from our high school, and 
subsequently took a normal coui*se at the Fenton normal 
school. She also spent several years teaching in the South, 
until newspaper allurements became more tempting. Her 
idea of a newspaper is, that it should be metropolitan in 
character, deal in live issues, and be reliable." 

Her idea of newspapers makes her a live and indispensable 
factor in the fruitful field of Afro-American journalism, and 
she is surely destined to be brought prominently before the 
public by the aid of her pen. 

Mrs. Frances E. W. Harper, Time-honored Con- 
tributor TO THE Afro-American Press. 

The name of this lady naturally brings to the mind of the 
reader the heroic efforts she made in the dark slavery days 
for the freedom of those in bondage, and she labors now for 
the removal of those things that she considers most harmful 
to her race. Her endeavors to promote the "Prohibition 
Movement" will have their place in history, as well as her 
writings which have inspired the youth in the past, as they 
will in the future. 




MRS. FRANCES E. W. HARPER. 



422 THE AFRO-AMEBIGAN PRESS. 

Mrs. Harper was born in Maryland in 1825, and grew up 
there, leaving school at the age of fourteen. As a lecturer, 
she has few equals, and poesibly none among her own race. 
Mr. Still has given a record of her energetic labors in Lis 

Utider-ground Railroad, as has also William Wells Brown, 
in his Rising Sun, She has even been a promoter of 
Afro- American journalism, and a regular contributor thereto. 

I7i€ New York Independent, The Christian Recoider, I%e 
A, il, E, Review, and Ute Anglo-African, have been made 
the more attractive by her productions. Her poems and 
prose writings have been found in other papers; but those 
mentioned are the most prominent. Her poetical and prose 
writings a.ie excellent, and have been extensively read by 
white peoi)le, as well as by the blacks. Tlie Afro-American 
press would suffer a great loss by the withdrawal of her 
intellectual and cheering aid. She has been the journalistic 
mother, so to speak, of many brilliant young women who 
have entered upon her line of work so recently. 

Mrs. a. E. Johnson. 

The subject of this sketch was born in 1858. Her parents 
were botli natives of Maryland. She was educated in 
Montreal, Canada, and came to Baltimore, Md., in 1874, 
where ><he has made her home ever since. She was married 
to Rev. Harvev Johnson, D. D., in 1877. 

Mrs. Johnson began literary work by writing short poems, 
etc., for various race periodicals. In 1887 she was strongly 
impressed with the idea that there ought to be a journal in 
which the writ(»rs among our people, especially females, 
could publish stories, poetry, and matter of a purely literar}' 
character, for the perusal of young people ; so, in the year 
above mentioned, she launched upon the uncertain waves of 
journalism Tlie Joy, an eight-page, monthly paper, containing 




MBS. A. E. JOHNSON. 



424 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PEESa 

origmal stories and poems, and interesting items from a 

number of exchanges, solicited for the purpose; also, pithy 

and ibspiring paragraphs from the writings of people of oar 

race. 

The contributors to The Joy were fjedthful, and the paper 

kept up in interest while it lived; in proof of which we 

quote the following extracts from The Bcdlimore Bcgptial^ 

the widely-read weekly journal of the white Baptists of 

Baltimore: "The cont^ts were original, and the general 

tone very creditable to the editor So &r as 

it has gone, the editor must be conscious of having done a 

good work, and shown the way for some other to follow." 

Mi*8. Johnson has a large collection of letters and newspaper 

clippings, further testifying to the appreciation in which her 

little journal was held. 

Her stories, etc, have always been favorably commented 
upon. TJie National Baptist of Philadelphia reproduces one 
of her stories, entitled " Nettie Ray's Thanksgiving-day," in 
its " Family Page" for Thanksgiving week ; and has also, at 
different times, short poems from TJie Joy, The NcUional 
Baptist is one of the largest circulated white denominational 
journals in the country. 

Mrs. Johnson has, in the past year, conducted a " Children's 
Corner" in The Sower and Reaper of Baltimore, for which she 
wrote " The Animal Convention," " The Mignonette's Mission," 
and other original contributions. 

But in 1889-90 she reached the place for which she had 
been aiming and preparing herself. She wrote for publication 
a manuscript, which was purchased by the American Baptist 
Publication Society, one of the largest publishing houses in 
America. The Attiei^ican Baptist of Louisville, Ky., in 
alluding to this, said: "Mrs. Johnson has the deserved 
distinction of being the first lady author whose manuscript 
has been accepted by this society." The Indianapolis 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 425 

Daify Journal referred to her as having been engaged upon 
a book " which is now in hand by the Publication Society, 
she being the first colored woman to be thus honored;" and 
I%e Baltimore Baptist said : *' Mrs. Johnson is a fine writer." 
Thus was given to the public "Clarence and Corinne; or, 
God's Way." (12 mo. 187 pp.) Of this little book the prees 
speak as follows: "This, we believe, is our first Sunday- 
school library book written by a colored author. Mrs. 
Johnson is the wife of a noted and successful Baltimore 
pastor, and in this book shows talent worthy of her husband. 

The tale is healthy in tone, holds the 

attention, and is well adapted to the intermediate classes 
of Sunday-school readers." {T/ie Missionary Visitor, Toulon, 
111.) "It is a pathetic little story." (^Natioyial Baptist, 
Philadelphia, Pa.) "The interest of the reader is early 
excited, and held steadily to the close," (^Baltimore Baptist.) 
"One feature of this book makes it of special interest, — it is 
the first Sunday-school book published from the pen of a 
colored writer." (^The Baptist Teacher). 

Rev. Dr. J. B. Simmons of New York, speaks of the 
"purity of style, and the delightful character of the story;" 
and a lady whom we do not feel at liberty to name, but who 
is well fitted to judge, and has been denominated as 
"scholarly, gifted, and a wide traveler," in a private letter to ' 
Mrs. Johnson says: "I hope you will still keep on, and let 
us have other books as graceful, as earnest, and as encouraging 
to young people, and, indeed, to all folks, young and old, as 
this first fledgling of your pen." 

All of the foregoing expressions are from members of the 
white race, and have been thus quoted because they were 
unexpected tributes. The book was written from afiection 
for the race, and loyalty to it, the author desiring to help 
demonstrate the fact that the colored people have thoughts 
of their own, and only need suitable opportunities to give 



426 THE AFBO-AMERXOAN FBESa 

them atterance. Others may hA led tihtrongh her to derekp 
a gift for writing, unconacioosly pooBeaBed hitherto. 

Oar own joomalB have also been ready with a hearty 
reception of this product of the pen of a Sallow-laborer. 
Tke Bapdat Mesaenger of Baltimore says that "the fiust of its 
being published by the American Baptist Publication Society, 
speaks volumes of praise for the book ;" and again, — ^" This is 
one of the silent, yet powerful agents at work to break down 
unreasonable prejudice, which is a hindrance to both races." 
7%e Home ProUdar of Baltimore says: ''It ought to be in 
every home ; and parents should secure it for their children, 
and see that they read and re-read it, until they make the 
principles set forth by the writer the rule of their life.'* l%t 
NoUtumal Monitor, Brooklyn, N. Y., says: "The story is 
carried on in a natural, graphic, pathetic, and deeply 
interesting way, through nineteen chapters." The Soioer and 
Reaper says: "As a literary production, it is a most 
excellent book, a model of perspecuity, energy and elegance." 

The author of " Clarence and Corinne" feels confident that 
there are those among the race who needed only to know 
that there is a way where there is a will, to follow her 
example, and no doubt far surpass this, her first experience 
in book-making; and she is happy in knowing that come 
what may, she has helped her people. 

These are by no means all of our women in journalism 
who have made themselves felt in that sphere of life. A 
host of them are doing local work upon newspapers and 
magazines. Some quite prominent ones have not as yet 
been mentioned. 

Virginia scored a noble record for Afro- American women 
in journalism through Miss Caroline W. Bragg*8 editorial 
connection with The Virginia Lancet, Miss Bragg proved 
herself a writer of much ability, and met in a commendable 
way the shots hurled at her from male joumaliBts. 



OUR WOMEN IN JOURNALISM. 



427 



Mrs. M. E. Lambert of Detroit, Mich., edited for some time 
&, MaUhevia Lyceum Oazefte, Mrs. Lambert is a clever 
gatherer of news and a pleasing writer. 

Mrs. M. S. Crary was, for a long time, editor of The 
Provincial Freeman of Canada, which was considered a good 
journal. 

Miss Clanton of Chattanooga, Miss Lewis of Philadelphia, 
Mi's. F. J. Coppin of Philadelphia, Miss Mason and Mrs. 
Frank Grimcke of Washington, D. C, in common with others, 
have done good work in journalism, either as reporter, 
contributor or regular correspondent. 

There are at present distinctive departments for women in 
The Afro- American Budget and Tlie Southland^ the former 
heing edited by Adah M. Taylor, and the latter by Mrs. 
A. G. Cooper. These ladies are showing remarkable activity 
and adaptiveness to the work. Tlie A. M. E. Review always 
contains articles from various of our lady writeis, while the 
newspapers are constantly presenting to their readers some 
contributions from our women whose talent is being recog- 
nized. With them, there is nothing in the past that warrants 
any reason for discouragement for a profitable and useful life 
in this department of labor. 




CHAPTER XXn. 

OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN ON THE AFRO-AMERI- 
CAN PRESS. 



Author's Inteoduction to Opinions. 

TO the unthoughtful the following opinions which we have 
solicited would seem a matter of poor judgment upon 
our part. In fact, some have doubted our propriety in 
propounding such questions to those who have so kindly- 
given us their views. This, of course, has arisen from the 
lack of knowledge as to our aim and purpose. All cannot 
see alike, and it is not expected that the reader will accurately 
see our purpose until it shall have been explained. However, 
the one who will take the time to give our questions mature 
thought, will see, without an explanation, that our purpose, in 
a nutshell, is to get the expression of the race aa to whether, 
in their judgment, our press has been fruitful to them, and, as 
such, whether it has been a success, with the disadvantages 
encumbering it ; and what they conceive to be the achieve- 
ments that compose such a success. We claim, with all the 
right thinking people, that the press, an expressor of the 
popular will, is an indispensable part of the nation's freedom. 
We claim that since it purports to work for a race's benefit ; 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 429 

since it purports to express a race's thougbt upon all questions 
affecting their material, moral, religious, social and intellectual 
welfare, their civil and political rights, the race for which it 
labors is entitled to a free expression as to its success and 
achievements. The question is liable to arise: Do the 
gentlemen expressing opinions herein represent the race for 
which the Press is laboring? The answer to such question is 
evident from the fact that those who here ofier their opinions 
are among the recognized leaders of the race, in the various 
vocations of life. We are fully confident the race will 
recognize the sentiment here expressed as theirs, free and 
unbiased. We claim that it is not for the Press to say that 
it has been successful, or what its achievements have been. 
The Afro- American Press has guided a race of freemen who 
have been watching its course with unabated interest. 
These are the people whose province it is to declare what 
the Press has accomplished and what has heen its success. 
Our Press continually claims a lack of support upon the part 
of the race, for whose interest its labors are especially directed. 
For this reason we, as well as the toiling A tVo- American 
editor, desire to know the cause. If the rea.son for non- 
support be traceable to the editor, he should know it; if to 
the people, they should know it. It will as.suredly satisfy 
the editor to learn that the cause, in a measure, lies at his 
door, and also at the door of his people. With such a 
conclusion accepted, the remedy can be readily applied. 
The future of the Afro-American is bright, in the majority 
of instances, while deplorably dark in others. The object of 
the question is to learn the general sentiment as to the 
future course of the race, if it be possible. The fact is 
prominent that the answers will give a unity of purpose in 
the future efforts of the Press. While these opinions are for 
the editor to ponder upon, yet it must be conceded that it is 
his prerogative, after giving them the thoughtful consideration 



480 THE AFBO-AMEBIGAH FBESS. 

to which fhey are entitled, to acoepi or reject them, aa in hie 
jadgment, he deemsbest; and then direct hia ooorae accord- 
inglj. They will aaBoredly tend to hia enlightenment^ and 
may aid him materially. We aay: Accept the good and 
reject the bad. 

The following drcolar was addresBed to the Hona. Fred- 
erick DooglaaB, John R Lynch, Bey. J. C. Price, D. D.,* Bt 
Bey. Benjamin W. Amett^ and others, to which replies have 
been receiyed: 

Ltnchbubg, Va. 
Deab Sib: 

I am impressed with the idea that the Afro-American 
Press has been a great success, and that it has wrought 
many achievements, and has been a great benefit in promoting 
race progress among our people. I also think that before 
both the religious and secular press lies a vast field for doing 
good among our people. 

Since this is a fact, I have assumed the laborious task of 
compiling the history of Afro-American journalism and its 
editors, which will be published in book form, to be known 
as " The Afro- American Press and its Editors." This work 
is expected to be very comprehensive and highly illustrated. 
An introductory sketch of the compiler's life and work will 
be prepared by Prof. Daniel B. Williams, professor of Greek 
and Latin in the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. 
Mr. Williams is the author of " Science, Methods and Art of 
Teaching," "Life of Capt. R. A. Paul," etc., and has the 
well-earned reputation of being one of the ablest and most 
eloquent writers among the Afro-Americans of Virginia. I 
shall also have the opinions of our ablest men, lawyers, 
ministers, doctors and teachers, as to the success, achieve- 
ments and the future prospects of the Afro- American Press. 

If you, as a foremost lawyer, minister, doctor, teacher or 
politician, whose opinion carries with it pow& and infiaencCi 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 481 

will consent to allow yonr opinion to be pablished in the 
work, as coming from you, kindly answer the following 
questions, carefully and concisely, and forward to me by 
mail within thirty days: - 

Do you think the Press in the hands of the negro has been 
a success? 

In your judgment, what achievements have been the result 
of the work of the Afro- American editor ? 

Do you think the Press has the proper support on the part 
of the Afro- American? If not, to what do you attribute the 
cause? 

What future course do you think the Press might take in 
promoting good among our people ? 

If you will furnish the opinion in thirty days, address me 
a postal card stating the same. 

Yours for the Race, 

I. GARLAND PENN. 

Opinion op W. S. Scabborough, A. M., LL. D. 

1st. I believe that the Press in the hands of the negro 
lias fully demonstrated the possibilities of the race, in all the 
xx)atine of journalism. The success of the negro journalist 
lias been phenomenal^ notwithstanding the lack of encour- 
agement and the indifference on the part of those who ought 
to rally to his support. The fact that the negro Press has 
succeeded, despite advei*se circumstances, is conclusive proof, 
in my mind, that its future is assured. 

2d. Among the achievements of the Afro-American 
editors, the first and foremost has been the establishment of a 
closer bond of union among us, by which we have been 
enabled to present a solid front, make a stronger fight for 
our righta, and thereby demand fair play in the race of life. 
The negro editoi^by virtue of his position, has not only 



432 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PRESS. 

become a live factor in our American body-politic aa a 
dictator and molder of public opinion, in common with the 
white man, but he is the spokesman of the race, and the 
guardian of its best interests. When he falters, when he 
becomes derelict in regard to duty, there will be a percep- 
tible dereliction among those whose cause he represents. 
Seven millions of American people are speaking through the 
negro Press, or are supposed to, at least Tbeee journals 
have become a part of the race, — an inseparable part, and as 
such, we are accustomed to turn to them to plead our cause. 
This, too, is an invaluable achievement, well worth the money 
and time it has cost. 

3d. The Press has not had the proper support on the 
part of the race. If it had been otherwise, the humblest 
journal among us, would have not less than ten thousand 
annual subscribers, — which is not the case. Leading journals, 
such as The Age, Gazette, Plaindealer, World, Planet, 8eniinel, 
Cbnsorator, JStar of ZUni, Louisiana Pelican, and others, 
would surely have not less than thirty thousand subscribers, 
with the bulk of negro advertisements and job printing, 
etc, etc. " Charity begins at home," is an old saying ; but it 
is nevertheless true. The negro, like other people, must 
look out for No. 1. If he fails to do so, he is very likely 
not to succeed. This trite maxim may be studied with profit 
by all of us. If the negro could be led to see the force of it, 
and could l>e induced to act accordingly, we should very sooa 
build up permanent enterprises of our own that would add 
materially* to the solution of the so-called "Negio Problem.'* 
I attribute the cause of the apathy on the part of the negro, 
at this time, to the jealousy among the non-intelligent and 
to the ignorance of the masses. Time will evidently bring 
about a change, and the negro editor will doubtless see 
better days. Further, the editor himself is not always a 
representative man; a man in whom tqc people have 




W 8 8CABB0E0L&H, A M LL D 



434 THE AFBO-AMESIOAN FBEEB. 

implicit confidence; a man of mobli leuning and wide 
experience, whose character is above leproack; and, as a 
result, the people are not drawn to him as thej should he. 
This is the exception, however, and not the rule. 

4th. Above all, avoid printing danderons talk and state- 
ments against one's character, unless ita eridanoe is so 
conclusive that there is no doabt as to the guilt oi the paiif 
in question. I would advise as little puUioatiim of this kind 
as possible. Further, I would suggest more general news of 
a racial character, gleaned by agents located tlirooglioat the 
country, who make it a specialty to gatibisr eTOiytliing 
pertaining to the moral, intellectual, sodal, religious, politiosl, 
and commercial relations of the race. Editorials and reviews 
of a comprehensive nature on all phases of the race's progress 
should be an indispensable part of the joui-nals of our people. 
No compromise should be allowed at the expense of sound 
moriils. Economy should be advocated, on all lines where 
extravagance now reigns among us, and the recognition of 
the negro, in all that the term implies, or, in other words, 
manhood's rights. There should be a vigorous policy and an 
aggressive movement, whenever the exigencies of the times 
demand it. The race Urst, and the individual second, should 
be the editor's motto. 

If* the Press shoiild take this proper course, it will be more 
largely instrumental in promoting good among our people. 

Opinion of Hon. John Merceb Langston. 

Wliatever appertains to the freedom, the rights, the 
advancement, the elevation, the prosperity, the happiness, the 
welfare, of the newly emancipated classes of our country, 
dwelling especially in the Southern section thereof, are 
subjects for our thoughts, our readings, our nans, our journals, 
and our papers. We do not live alone in this great nation. 




HON. JOHN MEBCEB LAKOSTON. 
435 



436 THE AFRO-AMEBICAN PRESS. 

We are not isolated, neither indeed can we be. We compoee 
a part of the indivisible natural body. So, while it is a fact 
that our previous condition presents some special wants and 
lacial peculiarities, and we may therefore, in some sense, be 
considered a distinct branch of the national population, yet 
we require no special appellation or peculiar definition to 
make known our legal and political status as American 
citizens. Hence, we perceive at once that while the mission 
of our editors and journalists may more especially pertain to 
our class and its interests, we may not limit their work to 
it. Whatever concerns the general welfiare must find in 
them a judicious and proper advocacy, if they would perform 
their whole duty with wisdom and efficiency. Finally, then, 
that which pertains to the common and general welfare of 
the whole people of our common government, a united, happy, 
and prosperous people, dwelling together in peace and 
harmony, their education cared for and fostered, their 
industry wisely maintained and promoted, impartial justice 
and right duly su})ported in their behalf, with their general 
welfare conserved, alone should constitute the crowning 
consummation of our editors. May God speed this consum- 
mation, and may their efforts contribute not a little to this 
end. Such is the duty of the Afro- American editor; but the 
object sought can not be attained unless the editor insists 
upon these things in his journals and papers: First, 
considering the fact we are Americans by nativity, the 
measure of our rights, of every sort and kind ; the measure 
of our privileges and immunities, of every sort and kind ; the 
measure of our opportunities and duties, of every sort and 
kind, is that which is common to every one who is entitled to 
the name and status of American; and we claim such 
appellation by reason of our nativity alone. No surrender 
should be made. Upon this point the journalists and editors 
must insist with all their power. 




JOHN B. LYNCH. 



438 ItHfi AFBO-AMEBICAl} ^&£!8£L 

Secondly, if Americans by nativity, we are citizeofi, according 
to the opinion of the late Attomey-Gteneral Bates, which is 
able and exhaustive on this matter of citizenship; and in the 
light of what he says, if the law be enforced, every white 
citizen will be accorded his rights, and every colored one 
will be protected in his. The editor shoald say whether 
this be practicable, for he is the wielder of the pen from 
which should come such information, either original or quoted, 
as shall give the mode and manner of procedure that shall 
accomplish the purpose sought. 

Our editors should see to it that our race and cause suffer 
no detriment. If ability be required, the editor should have 
it; if learning, he should gain it; if sacrifice, he should 
cultivate its spirit, and make it; and in the end he shall 
gain the fruition of a glorious, crowning .success. 

There is to be no compromise connected with the manly 
and fearless advocacy of all that pertains to the rights, the 
elevation, the advancement, the general and equal good of 
our race. No mutual repellency, sometimes called prejudice, 
at others' hatred, whether claimed to grow out of previous 
social condition or complexional and race peculiarities, must 
be allowed to weigh even an atom against our first demand 
for immediate emancipation from every sort of evil, — social, 
political, or official thraldom. The editor is to march boldly 
forward in the discharge of his duty. He should see that 
our interests, especially so far as our freedom and rights are 
concerned, are in no wise abridged, circumscribed, or destroyed. 

Opinion of John R. Lynch. 

Your circular received. In answer to the question, " Do 
you think the Press in the hands of the negro has been a 
success?" I must say, financially. No ; but the Afro- American 
editor has accomplished some good in shaping public opinion 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 439 

in the right direction. A majority of the papers receive, 
perhaps, as much support as their merit deserves. Some, 
however, do not receive what they merit. This, in my 
opinion, is due to two causes : First, the poverty and illiteracy 
prevailing among the blacks, and, secondly, the inferiority 
of the papers published as mediums of news. 

To the question, "What future course do you think the 
Press might take in promoting good among our people?" I 
would say, the publication at some imjiortant point, the 
the national capital, for instance, of an ably edited daily 
newspaper which shall be the equal of other daily metro- 
politan papers published in different parts of the country. 
One such paper, with capital at its back, and brains, integrity, 
and principles at its head, would do more good in the 
direction spoken of than all the other colored papers in the 
United States combined. With suitable effort on the part of 
reputable persons, I think such a paper can be established, 
and would be a success. 

Why can not a number of those now engaged in the 
publication of unimportant local papers unite their means 
and efforts, and undertake the publication of such a paper? 

Opinion of Dr. William H. Johnson. 

I do most decidedly think that the Afro-American Press 
has been a success, and is to-day doing a Plerculean work 
for the up-building, the development, and the broadening 
of the true and manly character of the A fro- American. I 
thank God for it. Were it not for the intelligent and 
aggressive Afro-American editor of these states, the Afro- 
American would be in a deplorable condition. 

I remember vividly, with profound satisfaction, the grand 
pioneer work iu the anti-slavery crusade performed by snch 
publications aa The Rama Horn, The Noi'ih Star, and a paper 



440 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

edited by Stephen Myers and his gifted wife Harriet, in this 
city, away back in the " forties." It was from the teachings 
and precepts of these advanced journaUsts, that I received 
my first inspiration for public work. 

The achievements of the Afro-American editor have 
resulted in the unification of the Afro-American people and 
the development of race pride, as well as the proper diffusion 
of knowledge ; and, above all, in the far-reaching publication 
of the educational, moral, business, agricultural, and mechanical 
resources and capabilities of the race. 

The A fro- American Press has not been properly supported 
by the race. There are a hundred and one reasons that 
might be assigned for this state of affairs. It will suffice for 
me to say that all these reasons, whatever they are, are fast 
giving way, and a substantial and healthy sentiment is 
crystal i zing in favor of race papers. This is hopeful in the 
extreme. 

Not being a journalist myself, I will not venture an opinion 
as to the fourth question. However, I believe that the 
Afro-American Press is essential to race development as men 
and citizens, as are the genial rays of the sun and the warm 
rains to an abundant harvest. The Afro-American Press has 
done much, but there is room to do more. It can and ought, 
withont fear or favor, to point out to our brethren in the 
South the line of policy that alone will conserve to our best 
and lasting interest. The Press can do much in molding 
public sentiment, since experience has demonstrated beyond 
the possibility of a doubt that laws, be they ever so just and 
proper, can not be enforced successfully against public opinion. 

The sentiment of the old South is to-day against a free 
ballot. By forbearance, discretion, and judicious deportment, 
the new South may be enlisted in the cause of a free, 
untrammeled ballot. No people, once oppressed, ever suc- 
ceeded in reaching the goal of their ambition, none ever 




iVIl I I iM II JOHNSON. MD. 



442 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PRESS. 

demoDjitrated their claima to pre-eminence and distinction, 
except through triala and much suffering. The Afro- 
American is no exception to this rule. The guarantees in the 
amended Constitution are all right; so, also, are the enforce* 
ment laws on the statute books. The l^acy is ours. Our 
cause is in the courts of public opinion, and if our adyocatee 
are strong, learned, zealous and untiring, the verdict in the 
end will justify our dearest hopes. 

Opihion 07 Pnor. Fbavx Tbimw 

I think there can be no doubt that the n^pro press has 
been a success. My opinion is, that the Press voices the 

feelings of the public toward the negro, and puts him upon 
a more amicable plane with respect to all nations, both 
abroad and in America ; and it has presented the true status 
of our race, so that a fair mind could not be mistaken in its 
comprehension of the great questions relative to the negro. 

Were it not for the negro Press, the country would be in 
comparatively total darkness as to the negro's real condition, 
on all the lines of human treatment and improvement ; and 
his freedom might as well be taken from him, as to deprive 
him of his journalistic privileges. In my opinion, the greatest 
boon of our American citizenship is the free Press; quench it, 
and we shall begin to wane. 

Many of our papers are shamefully neglected. We should 
ascertain which of them deserve to live and which should 
die; and that as early as possible. I fear that the poor 
support of our Press is largely due to the lack of a proper 
conception the majority of the race have of the importance of 
its unity, and of its concert of action in all matters pertaining 
to the race's weal or woe. Our daily papers should be more 
liberally patronized by our people. The negro Press has no 
specific lines upon which to move, other than the presentation 




Prof FEA^K TEIGG 



444 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PBESS. 

of thoee facts which look to the np-bnildiiig of the noe. 
It is certain that the fatare negro Press will be more 
liberally supported, because each succeeding generation will 
perceive its duty more clearly with respect to its newspapers, 
and thereby enable them to be improved, year by year. 

Opinion of Pbof. D. Augustus Stsaksb. 

To the question, Do you think* the Press in the hands of 
the negro has been a success? which is a very general inquiry, 
I answer generally, Tes. Whatever may have been the 
failures in the management of journalism by the negro, 
however poor the financial profit has been to one and all 
engaged in this pursuit, yet the net result shows success, and 
not failure. To-day we have newspapers published by the 
negro, which demand and receive the recognition of competent 
journalists, who once stood as uncompromising critics, and 
non-believers in the capacity of the negro for intellectual 
advancement. The Press, in the hands of the negro, has 
been a success in the work of the education of white 
Americans respecting the manhood and capacity for advance- 
ment of the negro. 

The second question is so intimately connected with the 
former, that the answer to it must be regarded as a continua- 
tion of that to the first. The achievements of the Press in 
the hAnds of the negro have been numerous. After the 
schools, the Press has done more for the intellectual advance- 
ment of the negro than anything else ; and in his moral 
advancement it has been the efficient handmaid of the church. 
Before the publication of newspapers by the Afio- American, 
little or nothing was known of the true status of the negro 
in America. Prejudice and blind unbelief of others placed 
him on the lowest round of the ladder. We were unknown 
in history, in art, in science and in industry. Through the 




PROF. D- AUGUSTUS 8TBAKEB, LL. D. 



446 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

work of the Afro-American editor, the public to-day under- 
stands to what extent the negro is a tax-payer. lu regard to 
his millions of dollars in property, his school-houses, churches, 
private dwellings and his bank deposits, the country is now 
well informed. His place and achievements in the schools 
and universities are known. If his rights are violated, the 
fact is proclaimed and his oppressor denounced. His 
writings are published. Indeed, to my mind, the Press, in 
the hands of the Afro- American editor, is doing the work of 
reviving the lost arts among us, and pointing us to the way 
to success on the one hand and the achievements of the race 
on the other. 

Unquestionably, I answer No to the third question. I 
attribute the cause, first, to our financial weakness as a race, 
and, secondly, because our journals are too much African, 
instead of American, thus keeping our minds, as a race, 
isolated from the great mass of American citizens, instead of 
making us a pnrt of the great whole. 

To the fourth question, I would say to the Afro-American 
Press go ahead in the course you are pursuing. Let justice 
be your gui<le, integrity your sword of defense, and virtue 
your pedestal. Teach the people that rights which are 
worthy of being received should be protected, even at the 
cost of their lives. We must die to rise again. This should 
be the motto of our journals. 

Opinion of Prof. B. T. Washington. 

Few agencies for the uplifting of the colored people have 
accomplished more good than the negro newspapei*s. These 
papers have served to create race confidence, in that they 
have taught the colored people that the colored man could 
manage a business requiring the out-lay of money, brains 
and push that a newspaper enterprise demands. The colored 




PEOt B T W \t^r^^OTON 



448 THE AFBO-AHEBIOAIT FBE88. 

editors hare rendered moet valiuble senrioe to ilie c«im at 
edacation hj conatantly itimaUting Mid eDCOonging oar 
people to educate themaelves and their children. 

The papers have served as edooaton to the white noe, in 
matters that pertain to the progress of Uie negro. The white 
preaa readily aeea onr dark side, bat is not dl^oeed, ■■ • 
rule, to go far out of ita way to let the world Imow of the 
negro's advancement. 

The work of the colored newsp^iers has tbns &r been nte 
of love and self-sacrifice, few if anj of than paying in 
dollars and cents; but there hoa been evident growth, both 
in the make-up of the papers and in the paid circulation, 
and I apprehend that the day is not for distant when they 
will bring in an encouraging revenue. Already Mr. B. T, 
Harvey is publishing in Golnmbue, Ga., a colored daily, and 
he seems to be supported in his efforts to an encouraging 
degree, 

Ofinioh of Hon. F&edebice Dodblass. 

Ist. Yes, but only as a beginning. 

2d. It Las demonstrated, in lai^e measure, the mental 
and literary possibilities of the colored race. 

3il. I do not tbink that the Preaa has been properly 
Bupported, and I find the cause in the fact that the reading 
public, among colored people, as among all other people, will 
spend its money for what seems to them best aud cheapest. 
Colored papers, from their antecedents and surroundings, cost 
more, and give their readers leas, than papers and publications 
by white men. 

4th. I think that the course to be pursued by the colored 
Freas is to say lees about race and claims to race recognition, 
and more about the principles of justice, liberty, and patriot- 
ism. It should say more of what we ought to do for omselveB, 




HON. FBEDEBICE DOUOLASa 



450 THE AFBO-AMESIOAN PBESa 

and less about what the Goyernmeiit ought to do for qb; 
more in the interest of morality and economy, and less in the 
interest of office-getting; more in commending the fiuAfol 
and inflexible men who stand up for our rights, and leas for 
the celebration of balls, parties, and brilliant entertainments; 
more in respect to the duty of the Government to protect and 
defend the colored man's rights in the South, and leas in 
puffing individual men for office; less of arrogant asBomptim 
for the colored man, and more of appreciation of his disad- 
vantages, in comparison with those of other yaiieties of men 
whose opportunities have been broader and bcftter than his. 

Opinion of Bev. A. A. Bublsigh. 

I am of the opinion, let., That if we judge journalistic 
pursuits in the light of the vicissitudes common to it as a 
business, Afro-American journalism will compare favorably 
with that of any other class in our country. 

2d. I am of the opinion that, as a lucrative business, it 
has been largely a failure; but viewed from the higher 
standpoint of worth and usefulness, its success and achieve- 
ments are as unique and unprecedented as has been the 
progress of our race in other respects, because (a) it has 
largely furnished a causeway and outlet for our stifled public 
sentiment, and given public expression to the under-current 
of thought among our people, the 8i?ic qua won of freedom 
and happiness; (6) it has greatly assisted in the unifying 
and centralizing of this thought, thus infusing a spirit of 
ambition and activity in the hearts of our people. 

8d. I am of the opinion, that our Press has had neither a 
fair and adequate support nor recognition from our race. 
The causes are far-reaching and varied. Among them may 
be noticed : (a) Lack of confidence and appreciation among 
the masses; a spirit inoculated by the subtile influence of 




REV. A. A. BUIlLEIGir, A. M. 



452 THE AFRO-AMEBIOAN PBESS. 

slavery; (&) unequal competition with est&bliahed oomnt 
literature ; (c) intellectual and financial inability, as manifested 
in collecting, selecting, classifying, and arranging matter; (I 
have reference here, not to appearance on the printed psge 
but to its fitness, force and character,) also, a fieulure to get 
into the markets and homes. 

4th. The future course of our Press. This, doubtless, 
would ap})ear to be suggested from what has been said. Let 
me add, that, as a fact, the colored man's success in every 
avocation will depend, not so much at being at '*par*' with 
the white man, but the circumstances force it, and the future 
demands, that he should be par-excellent to the average white 
man ; not that he must know more, or be more wealthy, but 
his standard must be higher. Loyalty to the eternal 
principles which alone can secure human success and 
happiness, must be his constant and single aim. 

Opinion of James T. Still, M. D. 

I think from my limited acquaintance with negro jour- 
nalism, I am not able to give unqualified, positive or negative 
answers to the questions in regard to the Press in the hands 
of the negro. If a statement of my opinions may be of any 
value, they are as follows: I think the negro has, upon the 
whole, done an immense amount of good, not for his race 
only but for the American people also, by the part he has 
taken in journalism. Witliin a few years, his participation in 
this, to him, new occupation, has, by the fascinating, conta- 
gious fever of imitation, rivalry, and emulation, caused 
hundreds of our people, young and old, male and female, to 
bring forward their thoughts, ideas, and desires before the 
public ; it is true, too generally, in rude garb, chirographically, 
typographically, grammatically, and rhetorically; yet, upon 
the whole, the volumes of these compositions have been of 




JAMES T. STILL, M. D. 



454 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PBESS. 

great value, and a better understanding has been eatabliahed 
between the two races that might never have existed other- 
wise. Heuce, I think the Press in the hands of the negro has 
•been a great success. It has been supported as well, probably, 
as could have been reasonably expected. Bemembering our 
position and condition when this new vocation was first 
eagerly entered into, — so much ignorance and want of general 
culture existing among us, it seems but natural that envy, 
jealousy and strifes, the children of this ignorance on the one 
side, and possibly a consciousness of snperioriiy, imaginaiy or 
real, on the other, has caused much less support to be given 
to negro journals than ambitious or verdant editors anticipated. 
I think the future of the negro press will be bright, if 
conducted upon wise and business-like principles. Its motto 
should be one adapted to all ventures that hope for life and 
progress, viz: Excelsior. In order to advance under this 
noble banner, our editors should adopt some such gene i-al rules 
as these, which must be surely winning ones: Originality, 
accuracy, truthfulness, promptness, manly independence. 
Thus conducted, I believe we should soon have one of tlip 
gi'eatest and grandest forces for the promotion of invaluable 
good among the Afro-American people. 

Opinion of Ex-Gov. P. B. S. Pinchback. 

I think that the Afro- American Press has done good, but 
has fallen far short of being a success. It is not half 
sui)ported. This is owing to several causes, viz: Illiteracy 
of the Afro-American masses, and the abundance of other 
and much better publications, etc., etc.. If the Afro- 
American Press will assail more vigorously the enemies of 
the people it represents, adhere strictly to principles, be 
lenient in criticising the A fro- Americans, and elevate their 
moral tone, it will accomplish much good. I advise leniency 




GOV PES PI^CUBiCK 



458 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS, 

in critifising the fanll« of the A fro- American, because tliei 
enemies never fail to cril.icise them without slint. 



Opimos OF Bishop Benjakib W. Arsett, D. D. 

There is but one answer to ths finit questiou, oo matter 
from whftt ataadpoiat I look at it, whether na to number, 
rircuiaiion, or editorial ability displayed in the columua of 
the A fro* American newspaper. Aa regards number, I can 
. remember when we had only one journal in the country, 77itf 
Mystery, published by that grand hero and pioneer. Dr. 
Martin R. Delaney, in 1847. In 1848, the A. M. E. church 
started Tlie Chrialian Herald, the first religion a paper 
controlled by colored men. Rev. A K. Green was moonger 
and editor. 

Frederick Douglass entered the journaliatic world and 
pleaded the cause of bis race, on two continenta, with both 
tongue and pen. Others followed, until to-day over two 
hundred intelligent colored men are engaged in speaking 
for the race by their journals, in almost every state of the 
Union. 

Some think that there ia no necessity for colored news- 
papers; that papers owned and controlled by white men 
would answer all purposes; but I think that it is as essential 
to have a newspaper to speak for us as a race, as it is for 
each individual to have a mouth and a tongue to speak his 
own sentiments. It is impossible for a white man to enter 
into the ai«pirations of another race, as one who, when he 
e:tpresses his own aspirations, expresses theirs also. We 
must have some one who can understand our position from 
within and without, and present it to the world in tha 
strongest light. 

Now, whether the Afro- American newspapers are supported 
as well as they ought to be : They are not receiving the 




BISHOP BENJAMIN W. ARNETT, D. D. 



458 THE AFBO-AMERIGAN FBESS. 

support I would like them to have. But there are aevenl 
things to be considered in explanation. We have had only 
twenty-five years of training, in the matter of a taste fiur 
reading newspapers. Previoos to that time we were not 
allowed to read the Bible, much less a newspaper. It is a 
very hard thing to overcome in manhood and old age, the 
habits of youth; so we have had to acquire the ability to 
read, and create a taste for it, within the short space of 
twenty years. It is marvelous, therefore, to perceive that we 
have done so well. There is no historical parallel, to it 
The people need to be congratulated rather than censured, 
for the manner in which they support newspapers. 

Many of our people buy other than Afro- American news- 
papors ; therefore we mu.«t not take the list of subscribers to 
Afro-Americiiii journals as the full representation of their 
support of newspapers. There is no class of persons who take 
as many newspapers and buy as many books as the Afro- 
American, North and South, according to population and 
wealth. There is a large number of agents for books and 
periodicals, entirely supported by the Afro-American. The 
Afro-American Press ought to utilize these men and make 
them contribute to the success of black as well as white 
enterprises. These people will take papers printed by white 
men, if they are brought to tlieir door; but if the Afro- 
American newspaper was brouglit to the door in competition, 
nine times out of ten the Afro- American paper would be 
taken. 

As to the fourth question, I say, — First : Let those who 
write do so from beneath the shadow of the Cross, and teach 
the people that the Gospel is more potential than dynamite ; 
that men can do much, but God can do more; that it is better 
to trust in the Lord and their own individual efforts, than it 
is to trust in any political organization. 

Secondly: The next good thing the Press can do, is to 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 459 

organize the moral and religious forces and set them in 
motion to bring the pulpit, printing-press, school-room, 
college, board of trade, and farm, in communication with 
each other, and fight against sin, crime, intemperance, 
ignorance and poverty ; to cultivate in every man a personal 
pride, in every home a family pride, in every individual a 
race pride ; to encourage charitable and benevolent societies 
and the organization of co-operative associations; to support 
each other in business, encourage young men to learn trades, 
and to start some in business. 

Thirdly: By encouraging the formation of organizations 
for the care of the living, instead of burying the dead ; to buy 
clothes, instead of shrouds; to buy houses, instead of coffins; 
to buy lots in the city of the living, instead of in the city of 
the dead; and to teach our people that money, education, 
religion, morality and integrity, are the powers of race 
elevation; that the spelling book, Bible, and blank book are 
as potential as the ballot, and that one of the greatest needs 
of the race is "commercial power." We cannot enjoy, to its 
fullest extent, our social, civil, political and religious rights, 
without the aid of it. 

Opinion of Rev. J. C. Price, D. D. 

Yes, I think the Press in the hands of the negro has been a 
decided success, especially if we take into consideration the 
great disadvantages under which the negro has labored. 
The Afro-American editor has been instrumental in demon- 
strating the intellectual capability of the race and its eminent 
fitness for literary work. He has been the means of informing 
the public as to the negro's development, achievements and 
progress. I do not think that the Press has received a proper 
support on the part of the Afro- American. This is attribu- 
table to more than one cause. In the first place, the masses 



460 THE AFBO-AMEBICAN PBES8. 

are unedacated, and, as a matter of course, they do not take 
to literary enterprises. We are permitted, however, to hope 
for more encouragement in the near and distant future. 

Secondly : Some of the Press are a little to blame for this 
lack of support. A great many newspapers have been of the 
mushroom order; they spring up in a day and die equally as 
soon. Subscriptions are often paid, and one or two copies of 
the })aper received, and then it is reported dead. On account 
of such ezpeiiences the confidence of the people and the 
Press is greatly shaken. 

Thirdly : The Press has not always made itself attractive. 
Some papers contain a few locals, but real food for thought 
aud instruction has not always been given the reader, I 
am glad to know there are notable exceptions. There are 
Afro- American editors who expect the people to take their 
journals, simply from the fact they are published by coloied 
men, and not because they give an equivalent for value 
received, in the make-up of their paper. 

As to the future course of the Press in promoting good 
among our people, I think it well first to inspire contidenoe 
ius to its stability and devotion to the interests of the race ; 
and at all times to take an uncompromising stand against 
those who outrage, oppress and malign the negro. I now, 
and always, hope to be the friend of the Press, and shall be 
glad to do all I can to advance its interests. 

Opinion of Prof. Geobge E. Stephens. 

Ist. The negro Press has been a success, relatively 
speaking. I do not understand the question to have an 
absolute sweep. There are many milestones between it and 
its goal to be reached yet. In my opinion, paradoxical as it 
may seem, its true success will have been reached when our 
Press ceases to depend entirely upon the negro for support, 




PBOF. OEOBOB E. STEPHENS. 



462 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN FRE80. 

and shall have assimilated fully with the white Preas, and 
be considered a component part of the news-bearing instm- 
ments of our country, and, I might add, of the world. 

2d. The achievements of the Afro-American editor have 
been of a twofold character, and they presage the final 
triumph, if he adjust his views to the advancement of the 
public thought ; or if he keep pace with the progressive ideas 
appertaining to a wide-awake country and age like ours. 
His constituents, when he first began to mold public sentiment 
among them, had small conception of the power of the Press. 
In the years that have elapsed a change has been going on, 
and the negro has given tangible proof of it in the increased 
patronage he has given his own Press. 

3d. It is hardly necessary to state that the efficiency of 
the negro Press is the measure of its support. I have already 
intimated that our newspapers must be cosmopolitan. An 
intelligent man wishes to know the doings of all the people 
of his own country and of the civilized world. The nofryn 
is but a fractional part of it. A paper that purports to 
contain the news must be a medium of it all. In looking ;it 
the negro Press from this standard, it is clearly seen that it 
lacks proper support from those for whom it is especially 
published. 

4th. While party fealty, according to the .shibboleth of 
very modern politics, deserves recognition, it may be safe to 
assert that the great masses of all parties are far more 
interested in good government than in political preferment. 
The negro's attention should never be divorced from an 
intelligent appreciation of and interest in the afiairs and 
principles of good government; but he needs to be told 
plainly, positively, and continually, that neither parties nor 
office can, in themselves, bring him place, unchanging power, 
and unfailing consideration in this country. 

Far greater attention, now and for a long time to come, 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 463 

needs to be given to the principles of political economy and 
to tlieir practical exemplification among us. The money 
men of the race should invest in enterprises calculated to 
give us a standing in the great mining, manufacturing, and 
commercial pursuits of the land. 

The negro must be taught thorough race pride and confi- 
dence. He should be urged to combine in various kinds of 
business enterprises, and pay less attention to petty organiza- 
tions, limited largely to ministrations to the sick and the 
burial of the dead. If the papers will discuss the welfare of 
the race along these lines, a reformation and revolution will 
take place, that must bring the negro and his Press in 
thorough aasimilation with his country and age. This may 
not come in the memory of the youngest child now living; 
still it must come, and if the acquisition of this power rests 
upon good character, nothing beneath the sun can dispkce 
the negro. 

Opinion of Hon. Josiah T. Settle, LL. B. 

Considering the anany difhculties whicli the negro has 
encountered in journalism, the Press in liis hands, has been 
as great a success a^s tlioughtful men couKl have anticipated. 
When his opportunities to prepare himself for journal ism, 
and the length of time he has been actively engaged in it, and 
the field to which his opportunities are ])rin(i pally confined 
are considered, there can be no question as to ihe suecesK uf 
the Press in the hands of the negro. No other race, l.-dxiring 
under the same difficulties, has, in the same time, dune as 
well. 

The Afro- American editor has demonstrated the capacity 
of his race to win success and distinction in every dej^arlment 
of life in which he finds his white brother a competitor. He 
has, by his capacity for his work, both natural and acquired, 



464 THE AFBO-AMEBIGAM PRESS. 

demoiisti-ated to the world that he doM not repreaent a race 
of mere iiuitaton, but a race, which, ander the same oonditioiu, 
is capable of doing all the Anglo-Saxon race cai( accomplinh. 

No agency has been more potent in compelling a just 
recognition of the negro, as a man and a citisen, than the 
Press in his hands. Through this agency he shows what the 
race is doing in the world of letters and in all the other 
depai-tments of life, with a minuteness which would otherwise 
be impossible ; thereby inspiring an earnestness and enthusiasm 
in his own race, and compelling the respect and admiration 
of all otlierH. Through his paper, the editor stamps his 
individuality upon the public opinion of the day, and this 
individuality permeates the entire field of his circulation, 
making him a part of the body politic, and gives him a 
power for good or evil, which no other agency possibly can. 
The editor is a daily teacher and the reading public are his 
pupils, and with a well-filled mind and a trenchant pen, his 
capacity for good is only limited by his ability and his 
industry. 

The A fro- American editor has done more, probably, than 
any other to acquaint the world with the exact condition of 
his race, and to him, more than any other, belongs the credit 
and honor of opening the way through w^hich the negro is 
able to make his just demands upon those in high places, to 
whom is intrusted the ^niardianship of every right that 
belongs lo him as a man and a citizen, as well as n member 
of a political party. Pie has made it impossible to oppress 
his race in socrccv and silence, and has established a sure 
and permanent mvdium through which the doings for and 
against his race are given to the world. He has done all 
this and more ; he has exploded the doctrine of race inferi- 
ority, and established the moral and intellectual equality of 
his race, as well as his ability to win success and distinction, 
whenever and wherever the opportunity is given. 




BON. JOSIAH T. SETTLE, LL. 



466 THE AFRO-AMERIOAN PRESS. 

Not being connected with the Press, but actively eugaged 
in the practice of the law, I can not say to what extent the 
Press is supported by the Afro- American. That it should 
receive, at his hands, all the support necessary to insure its 
success, should not for a moment be questioned. If the 
proper support is withheld, the cause may rest with both the 
members of the Press and the people. The editor should 
strive to make his paper the equal of any of its kind, giving 
his readers as much, both in quantity and quality, as any 
other paper of a similar size and character. The negro has 
passed the point in life when mere, printed matter satisfies 
his reader's appetite ; he wants food for thought. 

He should have current news of the day. The scissors 
can not always supply the place of brains in the editorial 
chair, and while we may not, and do not, expect the associate 
pre^ news to be contained in all of our journals, we do 
expect such news as will inform us upon all the important 
issues of the day, and suet editorials as will educate the 
readers upon questions of public import. Less society news, 
and more general information, would impart a healthier tone 
to most of our race journals. In fact, business, and not 
sentiment, is what the masses want. 

When our race journals present the best medium of reaching 
the masses of our people, the business men of a community 
will not be slow to avail themselves of their use. Sentiment 
and prejudice can not weigh against business principles and 
business interests, and the more business our journals 
represent, the more readers they will reach. We can not 
expect support and patronage for an inferior journal because 
it happens to come from our race ; nor can the reading public 
expect an inferior article at superior prices and with inditferent 
suj^port. The annual conventions held by the Afro-Ameri- 
can members of the Press, are doing a great work in extending 
its usefulness, 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 467 

My opinion as to what future course the Press should 
take to promote the good of our people, may be expressed in 
a very few words : Have all of our people, as far as possible, 
read our papers, and then make our papers just what they 
should be. The Press must devise its own means of 
extending its field of operation, and our people must open 
their hearts and purses. The direct benefits resulting will 
be reciprocal, and as a result the highest and best interest of 
our oppressed race will be promoted. 

Opinion of Hon. Jere A. Brown. 

Allow me to say, first, that I know the Press in the hands 
of the negro has been a success, when and wherever it has 
been conducted in the interest of the race and not for 
self-aggrandizement or mercenary motives. In arriving at 
this conclusion my mind reverts to the events of the past 
forty years, when I read, for the fi;st time, a newspaper, 
owned and edited and controlled by the late Major M. R. 
Delaney, known as TJie Mystei'y, and published at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Short-lived as it was, it clearly demonstrated its worth 
and the necessity for a race paper. 

Coming down through the dark days of our history, here 
and there, throughout the northern states, newspapers edited 
by colored men sprang into existence. Their specific work 
and object was the overthrow of slavery, and well did they 
perform their work. Here was a channel through which we 
could advocate our cause, without the fear of having it 
misrepresented, smoothed over, or in any manner shorn of 
the truth ; for, as a general thing, the Press was subsidized 
largely by the influences created through our enforced 
servitude. Thus it was that we brought our woes, burdens, 
and grievances before the enlightened world, pressing our 
own way against the monster, as the az does its work for the 



468 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

pioneer of the forest. Therefore, I regard the Press, in tlie 
hands of the negro, as one of the most potent levei-s in 
assisting in the total destruction of American slavery, that 
existed in the ante-bellum days, which is the greatest 
achievement, to my mind, accomplished in the history of our 
country, and fully answers the second question. 

At present, I do not think the Press has the proper support 
that it should have from our people. This is a question that 
has many attributable causes, if one is allowed to judge from 
the eiivironments of special sections of the country where 
such periodicals are issued. Of course we must speak of this 
matter in a general or national sense. As a rule, our people 
are poor, earning a precarious livelihood, which demands the 
liist penny to meet the necessities of their families. We are 
not yet educated to that spirit of appreciation we should 
possess for those who are struggling to perfect themselves in 
journalism. The great mass of our people do not look upon 
our Press as educators, or even truthful reporters or delineatoi*s 
of the live issues of the day. Most of our papers are issued 
weekly, generally containing news read in the daily Press, 
and many things are found in them foreign to a woll- 
conducted newspaper, which some denominate gossip; and 
again, there is a demand for light reading matter to the 
exclusion of all other. How much foundation there is for 
these reasons, all of which I have heard mentioned, I leave 
for others to decide. My opinion is this, and it is given 
frankly, without reference to any particular person or j»aper: 

First: We do not yet possess a paper that we can cull a 
national organ ; if we did, it would demand national support. 

Secondly: Most of our editors are comparatively young 
men, who have lately entered the field of journalism, often 
without the experience demanded, which, before they gain, 
their efforts are of that kind that alienate rather than draw. 
Although doing their best, they find themselves in debt, and 




HON. JEBE A. BBOWN. 



470 THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

their subscription list reduced to such an extent that their 
venture perishes. 

Again : The absence from the field of such a veteran in 
journalism as Frederick Douglass, is to me another cause; 
for such as he could demand, nay, command the support 
from our people of any paper he should edit. It is true, that, 
in time, these causes I have just mentioned will be removed, 
as our young men advance in age and become thoroughly 
familiarized with journalism. Having carefully watched the 
rise and progress of many of our Western papers, notably 
The Cleveland Oazeite, Detroit Plaindcaler, Indianapolis World, 
Chicago Conservator and others, the improvement has been so 
marked, both in style, perspicuity, terseness, tone and vigor, 
that it appears to be a transformation, although so gradual as 
to be almost imperceptible to the casual reader. Hence it is, 
I say, that we are gradually arriving at that stage of 
proficiency so essential for success in this particular field. 

The future course of our Press, to promote good among our 
people, (I only speak of the secular Press,) is the teaching of 
good morals; the education of our youth; the necessity of 
possessing refinement and culture, which stamp the true lady 
and gentleman ; to teach every colored man, woman and 
child that he is an American, in all that the word implies, 
until this idea permeates the whole race; to teach that "the 
cause of one is the cause of all ;" that, as we are equal in the 
sight of God as men, we must be equal in all things that 
pertain to the happiness of all men; that we were men before 
man made any law that detracted or abridged any of our 
inherent rights ; to teach patience, forbearance, kindness and 
love towards those who are our enemies, and not seek to 
convince them of their injustice by saying hard words or 
writing threats against them ; to teach our youth that, 
although our race was enslaved, in the history of this now 
proud, arrogant and haughty race which so persistently 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 471 

domineers over us, they can read and learn of the conquest 
and subjugation to slavery of the Anglo-Saxon ; that he did 
not, in one hundred years after emerging from the Norman 
yoke, show as much advancement as the American negro has 
in twenty-five. 

Last, but not least, teach an implicit faith in Him who 
created all men ; and although his ways may appear 
inscrutable to us. He is still the God of our Fathers who led 
us from the dark, pernicious, and baneful effects of an 
enforced servitude. 

Let me add as words of encouragement to the men and 
women of our race, the future of our youth depends largely 
upon our teachings, as it depended upon those who preceded 
us. We have a great work to perform, and, no far, it has been 
nobly done, and I am confident we shall yet do grander work. 
But beware of strifes against each other, bickering, jealousies, 
and sentimental effusions; for we need the undivided support 
of each other to gain that of which we have been robbed. 
Let us take courage from the lessons of the past; girding on 
our armor with renewed vigor and energy still advance, 
working out our own destiny, and we shall soon solve that 
• great question, which only exists in prejudiced minds, "the 
Negro Problem." 

Opinion of Rev. T. G. Stewart, D. D. 

Twenty-five years ago, when Emancipation became a fact, 
and the enfranchisement of the colored people of the South 
became a political necessity, many reasons combined to urge 
the adoption of the most comprehensive and most effective 
measures to secure their rapid education. Christianity, 
humanity, and patriotism, all said these people must be 
taught to read at once, in order that the important lessons 
relating to conduct, in all its bearings, might be successfully 



472 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

imparted to them. Under these influences, schools were 
opened in all parts of the South ; and the good work begun 
by the Northern people has, to some extent, been supple- 
mented by the people of the South, and by the colored 
people themselves, in opening and maintaining such schools 
as Morris Brown College at Atlanta, Allen University at 
Columbia, and Paul Quinn College at Waco, with others of 
equal or lower grade. As a result of all this educational 
work, it is now quite certain that one-third of all the colored 
people of the South, over ten years of age, can read; and 
while we must not forget the other two-thirds who can not 
read, yet in locating the field for the colored man*s paper, 
the one-third who can read must be given the chief place. 
From these must come, in the main, the subscribers; and 
without subscribers the publisher of a paper can not hope to 
command advertisements. 

The reading population, among whom the colored man 
must circulate bis paper, is probably about equal to the 
city of New York. I am now speaking with reference to the 
South alone. Two things will at once present themselves to 
our view, as we attempt to survey this field. Firet, we will 
notice that the literary ap2-)etite is quite weak, and the taste 
undeveloped ; and, second, we will observe that the field is 
very poorly supplied. In regard to the appetite, I make 
one remark to point out its weakness. It is a recognized fact 
that colored readers in the South care almost exclusively for 
local news. Indeed, they simply desire to see their own 
locality written up. The news of the great, wide world, or 
even the news of the great, wide country, or the news even 
narrowed down to the experiences and doings of their own 
race, as they are scattered abroad throughout our land, is 
not desired to any great extent by them. They have but 
little appetite for it, and so are not willing to pay for it. 
This localism can not be disregarded at present. 




EEV. T. O. STEWART, D. D, 



474 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

A word as to the tast«: It must be remembered that 
these people have not been reading long, and consequently 
have not read much. The colored editor can not mold his 
weekly after the literary weekly of the country, nor after 
the daily of the city. His model must be, rather, the 
average countiy weekly; an4 he must afford such reading 
matter as will suit his customers. The great colored 
newspaper must begin at the bottom and grow up with the 
advancing race. So far as I am able to judge, neither the 
great newspaper, nor the great editor, has yet appeared ; but 
I have no doubt that the editor will come, and come from 
the ranks of those who are passing through the experience 
common to those who have been enslaved. 

Many things in politics, religion, and philosophy seem to 
combine to point out for the American negro an important 
and commanding future. The great poets, orators, and 
literary men of the nation ought to, and I believe will, come 
from this race. Compelled to come up fresh from fii-st 
principles, they will throw a glow of warmth and originality 
over American literature, which the world will not fail to 
recognize. To ap.«i.«t in shaping the course of the writers and 
bringing out this literature, is the mission of the colored 
man's paper. Up to the present, he has been presenting 
ornde and cheap thonght<5, and dealing with unimportafit. 
petty facts, and reeling off much jargon. He is runnin'i ul\ 
the froth of an effervescent race; but the good wine will 
come after a while, and these rich, fresh minds will give 
out their brilliant, sparkling thoughts in charming melody, 
and the colored man's newspaper, purged of its dross, will 
be as pure gold.- 

I do not leave out of account, in marking out the field for 
the colored man's journal, the thousands of colored peoj>le 
scattered throughout the North. These are the Old Guard. 
They have shown their faith, over and over again, by their 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 475 

works. But it must be remembered that, to a large extent, 
through the public schools and other methods, they have 
become amalgamated with the general citizenship, and a 
race paper does not appeal to them with the force which it 
did a quarter of a century ago. 

The great field for journalism to be represented by the 
Afro- American Press must be in the late slave states; and it 
is a field which promises an abundant harvest, in both literary 
and pecuniary results. To mold and solidify this race in the 
South-land, to inspire and direct the Afro- American, I 
conceive to be, in conjunction with other forces, the mission 
of the Afro- American Press. 

Opinion of Prof. J. H. Lawson. 

To the Ist and 2d questions, I answer, I do. I use the 
term success as commonly understood. The negro Press is 
part of the American Press. It is a vital part. It has done 
much in elevating a favorable sentiment in regard to the 
negro question. This I consider a positive gain. It has 
done much in vindicating local rights of negroes. It has 
been the chief source of knowledge as to how the machinery 
of government is operated. It has demonstrated negro 
capacity. It is the mouth-piece of negroes in legislative 
halls, where they can not speak. In fine, whatever claim is 
set up for the great American Press, a proportional part is 
due to the negro. As the body is not whole if deprived of 
any of its members, so the American Press is shorn of its full 
praise, if the negro's contribution to it goes unnoted and for 
naught. 

To the third question I must say: I think it does. 
Colored papers are too costly. I can buy The New Ymk 
IHbune for three cents, but I can not buy a negro paper for 
less than five cents. I have yet to see the colored paper, 




PROF. J. a. LAWSON. 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 



477 



with texture and quality equal to The Hibune. It seems to 
me, now, that an intelligent man, or one simply desiring 
information, would see what benefit he is getting for his 
money, in taking a paper. It is the principle in all other 
matters. I can see no reason why it should not apply here. 
As a rule, both editorial and news-matter are of higher 
quality in white papers. The news- matter in colored papers 
is absolutely worthless. Whatever news there is of public or 
special interest, is first procured by white papers, which, for 
the most part, have agents on the spot. For news, the 
colored paper falls back upon the white paper. Sympathy, 
on the ground of race pride, is an unjust and unmanly 
demand. It is dangerous as well, since unworthy papers 
might feed upon public patronage and usurp the field of 
meritorious ones. 

To the fourth question I answer: 

1st. To consolidate in dailies. 

2d. To employ good editors, managers and correspondents. 

3d. To use the same means employed by the best papers 
of the country. 




CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE AFRO- AMERICAN EDITOR'S MISSION, BY EML 

NENT JOURNALISTS. 



The Author's Introductory. 

IN the light of the opinions here rendered regarding Afro- 
American j Hirnalism, the purpose and aim of the author 
is to have actual assertions from three of the prominent 
personages in the field as to their idea of the great work 
intrusted to their keeping. The press, the most potent tactor 
for good on the one hand, or for evil on the other, must be 
piloted in the light of the knowledge as to how it will 
subserve the best interests of the nation. It must of all 
forces be pure, and free from any contaminating influence, 
be it in the religious or secular field, it being far from our 
aim to insert here articles from these personages merely to 
"fill up," but to give an interested public the information as 
to what we are striving for in our exercise of the freedom of 
the press. At the instance of the foregoing letters, Hon. 
T. Thomas Fortune, representing the secular press, Rev. L. J. 
Coppin, D. D., the religious press, and Mrs. N. F. Mossell, our 
women, give us the benefit of what they conceive to be the 
telling work at their command. The following is a copy of 



THE EDITORS MISSION. 479 

the communication sent them: The Afro-American editor 
should, most assuredly, know for what he is .striving, and the 
public, in whose welfare he is interested, should know, through 
this medium, in what way he is using his freedom in their 
behalf. Will you, aa an Afro-American editor, kindly 
consent to give me your purpose in journalism, and your 
views as to tlie mission of Afro- American newspapers? 

Dr. Coj>pin was requested to give his views upon "Our 
Work as Journalists;" while Mrs. Mossell was asked to give 
hers upon "The Power of the Press," and "Our Women in 
Journalism." How near the views of these writers meet the 
expressions of the many whose opinions will be found in the 
preceding chapter of this book, can be readily seen by the 
editor and reader. As Mr. Fortune savs in his letter: 
"Editors are servants of the people, more than any other 
class of servants," and, as such, the people's right to under- 
stand in what wav their servants are strivinoj for their total 
freedom, is a right of theirs which in no way can be denied. 

Opinion of T. Thomas Fortune. 

If the institution of slavery hung for four years upon a 
doubtful contingency, and was overthrown at last by the 
proclamation of President Lincoln and the obstinacy of 
President Davis, it will readily be perceived that the final 
adjustment of the question* arising from the conditions of 
negro citizenship offers as many snares for the wary feet of 
statesmen of the present and the future, as did the questions 
growing out of the conditions of the negro as a slave to 
statesmen of the past, many of whom beat themselves to 
death against those questions, and carried with them to the 
grave their shattered hopes and tarnished fame. 

If the negro did not carry with him in his face a procla- 
mation of his race and previous condition of servitude, as 



480 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



lepers in Orientiil countries are compelled to cry aloud upon 
the approacli of strangers their accursed isolation from the 
rest of mankind, a half-century would have sufficed to 
obliterate from the minds of men the facts that slavery 
once prevailed in the Republic, and that the slaves were 
now free men and citizens, equal under the Constitution and 
before the laws and the other citizens of the country; but 
the mark of color remains and makes its possessor a social 
pariah, to be robbed, beaten and lynched, — and a political 
nondescript, who has got his own salvation to work out, of 
equality before the laws, with almost the entire whit« 
j)Opulation of the country arrayed against him. 

Surely, no race of people ever had a larger job on their 
hands than have the colorod citizens of the United States. 
The older llioy grow, the larger the job will become; so that 
fifty years hence, it will be to this government all that the 
Irish queption is to-day to the government of Great Britain, 
and perhaps more. Read by the light of history, the signs 
of the times, since the close of the Civil War, all point 
unerringly to the conclnsioii here reached. There are those, 
I am mindful, learned in the wisdom of age and experience, 
who regard this view of the situation as that of an alarmist; 
but, as Patrick Henry derlared, "I have but one lamp by 
which mv feet are j^uided," and that is the liistorv of the 
vicissitudes of other races, whose condition was not unlike, in 
manv respects, the condition of the colored citizens of this 
Ilepnblic. Alieady we are in the iury and heat of the 
conflict, but thousands of us do not know it, or, knowing, 
take no heed of the awful fact, and will continue to nui^se the 
ignorance Alexander Pope declared to be bliss, until aroused 
bv some shock which shall destrov, once for all, the citadel 
where we have harbored our sublime confidence. 

It is here that the ndations the negro Press sustains to the 
negro problem, are thrown out as clearly as the sun in the 



THE EDITOR'S MISSION. 481 

heavens, against the mountainous wall of observation. The 
newspaper has become, in every country where modern 
civilization exists, the oracle of the people. More than 
that, it has become the defender of the just rights of the 
people against the encroachments of the ambitious and the 
covetous few ; so that it may of a truth be said that error and 
wrong can not long prevail where the Press is left free to 
combat them. The editors of the great newspapers are 
more absolutely the servants of the people than any of the 
servants placed in positions of trust and profit and power by 
their votes. They are more faithful to the people s interest, 
they are more inaccessible to the allurements of corruptionists, 
they have generally a clearer and more thorough under- 
standing of the rights of the people, and voice their demands * 
with greater accuracy and force, than any other class of men 
in the Republic, simply because they live nearer to the people 
and are, in many respects, the servants, in a more general 
sense, of the public opinion to which they give voice. The 
people are true to the editors only just as long as the 
editors are true to the people. An editor, with no readers of 
his paper, is in a much more pitiable plight than a lawyer 
without briefs, or a preacher without a charge. 

Only those who understand thoroughly the serious nature 
of the contention of colored citizens for the cession to them of 
their full rights under the Constitution, and the magnitude 
and power of those who are now withholding those rights, 
and who also correctly estimate the commanding influence of 
the modern newspaper in creating, as well as giving, voice to 
public opinion, can have a correct idea of the great work 
reserved to the colored newspapers of the country. Even the 
colored people themselves do not understand it. Some of 
them even declare that colored newspapers are a nuisance ; 
and so they are, in a measure, just as the colored people are a 
nuisance, in so far as they have a grievance which they 



482 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

persistently obtrude upon the notice of others, who either 
have no such grievance themselves, or do not wish to be 
reminded of the fact that they have one. As long, however, 
as men are struck, they will cry out in protest or indignation 
until the wrongs are avenged. 

A sufficient answer to all those who do not understand 
why we have colored newspapers, would seem to be the fact 
that white men have newspapers ; that they are published by 
white men for white men; give, in the main, news about 
white men, and pitch their editorial opinions entirely in the 
interest of white men. I know that there are many papers 
in the country whose editors make great profession of love 
for colored citizens ; but they are partisan advocates, striving 
for partisan advantage, and have no more real, practical love 
for the negro than the editors of newspapers, avowedly their 
enemies. I have more respect for the latter than for the 
former. An open enemy is an easier man to handle than a 
hypocritical friend. A man who preaches one thing and 
practices another, is beneath contempt. Is there one paper 
published by white men in any one of the eleven Southern 
states to-dav, in which colored men receive the same news 
and editorial treatment that white men receive? Let those 
ignorant negroes, who pretend that they can not understand 
why colored newspapers are published, answer this question; 
and if they can not, let them slink away out of the sight oi 
honest men who understand the serious nature of the negro 
problem, and are honestly endeavoring to solve it in the 
right way. I confess that I have small patience with this 
sort of negro Jonah, I would throw him overboard in short 
order, and with no thought or care that he find a haven from 
death in some vagrant whale's belly. 

As a regrettable fact, the white Press of the South is 
leagued against the negro and his rights, and it is re-enforced 
by quite two-thirds of the Press of the North and West. 



THE EDITORS MlSslOX 



4^^::; 



How are we to overcome this rreineiKlcais iiiilu..'nce'!^ Arc 
we to prevail against our enemies not a.s other men prevail 
against theirs? Can we reasonably expect other men to use 
their lungs to cry out for us when we are wronged and 
outraged and robbed and murdered? If we do, let us look 
at the white papers of the South and learn from them the 
necessary lesson, that the only way we can hope ever to win 
our fight is to arm ourselves as our opponents do, support 
those newspapers alone that support us, and support those 
men alone who support us. In following this rule, white 
men's newspapers, and white men's schemes of ambition or 
profit, will, very generally, be weighed in the balance and 
found wanting. 

The colored newspapers of the United States, some one 
hundred and twenty-five, are the only papers that are 
making a square, honest fight for the rights of our race. Not 
one of them receives the support it deserves; and, mainly on 
that account, not one is doing the work it could and should 
do. A colored newspaper, with one hundred thousand 
subscribers, would be a greater power for good than any other 
agency colored men could create, — than even fifty black 
members of Congress would be; and until we have new-spapers 
equal in circulation to those controlled by our enemies, the 
contest for our just righta under the Constitution will remain 
pitiably unequal. We mu.><t realize this fact before we can 
expect to cope with the enemy. 

Opinion of Rev. L. J. Coppin, D. D. 



The subject, "Our Work as Journalists," is a.s important as 
it is comprehensive. The journalist has the largest audience 
of all the public speakers. The Pulpit and the Rostrum 
address themselves to the hundreds who come within hearing 
distance ; but their utterances are taken up by the Press and 



484 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

given to the multiplied millions who read. Such an oppor- 
tunity to be heard is accompanied with grave responsibilities ; 
therefore, to faithfully echo the voice of others is among the 
first and most important duties of the journalist. 

The journal that simply seeks to attract, without a due 
regard for truth, justice and fair play, dishonors itself and 
the journalistic fraternity ; is unworthy of public support, and 
will eventually be crowded out by more worthy contempo- 
raries. The columns of a public journal should never be 
used as a sewerage for that which is harmful and degrading. 
Such matter may tickle the ear of the gossip-seeker, and by 
attracting a large class of such readers, enable its editor to 
boast of " the largest circulation ;" but it is the prostitution 
of a high office, which, in the end, will meet its just deserts. 
In these days, when sensational and degenerate literature 
is doing so much to corrupt our youth, I say to every 
journal in the land, " Keep thyself pure." 

The journalist is the people's attorney. He has every 
man's case, and can rightfully have but one purpose, which 
is, justice to all. It is no fault of his, if justice itself makes 
against his client; his only business is to be a faithful 
recorder of the facts in the case. As a public recorder of 
facts, then, our work as journalists is to make faithful entries, 
in all cases, and we are not at liberty at any time to so change 
things as to make them suit our fancy. 

The journalist is a molder of sentiment; or, as it is, perhaps, 
more frequently called, " public opinion." It is a mistaken 
idea for a journalist to suppose that it is his business to take 
the "public pulse" and then adapt himself to whatever 
condition he finds to exist. It is his business to educate and 
to elevate public opinion ; and if he is true to his trust, he 
will find himself equal to the task. Public opinion is an 
organism, and must have something to feed upon, in order to 
live. True to nature, its development will be after the 



TfiE EDITOR'S MISSION. 485 

manner of the food it eats. Sometimes a false growth is 
made, and then it is the business of the journalist to use 
corrective measures. 

For many years, it was the prevailing opinion in this 
country that a man had a perfect right to own men and 
women, and to deal in them as marketable property. Had 
there not been among those who were in the minority brave, 
wise, and good men to protest against such an evil, slavery 
might have remained until to-day. This minority was weak 
at first, but possessing the elements of right, it possessed also 
the elements of power. And so with all moral reforms; they 
are brought about finally in answer to a public demand; but 
a demand upon the public had first to be made, in order to 
bring it into the right way of thinking, and to induce it to 
act according to duty. While we should hesitate to make 
any one agency responsible for the course that public opinion 
finally takes, we venture the assertion that no agency is so 
fruitful in this direction as that of the public Press. 

There was a time when the public speaker had almost sole 
charge of this business. But the printer's ink has largely 
taken his place; that is, it multiplies his words a thousand 
fold. Give us wise, judicious, reliable and high-toned news- 
papers, and we are most likely to have a public opinion that 
is safe, and worthy to be consulted. 

But "Our Work as Journalists," as we take it, has special 
reference to colored journalists. We liave purposely first 
called attention to those general rules which govern journalism, 
because they are applicable to all. This is a comparatively 
new field for colored men, and their work is specially 
important because it is two-fold. Besides representing the 
public in a general way, as we have already remarked, they 
stand in a particular sense for their people. It is folly for 
any one to shut his eyes to the fact, that the war for human 
rights in this country is not closed. When the agitation for 



486 THE APftO-AMElRiCAN PRESS. 

freedom began, the colored man was not in the position to 
speak for himself; so the work had to be done almost entirely 
by his friends. But in his new condition, he must be the 
principal actor iu securing the rights and privileges yet 
denied him. We must have leaders, just as all people have ; 
and this fact brings the colored people to the front. Our 
newspapers must be a reliable source of thought and direction 
for the masses of our people. Here their grievances must be 
recorded, with suggestions as to how they may be redressed. 

Another department of work among us as journalists, is to 
guide the masses into the best way of living. No people 
can be legislated into greatness. All we ask, all we can ask, 
all that any people can ask, of the Government is, that a 
fair chance in the race of life shall be gisaranteed. We must 
do the running ourselves. There are certain things that 
tend to the elevation of a people, and without these no 
substantial progress can be made. First of all, we should 
say a good, solid character must be built up and maintained. 
History unites with reason in recording the fact, that no 
people of weak and corrupt morals has been able to endure. 
Slavery left us an abundant heritage of moral weakness 
which must be overcome. The fact that it is inherited can 
be no excuse for its continued existence. In rising to positions 
of responsibility and trust, the same demand for virtue will 
be made upon us that is made upon others; and less than this 
would not be for our good. 

The accumulation of wealth is also a necessary factor in 
the elevation of a people. Poverty is weakness. Especially 
is this true when predicated of a people situated as we are, 
in the midst of a strong nation. Weakness can not dictate 
terms to strength. To remain en viassc in the position of 
servants, is to be handicapped and kept down. With great 
odds against us, great sacrifices must be made in order to 
materially change our present condition. Industry and 



THE EDITOR'S MISSION. 487 

economy must go hand in hand ; for it is not so much what 
men earn that makes them rich, as what they save. 

Great stress has been laid upon the work of education 
among us. We should not feel free to recommend an 
abatement of this work ; but it is already apparent that an 
industrial education must form no little part of it. Unskilled 
labor demands small revenue, compared with skilled; and, 
besides, for that kind of work the supply is greater than the 
demand. As yet we are largely of the laboring class, and 
in order to make any headway, must make our labor valuable. 
It behooves the journalists among us to consider well such 
questions as these and to give no uncertain sound in bringing 
them before the public. 

Opinion of Mrs. N. F. Mossell. 

Every few months we find some amateur literary associa- 
tion discussing the question of the comparative power of the 
Press and the Pulpit. It used to be a standing subject for 
discussion and amusement, but the laugh, in the opinion of 
the religious world, has completely died out. 

That the Press is intrenching on the power of the Pulpit 
is growing more evident daily. People are coming to prefer 
to sit by their own cosy firesides and read sermons at their 
leisure, to traveling in inclement weather to the house of 
worship ; and the poor feel they are thus on a level with the 
rich, or, at least, are not pained by the contrast in their 
conditions, as they often are when assembled in the house of 
God. 

What world of meaning in the phrase, "The Power of 
the Press!" Our colored men are realizing its latent force. 
Through this medium they are rapidly pushing their way, 
strengthening race pride, and making their wants and 
oppressions known. Every corporation or large business 



483 THE AFBO-AMERIGAN PRESS. 

booae now bas its own journals, adveitimng its goods, and 
delighting its patrons with its liteiaiy feast The Press is a 
sleeping lion, which men are jnst 'waking into life. We 
dioold estimate rightly the great obligation that is npon w 
to n» this immense power rightly. We, of all people^ can 
iU afford to make blunders. We mnst teach wisely and lead 
aright, that the generation to come may bless ns, as we bless 
those who haye passed before ns. Onr Press association is 
well organized, and we should be able, at its meetings, to 
g^Te each other wise counsel. 

The study of other journals, from every point of view, has 
its benefits : their circulation and where they circulate ; the 
editonals, the news letters, the personals ; every department ; 
reading articles on journalism; noting our own experiences 
from dav to day: and getting the advice of those who Lave 
grown grar, aiA perhaps lost fortunes in the cause. 

We should study the field from which our support must 
come. One New York publisher knows every county in 
everv state and the literarv caliber of its inhabitants, and is 
therefore able to put each book he has for sale on the 
market, at the best advantage to himself and the author. 
How manv of our editors have thus studied the colored 
constituenov of the various states? 

m 

We must watch 'the signs of the times and show business 
tact. I am forcibly reminded that the white race, even the 
ignorant portion, possesses this faculty largely beyond our 
own people, even the intelligent ones among us. A white 
man, knowing it was a season for negro revivals, furnished 
himself with a goodly-size bundle of spiritual hymns, and 
wont shouting them up and down the street, and the colored 
l«eople flocked to him with their pennies. Not a single white 
face did I see among them but that of the singer, who was 
gathering in the dimes and nickels from our poor. It was fit 
tribute to his business tact. 




Mfia. N. F. MOSSELU 



I 



490 TH£ Af BO-AME&tGAil PBS8S. 

Oar joanuJs should improTe greatly in thiB deoadA upon 
which we are now entering, — ^this bright opening of the New 
Year and century. Let the work and field be atodied, a 
policy marked out; and the greatest good to the greatest 
number be the aim of each. Get the intelligent sympathy 
and advice of all connected with publications. Form 
syndicates and pay for good articles on selected subjects firom 
our best writers and authors. Secure the assistance of some 
wise, helpful, intelligent, and enthusiaetic woman. Do your 
best, and success will surely crown your effort 

Before closing, we must speak of "Our Women in Joomal- 
ism." ^They are admitted to the Press association and are in 
sympathy with the male editors; but few have become 
independent workers in this noble field of effort, being yet 
satellites, revolving round the sun of masculine journalism. 
They still remain willing captives, chained to the chariot 
wheels of the sterner element, and deem it well, if ' united 
they stand.* 

Let us have a few more years of co-operative work. Our 
women have a great field in literary work. Sex nor color 
does not bar, for neither need be known. As reporters, 
women are treated with the courtesy due their sex. We 
have tact, quick perception, and can readily gain access to 
both sexes. Again, we are "lookers on in Venice." We ai»* 
not in the thick of the battle. We have time to think, fin in.' 
our purposes, and carry them into effect, unlike the editor 
harassed with both literary and business work and other 
great responsibiltties incident to such an enterprise. 

Women can do much to purify and strengthen life through 
the columns of the daily press, or the weekly, or monthly 
journals. Right well do they seem to appreciate tlieir 
opportunities ; and a broad view of life and its purposes will 
come to them through tliis source. Let one who desires 
journalism as her lite- work, study to acquire a good knowledge 



THE EDITOR'S MISSION. 



m 



of the English language, and of others, if she desires; but 
the English language she must. Be alive to obtain what is 
news, what will interest. Let the woman select her nom dc 
plume^ or take her own name, if she prefei'S, and use it 
always, unless for some special purpose it is changed. Write 
oftenest for one journal and on one subject ; or on one line, 
at least, until a reputation has been established. Work 
conscientiously, follow the natural bent, and the future will 
not fail to bring its own reward. 

I shall close this article by a note on our late advancement 
in journalistic eflfort. We have one daily, published in 
Georgia; an illustrated paper, published in Indianapolis; 
(^The Freeman, E. E. Cooper editor and proprietor ; one paper 
published as the only journal in the town ; one colored editor, 
H. 0. Flipper, editing, temporarily, a white journal, in the 
absence of its editor; and several women editors of various 
publications and departments. 

Hoping that these few scattered, irregular thoughts on *' The 
Power of the Press" and " Our Women in Journalism" mav 
serve as seed-thought« to lead to more serious thinking, I 
bid my readers adieu, believing that no brighter path opens 
before us, as a race, than that of the journalism of the present 
age. 



-^Vfefe///^, 




CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE ANGLO-SAXON AND THE AFBO-AMEMCAN 

PRESS. 



TO the reader of our current literature, and to the slightest 
observer of our literary efforts, the positions of the Anglo- 
Saxon and the Afro- American newspaper seems curious 
and interesting, as well as important. The former, through 
its many years of existence, has been backed and supported by 
an intellectual and reading people, whose love for the sublime 
and beautiful in literature, as well as a thirst for an actual 
knowledge of the affairs of the world, has been transmitted 
from generation to generation. In the exercise of its power 
it has know^n no opposition, save the little friction occurring 
between the North and South. Its resources are manifold ; 
while its ability to create sentiment among the people for 
whom it is especially published is readily conceded. The 
latter has not been backed and supported by a reading people ; 
the masses of its readers now have only been allowed the 
privilege of reading within the last twenty-five years; there- 
fore, with respect to support upon the part of its people there 
is no comparison. Then allowing for the great lack of edito- 
rial ability upon the part of many whit« and black journals, 
all things considered from a comprehensive standpoint, there 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 493 

is no equality between the Anglo-Saxon and Afro- American 
Press. The reader, with but little reflection, can produce ten 
able and competent Anglo-Saxon editors to one of our people ; 
to say more than ten, would be a questionable matter, since 
** the solution of the race problem" would most likely render 
some editor barren of editorial food. 

There is a wide distribution of the Anglo-Saxon papers, 
while the readers of such are easily impressed with good or 
bad by their ready ability to understand properly what they 
read. The white papers have for their field of readers both 
the Anglo-Saxon and Afro- American ; in fact, the entire 
world. It knows no rejection ; it seeks the uttermost parts of 
the globe to deliver its news. 

From a recent calculation, it seems that 100,000 (perhaps 
more, certainly not less) A fro- Americans are regular sub- 
scribers to the white journals, not including the vast 
number, who, while traveling, or in public places, etc., 
incidentally purchase the products of their more favored 
brother's brains. The writer is under the impression that 
two-thirds of the reading Afro-Americans support the white 
dailies and weeklies, at a cost of from one to six dollars per 
annum, -while many of them fail to support the black papers, 
even at the lower cost of from seventy-five cents to two 
dollai-s per annum. 

There is much argument put forth by those who support 
white journals in preference to our black ones, which is 
plausible, and which we shall not refute or affirm; neither 
are these thoughts penned as a denunciation of those who 
support white journals ; nor is an attempt made to injure the 
patronage of the above-named papers. 

JThere are other vast difierences that go to make up the 
relative inequality of the two presses. Enough has been 
said, however, to show their relation, and tjie reader, in a 
concluding thought on this point, must be compelled to 



494 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

concede the superior power of the Anglo-Saxon press. The 
Afro-American is also left to see that his press will nevei 
be able to overcome the arguments he makes against it, in 
his support of the white journals, until his big heart causes 
him to correspondingly support his race papers. 

We can now see the relation of the two presses to each 
other, and that not only is there no equality between them, 
but a vast inequality; hence, an organized efFort of one 
against the other admits of no argument, and the suppression 
of one by the other of no commendation. Let us ascertain 
the duty of the two, and let us examine the claim which a 
country has upon the Press, unmindful of its color, its 
size or circulation, the previous condition of its editors, or 
what not. Let us at once admit the fact, that for tlie welfare 
of the country, its development and its progress, the safety of 
its people and its institutions, the perpetuity of its govern- 
ment, something is demanded of the Press, which has been 
termed in another chapter of this volume a bulwark of the 
nation. 

For convenience and brevity, we will consider in order the 
various demands made upon the Press of a common country: 

1st. It pleads for a recognition of the fact, that in the 
Press rests the ability to cause the development of a country. 

2d. Equality of citizenship, and constant entreaty for 
law and order in the community and respect for the eternal 
principles of law, which make up a good government. 

3d. An advancement of every measure for the protection 
of life, property and the pursuit of happiness, which has 
been handed down from JefFersonian times, and which will 
remain sacred and true for all generations. 

These, with hundreds of other demands, the Press should 
work for. There should be no friction in contending for 
these cardinal principles, only when there is a legitimate and 
reasonable difference of opinion in the advocacy of them. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 496 

Certainly, no friction ought to arise on account of the fact 
that a white man or a black man edits the journal. Are we 
not all here to stay, both white and black? Are we not all 
black or white citizens? Are we not all expected to 
respect the majesty of the law? Is not an editorial, written 
in the interest of the country's development, an article in 
favor of the black man, as well as the white? 

We feel assured that the reader has already arrived at 
the conclusion that a suitable response to the above questions 
is Yes. We wonder why every man, as well as every editor, 
does not see that God created all men equal, and that He is 
recorded in His Holy Word as a non-respecter of persons. 
We wonder why the Afro- American yet suffers for a lack of 
protection; why it is that the argument brought forth is 
"their condition," since there are men and women, with 
Ethiopian blackness, acknowledged to be great orators, 
editors, teachers, etc. ; yet these persons, though well behaved, 
neatly dressed, and with plenty of money, can not be 
admitted to first-class accommodations upon the trains, in the 
hotels, and many places of public amusements. But amid 
our wonderings, we come to the conclusion that this is not 
the state of affairs in all the land; that there is vet a 
phalanx of our more favored brothers. North and South, 
who recognize the " Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood 
of man." 

We have been noticing the duty of the Anglo-Saxon and 
Afro-American press in a common country. Now let us lift 
the curtain and behold the Anglo-Saxon press, North and 
South, its views of our race, and its manly fight for and 
against us. We shall also beg indulgence while we give 
expression to some views of eminent white men. North and 
South, on the race question, which so decidedly divides the 
press. With regard to the commendatory Opinions of Afro- 
Americans, great stress has been laid upon the statement, 



496 THE AFBO-AMEBICAN FBESS. 

(which is generally admitted among na as a fiust) that the 
entire North has been our friend and the entire South oar 
enemy. This the author connders a very erroneous view of 
the matter. Let us consider it in the light of past and 
present circumstances, and see if we can not find men, both 
in the North and South, who take a friendly view of the 
Afro-American. We do not propose, however, to question 
the belief that the majority of the Afro-Americans* strongest 
friends are in the North ; but in both the North and South 
we assert that the Anglo-Saxon newspapers and individuals 
may be divided into three distinct classes, — ^the friendly, 
the semi-friendly, and the unfriendly. The majority of the 
white citizens, North and South, thank God, are friendly 
to us. The friendly class of editors are of that humane and 
Christian sect that recognize the Afro-American as a man, 
created in the image of God, susceptible to the same improve- 
ment as any other race, and entitled to a fair chance with 
others in the ways of life, especially, in the necessary 
educational advantages of which he was so recently unlaw- 
fully deprived ; and also to a filial consideration from those 
for whom they labored so long, without even a kind word or 
a pleasant look for a reward, — whose families they protected 
from harm or danger, while " Master" was unable to protect 
them himself. They are those editors who encourage the 
education of the black man, justice and equality to him as a 
citizen, with a fair chance for the exercise of suffrage, upon 
the plea that he is a man, a brother, and a citizen, regardless 
of the educational ability, en viassc, for such exercise. The 
friendly editors waste not their time and talents in advocating 
the disfranchisement of the black man, when he is daily 
increasing in literary ability, wealth, and social importance. 
They are those who have the good sense to know that twenty 
years after such rights have been granted the Afro- 
Americans, it is positively foolish to advocate their nullification 

r 



' THE ANGLO-SAXON PEESS. 497 

The friendly men who do nofc, as the editor, wield their 
pens in the black man's defense, liberally respond to his call 
for help. They glory in the advancement of the Afro- 
American; and accord him intellectual, moral, and religious 
position. They are those who, from the sacred desk, the 
hustings, the marts of trade, plead for the elevation of 
the Afro-American from the depth of ignorance and super- 
stition. They are those who do not argue that the condition 
of the black man is the cause of his rejection and non- 
recognition, and offer no remedy for his elevation ; but they 
heed the black man's continued cries for assistance, in his 
efforts to advance; those who give a listening ear as he 
cries — "Save me, or I perish." This friendly class knows 
that we are seeking for educational, moral and religious 
improvement, not social equality ; and when others demand 
the expulsion of the race from America, though we have 
been here three hundred years, they, in accents loud and 
strong, proclaim our freedom. They say : " Educate him ; 
make him a man ; let him stay." Oh, for a phalanx of such 
friends ! Who knows but that God has entrusted this home 
mission to this phalanx? While, as has been noted, these 
friends are found in the South, an well as the North, yet 
when it comes to this mission work, they know no South, no 
North, but the broad United States, where the Afro- 
American is to stay, and where he is to be prepared for the 
duties of citizenship. 

For the benefit of the reader, and to support the assertions 
here made by actual expressions of some of the editors, let 
us behold their testimony. The Indianapolis Jouimal says: 
*' From present indications, the colored race in this country 
will not much longer be lacking in numerous examples of 
men who have earned recognition by their ability, education 
and force of character. The election of a colored student 

as class-orator at Harvard University, has already been 
32 



498 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN FBESS. 

mentioned in Uie JoumaL The same thing came near hap* 
pening last week at GornelL Prof. Langston, of Virginia^ who 
is now making speeches in Ohio, enrprises the people of that 
State by his cultivated oratory and eloquence. Prof. W. S. 
Scarborough, a negro of unmixed blood, who fills the chair of 
Oreek and Latin in Wilberforce Universitj, is one of the 
finest Oreek scholars in this country, the author of a Greek 
text-book now used in Harvard, Yale, and other colleges, 
the translator of many Oreek classics, and, though lees i^an 
forty years old, a recognized authority in Oreek literature. 
He ranks high as an essayist and lecturer, and has published 
papers which have attracted attention, on "Andocides and 
the Andocidean orations," the "Eclogues of Virgil," the 
"Greek Verb" and "Fatalism in Homer and Virgil." Prof. 
Scarborough was born a slave in Georgia in 1852, and is a 
graduate of Oberlin College, Ohio. He has pursued the 
right course to obtain recognition for his race and himself, 
and nobody can make him believe that the negro is 
incapable of progress, or that the way is not open for him if 
he has the qualities to win." 

On the question of Afro- American emigration, I7ie Joui^al 
further remarks : " Tfie Journal sees no reason why colored 
people should desire to emigrate from the United States to 
Mexico. This is a better country than Mexico, in every way, 
— better to be born in, to live in, and to die in. It is better 
for the black man, as well as the white man. Circumstances 
have made it the black man's home, as much as the white 
man's. The colored people have done their share towards 
contributing to the prosperity of the country, and have a 
right to stay here. There is work for them here, as well as 
in Mexico. There is abundance of room for them here, and 
more avenues of usefulness and happiness open to them than 
they would find in Mexico." 

In various editorial articles on this subject. The Hartford 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 499 

(Conn.) Cburani and ITie /S. Paul (Minn.) Pioneer Press 
indorse The Journal by taking the same view of the question. 

The Chicago (111.) Inter-Ocean^ one of the largest and 
most widely circulated papers of the Northwest, gives the 
following opinion of Afro- American progress: *'In the 
Entire history of mankind, no race has ever made such rapid 
progress against tremendous odds as the colored people of 
this country have since the chains of slavery were stricken 
off, less than a generation ago. Nor did emancipation, 
followed as it was by enfranchisement, remove their disabilities. 
The negro color has remained, with all its disadvantages." 

Commenting on the election of Mr. C. G. Morgan to the 
class oratorship of Harvard College, it says; "Such a 
star as Clement Gerrett Morgan relieving the darkness, is a 
star of hope for the entire race. By doing him justice, his 
college associates performed a higli duty, which can not fail 
to exert a most wholesome general influence upon the public 
sentiment of the country, and pre])are tbe way for the 
enforcement. South as well as North, of the last and crowning 
amendment to our national Constitution. It will not long be 
possible to deny, and with impunity trample under foot, the 
political rights of a race that has, in this centennial year of 
the Constitution, borne off what may fairly rank as the 
highest of collegiate honors." 

These are only a few of the comments on the progress of 
the race from Northern journals: We will name a few of 
the hundreds that declare for his development incessantly: 
The New York Independent^ New York Press, Philadelphia 
Press J New Yo)'k IVibune, 8pHng field Republican, Boston 
Herald^ Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, Rochester Democrat 
and Chronicle^ Tlie Baltimore Anie^'ican, TJie Minneapolis 
Tribune^ and The JownalisL 

Let us examine the views of the Southein press, and 
ascertain its opinion of the Afro- American and his condition, 



500 THE AFBO-AMEBICAN PBE8& 

etc. : The view of Ihe San AnUndo (Tex.) Easpr^a^ bx in 
tlie suiiuy South, is the first whose testimony sounds friendly. 
Says I'he Express: "All schemes for the removal of the 
Afro-American are schemes and nothing more. He has 
lived in America long enough to become part and parcel of 
it. He will not be taken to Africa, South America or 
Mexico, or anywhere else. If the promoters of these 
attempts to get rid of a very valuable and necessary class of 
citizens could revisit the earth 100 years from now and see 
the man and brotlier in his perfected state of development^ 
they would return to their graves with a feeling of weariness 
over the fact that tliey could have been so foolish in life." 

T/ie Natchez (Miss.) Democrat is awakening to a sense of 
its duty, as the following clipping will show : " The negro 
is here to stay, and it is the part of wisdom and humanity to 
make his condition as prosperous and 'contented under just 
laws as circumstances will permit and the higher civilization 
of the dominant whites demands it should be." 

To our mind this argument is good. Higher Christian 
civilization will not suffer itself to oppress the w^eak and 
ignorant ; it rather seeks to lift them up, 

TJie Cliaitanooga Timcf^, another Southern contemporary, 
says : *' That the negro has acquired twenty millions worth 
of taxable property in Texas and two hundred millions in 
the late slave states, — these things go for naught with the 
crusaders who w^ould hustle them oflf the continent as 
aggregated nuisances. These attacks on the race by a 
section of the press have undoubtedly encouraged attacks on 
quiet negroes and a wanton abuse of them in many 
instances." 

A most commendable and sensible view of the race 
question is also taken by The Baleigh (N. C.) News and 
Observer in the following language, which can not fail of 
appreciation and interest. Speaking of the race, the editor 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 601 

says : " We wish to see them all elevated and brought to a 
full realization of the duties of citizenship, and all enlightened 
as to society, to the state, and to the community in which 
they live and of which they form a part. Notwithstanding 
the white race has been the most progressive, known in 
history, notwithstanding they have been entirely free since 
their original settlement in the wilderness of this new world, 
we find among our white people here in North Carolina 
much poverty, much illiteracy, much backwardness in the 
progressive ways of the world." 

There are other Anglo-Saxon newspapers in the South 
which take a kindly and sympathetic view of the race as is 
done in the North. The most prominent are the following: 
The Knoxville (Tenn) Jom-nal, The Petei^shurg (Va.) Index 
Appeal^ The Memphis Conunerdal, lite Charleston (/SI (7.) 
News and Courier ^ The Ailanixi (Ga.) Cansiituticm^ The 
Charlotte (N. C.) Chronicle, The New Orleans (La.) Picayune^ 
and The St. Lmiis Repvhlican. 

The progress of the race, however, has called forth louder 
and more friendly expressions from whites in the North and 
South, than from editors of new<«papers. We can not fail to 
call attention to some of these views from our friends. At 
the suggestion of Ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes, Mr. 
A. K. Smiley, proprietor of the Mohonk Lake House, one of 
the New York summer resorts, invited a conference of leading 
men, North and South, recently, to assemble at his hotel for 
a discussion on the ** race question." Addresses were made 
by distinguished white men of the country favorable to the 
A fro- American, prominent among whom were Gen. S. C. 
Armstrong of the H. M. and Agr. Inst,, Dr. Allen of the 
Presbyterian Board of Missions, Dr. A. F. Beard of the 
American Missionary Society, President Gill of theSwarth- 
more College, Judge Tourgee, President W"oodworth of 
Tougaloo University, and Andrew D. White, 



602 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PBEEB. 

One of the greatest and most telling speeches made during 
he conference was by Rev. Joseph K Roy, whose effort on 
*' The Higher Education of the Negro,— ^No Mistake,'* was a 
high compliment to the race and an exhaustive account of 
our situation in the South. In the course of his speech he 
introduced the following expression from Ck>L J. S. L. Preston 
of Lexington, Va., which speaks well for our situation in that 
state: ''I speak advisedly when I say that the negro 
population in this locality has made surprising progress in 
material, intellectual, moral and religious departments, since 
their emancipation." 

Upon the question of higher education, or the danger of 
over-education on the part of the Afro-American, Mr. Roy 
quotes Prof. A. K. Spence as follows: "None; the danger 
is just the opposite, that of under-education. A smattering 
of knowledge may work conceit, while thorough study makes 
men modest. The black man is a 7)ian; apj>ly to him all the 
rules of humanity. Good for white, good for black." 

This conference, familiarly termed The Lake Mohonk 
Negro Conference, passed resolutions as a result of their 
deliberations, commending the Afro- American as educators, 
students, land owners, etc., and urged better home life 
among them as a mass, industrial training in connection with 
the education of the head, and the formation of enlightened 
Christian sentiment on the race question and an unselfish 
service 'on the part of the whites, in helping the Afro- 
American to help himself. The fact of Ex-President Hayes 
having been elected president of the conference, brings to 
mind his Fourth of July oration in 1888, at Woodstock, 
Conn., on whi^'h occasion he said : 

*' The colored people were held in bondage, and therefore 
in ignorance, under the Constitution of the nation. They 
were set free and made citizens and voters by the most 
solemn expression of the nation's will; and now« therefore. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 503 

the duty to fit them by education for citizenship is devolved 
upon the whole people." 

The sentiment of Bishop Fowler of the M. E. church is one 
ringing with truth and encouragement. Says he : " One 
hnndred and thirty years hence, and the Stars and Stripes 
will float over a thousand million citizens, — almost as many 
as the entire population of the earth to-day. What a 
privilege to have a hand in forming and developing the 
institutions of to-day ! The six million colored people will be 
grown to one hundred and fifty million, with great univer- 
sities and renowned scholars, with statesmen and rulers, 
with honors second to none known to the race. It can not 
be a vain thing to purify the fountain, out of which such 
a vast stream shall flow, Brothers, be patient. With one 
hundred and fifty millions back of you, nothing shall be 
impossible to you." 

Bishop Whipple, in delivering the opening address at the 
Episcopal convention in New York City, October, 1889, said: 
•* We have some problems peculiar to ourselves. Twenty-five 
years ago, four million slaves received American citizenship. 
The nation owes them a debt of gratitude. During all the 
horrors of our civil war, they were protectors of Southern 
women and children. Knowing the failure of their masters 
would be the guarantee of their freedom, there was not one 
act that master or slave might wish to blot out. We ought 
not, and God will not forget it. To-day there are eight 
millions of negroes. They are here to stay. They will not 
be disfranchised. Through them Africa can be redeemed. 
They ought to be our fellow citizens in the kingdom of God." 

The Rev. Michael Burnham, D. D., of Springfield, Maas., 
is quoted as having said to the students of Livingstone 
College, in an address, May 22, 1889, the following cheerful 
words : " As a people, you have had on you the eyes of the 
world, — all this nation. As a people, you have manifested 



504 THE AFBO-AMEKIOAN PRESS. 

the spirit and deeds of herolBm, which can never be forgotten. 

From four millions, in a quarter of a century yon have 
become eight millions, with schools established at many 
points; and the necessity is laid upon the hearts of the 
people of Grod in America, to educate and make Christians of 
eight millions of people." 

At a recent meeting of Afiro- Americans in Rochester, N. Y., 
Mayor William Carroll delivered the welcome address. To 
them he said : " Since my youth, I have aspired to see a 
race which was down-trodden come up and receive recognition 
as fellow-citizens. Forty years sl^ I was in St Louis and 
saw how badly the escaped slaves were used. How awful it 
was for men to b^ human beings I We are all descendants 
of Adam and Eve, aud yet some people had the privilege of 
selling and buying others. Wicked act though it was, it was 
sanctioned by the law of the land. How much Providence 
has done for the colored man since 1850! He has been 
freed and made the equal, as to rights Of citizenship, of the 
white man. The war of the Rebellion did this when the 
people of the nation declared in favor of freedom for all." 

Hon. Geo. Raines uttered the following sensible words, at 
the same gathering: "This city has a record for kindness 
and liberality toward your race for many years, even 
extending back to the days when it was dangerous to 
advocate any rights for the colored men. In Rochester, the 
colored people have been people of character and ability. 
They have enjoyed with us all the benefits of living in this 
city, and have taken a fair share in the work and responsi- 
bility. It is therefore most proper that the delegates to the 
Afro-American league should be welcomed to this city. 
We are one with you in sympathy for the objects of your 
organization. We rejoiced with you when the barriers that 
held you down in former years were removed. We are glad 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 505 

to see you join the great mass of laboring people, working for 
the commercial greatness of the country. In your efforts to 
widen the field of your race, in diversifying the industries in 
which to participate, you will assist the material progress of 
the state." The reader will pardon us for not further indulg- 
ing in these cheering expressions from our Northern friends. 
We wish to turn your face Southward and consider the men's 
view of us with whom the mass of us live. What our former 
masters have to say complimentary to us will be read with 
interest. We are satisfied that the Sumner, Grarrison and 
Phillips spirit still pervades the North. 

In the South, there is a considerable portion of the white 
population who are friendly to the Afro- Americans, and they 
are people of wealth and of the best blood. They are too 
intellectual and aristocratic to be so silly as to worry them- 
selves about a people who are two hundred and fifty years 
behind them in the race of life. They believe in helping the 
Afro-Americans to a higher civilization and letting them 
climb the ladder if they will. Among these is the Hon. 
Joseph E. Brown, U. S. Senator from Georgia. In an address 
before the Senate, in advocacy of the Blair bill, the senator 
uttered these words : '* A grave problem arises here for 
solution. They must be educated; but we are not able to 
educate them. 

During the period of slavery it was not our policy to educate 
them ; it was incompatible, as we thought, with the relation 
existing between the two races. Now that they are citizens. 
we all agree that it is policy to educate them. As they are 
citizens, let us make them the best citizens we can. I am 
glad to see that they show a strong disposition to do every 
thing in their power for the education of their children. 

I confess I h^ve better hopes of the race for the future 



606 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

than I had when Emancipation took place. They have 
shown capacity to receive education and a dispoaition to 
elevate themaelves, which is exceedingly gratifying, not only 
to me hut to every right thinking Southern man." 

The Hon. Gustavus J. Orr, LL. D., once School Gommifl- 
sioner of Georgia, gave a manly expression on the progress 
of the race, in an address before the Chautauqua Association, 
some summers ago, his subject being, " The Education of the 
Negro; his Rise, Progress and Present Status." Dr. Orr 
asserts — ^"They have been declared free; to this we most 
heartily consent. They have been admitted to all the rights 
of citizenship ; in this we acquiesce. Our state constitutions 
and our laws have declared that they shall be educated. To 
bring about this result we will do all that in us lies." 

We quote this to show the expressed will of the better 
class of white citiz(?ns to aid us in our education. Let us 
state here for the commendation of the South, that forty 
millious of dollars have been spent by the states in Afro- 
American education. Half of this amount has been donated 
by the North. 

Bishop A. G. Haygood, decidedly the best friend to the 
black man in the South, says these laudable words in regard 
to his progress : 

•* The mob't unique and altogether wonderful chapter in the 
history of education is that which tells the story of the 
education of the negroes of the South since 1865. No people 
were ever helped so much in twenty-five yeai-s, and no 
illiterate people ever learned so fast." This tribute Bishop 
Haygood paid the Afro-American in Harpers' Magazine of 
Jufy, 1889. 

Mr. Lewis H. Blair, a wealthv and influential merchant of 
Eichmond City, has written a work entitled "The I'rosperity 
of the South dependent upon the Elevation of tl e Negro." 
In this he speaks gloriously of the Afro-American and his 



THE Anglo-Saxon press. 507 

development. He remarks: "When on Sundays we enter 
negro churches and behold large, well-dressed, and well 
behaved audiences, presided over by pastors of good standing 
and ability; when we observe their numerous benevolent 
societies conducted ; when we enter their schools and see 
large numbers of obedient pupils diligently studying theii 
books, and when in their high schools we see exhibitions of 
scholarship that would be creditable to the whites, with all 
their present and antecedent advantages, we must confess 
that here is an immense advance." 

There are dozens, yea, hundreds, whose views are similar 
to these that have been quoted. These people behold every 
day, by contact and observation, the progress of the race, and 
they are always ready to commend us and bid us "go on." 

(We will now deviate a bit from our stated topic, but the 
reader will indulge us in so doing, we trust, since he may 
be benefited by a knowledge of the facts we are about to 
state, — having briefly given which we shall return to the 
subject proper.) 

The greatest progress made by us has been in the profes- 
sions of teaching and preaching. This has been a sensible 
and manly step; since the education of the children depends 
upon good Christian teachers and divine instruction from 
competent preachers. A devout and well-trained preacher is 
necessary to a moral and virtuous people. The foundation 
for a legal or medical education must be laid by the pious 
and God-fearing teacher. 

In 1889, there were 16,000 common schools in the South, 
taught by Afro- American teachers, and 1,000,000 Afro- 
American children attending such schools. There are now 
in the South 2,000,000 freemen who can read and write. 
The ministry is receiving many additions of brilliant and 
competent young men. The Conferences, Conventions, Asso- 
ciations, Presbyteries and Councils, will not admit men who 



608 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PRESS. 

are noi trained for pastoral labors. In other words, they 
have severely shut down on ignorance in the pulpit. We 
have never seen an estimate of the value of our church 
property, but it is safe to say it would run up into the 
millions. In Lynchburg alone, Afro-Americans own church 
property valued at |75,0(K) or |I00,000. 

In almost every city of the South there are Afro-American 
physicians, from one to three or four in number. There are 
also many of them practicing in the North and West These 
phyfflcians are getting much of the practice of the race and 
also much of the white practice, where they show superior 
fitness. Many are growing weslthy, possessing property 
estimated at ranging from |20,000 to |95,000. 

The Baltimore American states that there are two hundred 
and tiriv lawvers in the United States, some of whom have 
a practice worth from $1000 to $3500 per annum. 

The Afro- American 8 personal property in the United 
States is placed, at a close calculation, at $263,000,000: 
Texas, $20,000,000; Louisiana, $18,100,528; New York, 
$17,400,750; Pennsylvania, $15,300,648; Mississippi, $13,- 
400.213; South Carolina, $12,500,000; North Carolina, 
$11,010,652; Georgia, $10,415,330; Tennessee, $10,400,211; 
Alabama, $9,200,125. The other states range among the 
millions. The New Souths alluding to these figures, states 
very confidently : ** These speak volumes in themselves and 
show very plainly that this race problem is not such a 
diflicult one after all. It needs only a little patience and 
forbearance on the part of those who come in contact with 
the question, coupled with fidelity to duty, and it will soon 
settle itself. Indeed, there would be no problem to settle. 
What constitutes the problem is the lack of these very 
things in so many of those who have to deal with the question, 
in one way or another." 
The race has also furnished from two hundred and Mtj 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 509 

to three hundred authors of creditable volumes. If the 
authors of pamphlets were included, the list would be 
surprisingly large. 

The reader is to understand that the number of teachers 
named heretofore does not include the many Afro- Americans 
who are now instructors, professors, and presidents, in our 
seminaries, colleges and universities. 

We have feebly attempted to discuss that kind and lovable 
class of friendly white editors and individuals, from Maine 
to the Gulf. The next class which we wish to look at is the 
one which may be termed the unfriendly. To a certain 
extent, it is our impression that conscience would lead every 
being to a sensible and manly view of the race question ; in 
other words, to a view of equality as to creation and 
susceptibilities. Especially is this the case with the class 
we are considering. In short, they recognize all that the 
first class does, only their prejudiced thoughts will not be 
guided by their consciences, on the one hand, and the fear 
of ostracism and non-support forbids an expression of what 
their consciences teach, on the other. 

This halt- friendly class of newspapers are supported by 
what they conclude to be a prejudiced community; and while 
the editor may be conscientious in his views, he is bound to 
meet the popular demand. He says a word, now and then, 
in favor of the black man, because his conscience is so 
greatly moved upon by a sense of right that lie can not do 
otherwise. 

This editor, again, is passingly polite to the gentleman of 
ebony hue in the office, and, to all intents and purposes, he 
passesses friendly feelings for the race ; yet in his next paper 
you may see an editorial, in which he sends the Afro- 
American to the very courts of destruction. He will declare 
the Afro- American an inferior in the editorial ; while in his 
sanctum, a while ago, he treated him as a gentleman and an 



610 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

equal. Personally, lie knows the difference between a bmta I 
ul tlio rase tiiid a gentleman, but editorially we are all alik^ J 
with not 6. particle of ditfereuce among us. Tliie cla£e af 1 
editors always carry, BtampeJ npoa tlieir consciences, i 
editorial with tlie caption, "Consistency, tlioii art a jewe!."j 
EditofB, with the at^ve (■liai-act«riBticB, prevail in the Souti-.l 

There ie a vlnfs of Bemi-friendly editors and individuals that 1 
inhabit the North. They profeaa frieiidtihip for the race, yet 
are always eager to injui-e us in the eyes of our Northern 
friends, Thi^y talk about "liberalizing fleutiment." Some of 
the editors prate about the Afro-Aroericai] being able to 
maintain himself unaided now; others that he is doing 
nothing with whut the North has given him. They jtublish 
diapatchea from thp South, which always put the Afro- 
American in a bad light. In short, they are those who are 
ever anxious to parade the faults and fallacies of the race. 
If they demand equal justice for the Afro- American, it is in 
the hope of reaping a political harvest in the future. Thev 
parade an harmonious and mellifluous speech, like that of the 
immortid Grady in Boston, in 1889, in ihe hope of injui-ing 
the kindly relation of the Northern friend to the Afro- 
American. 

The semi-friendly individual is he who accept* the teachings 
of the semi-friendly journal. There is a great number of 
Buch people, and they represent the average wealth and 
intelligence. 

Let Hs now briefly pay our respects to the class of 
unfriendly editors and individuals. Let us see who they are, 
whence cometh their liatred to us, and what effect their 
unfriendliness has upon their brother in black. 

This class is to be found prevailing in the South to an 
alarming extent, while the second cla-ss will be found in the 
majority. North, The third class of editoi-s have only the 
race question to subsist upon. The editorial columns of their 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 511 

papers are forever filled with articles on some phase of the 
race question. They are more or less of an abusive and 
disturbing nature. They delight in advocating race emigra- 
tion, mob violence at the polls, and the supremacy of one 
people over another ; forgetting that wealth and intelligence 
will rule. The Afro- American knows he can't rule as yet, 
and does not desire to ; so it is a waste of precious time to 
discuss the matter. These editors would be without a subject 
to write upon, if they were to let their hobby alone. Their 
littleness can be seen at once. It is the same class of 
"scribblers" whom TJie Chattanooga Ihiies so completely 
condemns in the following editorial paragraph: **We 
believe these scribblers are responsible, in a great measure, 
for the existing discontent and defiant mood of the negroes, 
and we do not wonder that discontent exists. The negro is 
an impressionable creature, whose emotions, rather than 
perceptions and judgment, determine his moods and actions. 
It is not to be supposed that he will be content under the 
rude clamor raised in favor of his exclusion, first, from all 
rights and privileges heretofore granted him, and, finally, 
from the country where he was born and reared, and which 
his labor has enriched and is still enriching." 

These editors also glory in encouraging lynch law, by 
publishing the press dispatches, under such bold captions as 
** Served him right," *' The good work of Judge 
Lynch." The person lynched may deserve speedy punish- 
ment in that way, yet the better element of the press should 
encourage a respect for justice and the eternal principles of 
law. 

It has been estimated that of the illiterate people of the 
South, at least a million are poor whites. Ignorance being a 
dangerous element in the white man, as well as the black, it 
is a wonder that they have not come together with a greater 
crash. 



512 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

It is our impression that those who compose the ku-klux 
gangs, the regulators, and mobs for lynching, are, in the 
main, of this illiterate class, urged on by a few intelligent 
and prejudiced persons, who stand to see their fiendish work 
well done. The author is in possession of a private letter 
from the "Sunny South," that warrants this belief. Our 
informant exalts the better and liberty-loving whites in his 
section, and states that he was ordered to leave a district in 
which he was assigned to teach, by the chief of the regulators 
for that district who did not know the first letter of the 
alphabet. 

There is much danger in this illiteracy among the whites 
and blacks, and serious conflicts may be looked for until each 
receives a Christian education. The great and good Bishop 
John P. Newman is very explicit on this point. He says: 
"The race problem is to find its solution in Christian 
education. In this is the defense of the rights of the 
manhood of the uneducated whites and the emancipated 
blacks. Their intelligence will disarm prejudice, and com- 
mend them to the respectful attention of all fair minded 
men. The preacher and the teacher will make the new 
South a glorious realization." 

Bishop Andrews says: "The poor white man and the 
colored man are here to stay and to increase. If permitted 
to remain ignorant, they will prove the blind Samsons to 
pull down the pillars of our temple, and involve all clashes 
in a common destruction." 

Dr. J. C. Ilai tzell indoi*ses the same idea, in an address 
before a white conference of North Tennessee. He offered 
as a solution of the race problem the education of the whites 
and blacks. 

Summing up the whole matter as to the white man's view 
of our race, we think it safe to say that it is, in the main, of a 
commendable and sympathizing nature. Great work is being 



THE ANGLO-SAXON PRESS. 



513 



done in the North for us, while the South does not forget its 
duty. Virginia, alone, appropriates $300,000 a year to our 
common school education, beside $30,000 for our higher 
education. 

Let us remember that we are not to win the victory on 
flowery beds of ease, or be swift in running the race. Let us 
be patient until we shall en masse win the prize of education, 
morality, complete fi*eedom, and citizenship. 




/ •/ # 



CHAPTER XXV. 

RECOGNITION OF THE AFRO- AMERICAN AS A CON- 
TRIBUTOR TO ANGLO-SAXON JOURNALS. 



HAVING noticed the relation of the Anglo-Saxon and 
Afro- American newspapers, and the views of the differ- 
ent classes of Anglo-Saxon editors and individuals, wo 
shall be pleased if the reader will go with us while we briefly 
consider the recognition which we receive at the hands of the 
Anglo-Saxon press as contributors and reporters. The recog- 
nition which is paid the Afro- American by the leading journals 
goes far to show what estimate is placed upon our ability as 
journalists. The white papera, as a general thing, will accept 
a contribution showing any thought, or that is an interesting 
item of news, provided the consent of the editor is diligently 
sought for on the part of the contributor. This surely can not 
be considered a recognition of the writer's ability, in a broad 
sense. Technically, it is, for the matter would not be pub- 
lished if it were not good ; and so, in a measure, it is a recog- 
nition of the writer's ability. In this instance the old adage 
relating to the " cart before the mule,'* is very applicable ; 
the effort seeks the newspaper, instead of the newspaper 
seeking the effort. The seeking of our efforts by newspapers 
is the recognition we desire to bring to notice. 



RECOGNITION AS OONTRIBUTORS. 515 

"The greatest characteristic of a true-born journalist," 
says a writer, " is the aptness with which he can distinguish 
news, and the ability to clothe that news into appropriate 
and readable language." It need not be adorned with flowers 
and rhetorical flourishes, but the facts sliould be presented 
in a clear, easy style, so that there can be no danger of a 
misunderstanding on the part of any reader. It is our 
impression that we have many able to do this among our 
Afro- American people; yes, many endowed with that jour- 
nalistic power, which, if cultivated by continual use and 
strengthened by constant reading and studying, will make 
them members of one of the greatest professions we have 
knowledge of. 

In newspaper work, the Afro-American may regard it an 
honor to have any of his productions published in a white 
journal ; he may regard it a favor, a compliment to himself 
and to his race ; but how much more credit it would be to 
the race and to himself, were he employed upon the editorial 
staff of a metropolitan daily, or as a reporter for a large 
and widely-circulated white journal ; or to be held in such 
estimate as to be asked by the leading magazines and dailies 
of the country for a letter, or a contribution on some stated 
subject. This we conceive to be the recognition which the 
ability of many of our journalists demands, but which only a 
few have received. 

In what section of our country this recognition is accorded 
us, the reader will readily conjecture. There can be no 
dispute as to whether it comes from the North or the South, 
since it is so apparent it is from the North. We do not, 
however, receive full recognition in the North; for many 
young men, educated at Harvard or Yale, too lazy to work 
and afraid to come South, are employes of the hotels; 
whereas, in the South, if we are educated, we can get, at 
least, a country school to teach. 



516 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN FBE8& 

The fact that we are not accorded proportional reoognitioa 
mav be due to the relative difference in numbeiB and to ao 
much uunipetiiiou. This, however, is not the iasae confronting 
us. Gi-aiit that there is a difference of opinion as to the 
proportional recognition, we have the conaciouaneaB of 
knowing that we are recognized as joumaliatB, and as 
contributors to Northern magazines, dailies, and weeklies. 
We have no such recognition in the South. 

We have made an assertion which it becomes us to 
support. The reader of this volume has already learned 
that Mr. T. T. Fortune was upon the editorial staff of I%e 
New York Sun. He has furnished articles to the various 
metropolitan journals. In fact, he is accorded a place 
among the first journalists of New York. John S. Durham, 
lately appointed consul-general to the Republic of San 
Domingo, was associate editor of T/ie Philadelphia Evening 
Bulktin, Robert Teamoli is on the editorial staff of The 
Boston GIi)bi\ J. Gordon Street and Miss Lillian Lewis are 
on IVie Boston Herald. Prof. W. S. Scarborough has time 
and aguiu contributed to llie Foi-^um^ Harpers Magazine, 
etc. 

The American Baptist Publication Society has made a 
step in advance by recognizing the Afro-American Baptists 
as editorial writers upon The Teacher. Rev. W. J. Simmons, 
D. D., Rev. Walter H. Brooks, D. D., and Rev. E. K. Love, 
are among those thus complimented. The Methodist Book 
Concern has also recognized Afro- American ability upon ITie 
Journal. Rev. A. E. P. Albert, D. D., is one thus recognized. 
The press clubs and associations in the North have admitted 
Afro-Americans to membership. The white journals from 
the Ma-son-and-Dixon line to the far North, are cognizant of 
the Afro- American's talent, in this direction. 

In the South, some of the white journals have had Afro- 
American reportei*s. This has been the case with some of 




RECOGNITION AS CONTRIBUTORS. 517 

the papers of Baltimore, which have given us positions as 
space writers. Other cities have done likewise, among them 
Lynchburg and Petersburg. But none of the large, influential 
Southern papers, such as The ConstitiUion and 2'he News and 
OowieTf have as yet accepted us as contributors. It is true, 
that news items relating to some demonstration, such as a 
commencement, etc., are received occasionally. 

It is for this reason, as much as any other, that the white 
man in the South does not really understand our true 
development. He does not read our race papers, and thus 
learn of our advancement, nor does he get the information 
from his own papers. He never goes into an Afro- American 
church or attends our literary entertainments, nor does he 
witness our home-life ; therefore, he is left to conclude that all 
black people are like those he sees frequently arraigned 
before the magistrates and mayors of the town. 

In many of the papers nothing is seen about the Afro- 
American, save his record in some court. Such is not the 
case in all cities, but it is in the majority of them. The 
Afro- American certainly knows more about his race than any 
one else, and for the more conservative Southern papers to 
give them recognition would go a long way in producing a 
just and fair opinion of us as a race. 

After discussing the position of the white press, both as to 
section and its attitude toward the Afro- American press and 
people, it seems as though it must be very generally admitted 
that the greatness of America, and her continued development 
depend upon the unity of the press and the pulpit. In this 
fight, the cardinal points must certainly be unity of purpose 
and design. Our prejudiced friends should remember that 
the Afro-American is surely an important part of the nation, 
and that so long as the desire to keep him back gets the 
better of their desire for the country's }>rogress, so long will 
the country, especially the South, be kept back. " In union 



6ia The apro-american press. 

there is Rtrengtii ;" therefore, a concerted action of the wholfl 
press is bound to bring progress, as well as "liberty and 
union, now and forever, one and inseparable." 




CHAPTER XXVI. 



THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. 



NATURALLY, with all people, the freedom of speech and 
thought are cardinal principles to be devoutly wished 
for, and sought. Whether this freedom of thought is 
expressed through the instrumentality of the press, or by our 
vocal organs on the stump, pulpit or rostrum, it is nevertheless 
a dear and precious privilege that we cannot afford to abuse, 
but one that we should use in the maintenance of good and 
wise principles. 

To no country is the freedom of expression by means of 
printed characters, or what is popularly known as the freedom 
of the press, more fully guaranteed and protected by the 
powers that be, than in our own United States and in 
England. 

However, before discussing it in this wise we may be 
profited by a proper understanding of what we mean by the 
freedom of the press. Chambers' Encyclopedia defines it as the 
absence of any authorized official restraint on publication. 

In other words, there is no law defining the direction of the 
press, or any expression of its opinion, so long as it conforms 
to right. The Britannica Encyclopedia on the freedom of 



520 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PRESa 

the press gives this definition : ** The firee ocwnwintiication of 
thoaghts and opinions is one of the inTalnable rights of 
every man ; and every citizen may freely speak, vrite, and 
print on any subject, being responsible for the abase of Hiat 
Uberty." 

It may be of interest here for na to still for&er oondder 
the opinions on the freedom of the press. Lord Wynford 
says : " My opinion on the liberty of the press is, that every 
man may fearlessly advance any new doctrine, providing he 
does so with proper respect to religion and the government 
of the country, that he may point out errors in the measaree 
of public men ; but he must not impute conduct to thenL 
The liberty of the press can not be carried to this extent 
without violating another equally sacred right, the right of 
character. This right can only be attacked in a court of 
justice, where the party assailed has a fair opportunity of 
defending himself. Where vituperation begins, the liberty 
of the people ends." 

To the thoughtful reader, the entire measure of the freedom 
of the press can be readily comprehended from these opinions ; 
but if not yet clearly understood, a consultation of the views 
of our martyred President, James A. Garfield, will probably 
serve the purpose. It was on account of this freedom that 
the Earl of Beaconsfield was proud of his identity with the 
press. 

We have fully considered the freedom of this force ; we 
may now observe the official protection the various countries 
offer it and whether the same liberty exists in all countries 
alike. 

Long before the discovery of America the press was in 
operation; not, however, as a free and equal privilege of 
every one who wished to express himself through this 
medium. Certain authorities took hold of this way of 
expressing thought freely and held it within their grasp, and 



THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. 521 

no one was allowed to publish or print on paper, without 
their consent. It also soon became subject to the censorship 
of the religion of England, especially on matters pertaining 
to Christianity. 

After this the press passed into the hands of the crown, 
by mutual consent upon the part of the religious and secular 
powers who were the censors. There was a certain license 
to be paid for the publication of papers now, and only certain 
people were allowed to publish them. Those who did so 
unlawfully, were punishable by law. If caught, the presses 
were levied upon by an officer, who was known as "press 
messenger." In 1693 the censorship of the English press 
ceased to exist, and there has been perfect freedom of the 
press, with certain restrictions on publishers of libelous or 
criminal matter. That this freedom, in all respects, is the 
same as in the United States, the author is unprepared to 
assert. 

The freedom of the press in our country is guaranteed by 
the Constitution, with a few restrictions, as every one 
conversant with our laws is aware. Article I of the 
amended Constitution says: "Congress shall make no law 
abridging the freedom of speech or of the press." The 
restrictions that are imposed upon persons, matter, etc., in the 
various phases of law, such as libel, copyright, and rights of 
a private character, are presumably imposed for the public 
good. 

It is safe for us to say that in our own country the press 
has unlimited freedom. The restrictions put upon it do not 
limit its freedom, since they are imposed principally to 
suppress censure and abuse, and, as Lord Wynford says: 
" Where vituperation begins, the liberty of* the press ends." 

It goes without saying, that since tlie press is allowed 
perfect freedom in its expression of opinion, and since the 
Constitution licenses it by asserting that no law shall abridge 



622 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRSsS. 

its freedom, aud since its editors have often large abilit; 
the greftteut power imaginable attends its utterances. 

Tlie increased popularity of the English press, and it« 1 
retention within the grasp of a few men for so long a time, i 
waa due to the discovery of its power as a political etiginfl I 
ttud in various other directions. 

A high authority defines the power of the press in thia , 
language : " The press is an instrument well adapted for i 
disturbing the functions of government, and committiog , 
injuries against reputation.'* 

In the creation of sentiment there is not a force in all the 
land with sufficient power to array itself aa an equal of the 
press. This ia the whole power of the press in a nutshell. 
In what direction, for what cause, for and against whom is 
this sentiment created, are the various phases of its power. 
The press can elect a president of the United States; it 
can sink a public measure into oblivion; it can create wars; 
it can cause the destruction of a nation by creating public 
sentiment. 

The ability and fitness of the press is the measure of a 
country's progress and of its power. It cause.s the country 
to develop, by publishing its resources. A unanimous 
suggestion of tlie press is followed by an equally unanimous 
action of the people. It can rear up and pull down ; it mw 
create and it caii destroy. In fact, there is no speech or 
language in which we may express ourselves forcibly enough, 
to depict accurately the Herculean power of the press. It is 
a nation's great stronghold and defense. It ia the popular 
teacher of every individual. In some way, it reaches into 
every household. 

These last thoughts, coupled with the opinion of Lord 
Wynford on the liberty of the press, call to mind the fact 
that in our country, where all men are recognized as one 
people, the cannon mouth of the press, in many instances, is 



THE t'llEfiDOM OF TEtE PRESS. 628 

turned as a formidable enemy against a certain portion of 
this people. Remember the opinion of Lord Wynford, an 
Englishman of high culture, with much wealth and of royal 
blood, an editorial sire. Again, remember that principles and 
doctrines may be advocated, so long as there is proper respect 
for the government and religion. The inference is, that 
outside of this, there is no freedom of the press, but an abuse 
of the right extended to it. 

Notice again that a creation of sentiment against the right 
of character is another abuse of its freedom and power, and 
that where censure, abuse, creation of strife, and the indorse- 
ment of unlawful measures begin, there the liberty of the 
press ends. Are all of our newspapers free from this abuse 
of their liberty? In the light of Lord Wynford's opinion, is 
any part of the press of our country responsible for the 
maltreatment of one people by the other, and a continued 
existence of prejudice? If "where vituperation begins, the 
liberty of the press ends," is there more vituperation than 
liberty exercised by a part of our press? Is the press 
accountable for any disregard of the law? Is it in its power 
to cause peace in every nook of our commonwealth? These 
questions, with many others that will naturally arise in one's 
mind, are presented for consideration. 

Milton in his Areopagitica gives the true scope of the press, 
80 far as every individual is concerned, when he said: 
" Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely 
according to conscience, above all other liberties." 

The press standing as one of the great safeguards of the 
nation should carry out the mission which the following lines 
so plainly portray : 

" Here shall the press the people^s rights maintain, 
Unawed by Influence, and unbribed by gain. 
Here patriot truth her glorious precepts draw, 
Pledged to religion, liberty and law." 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUR 



THE condition of the Afro- American in the Union, particu- 
larly in the South, as to protection of life and property, 
the lack of enjoyment of equal rights and privileges in 
every instance previous to and since 1887, made the demand 
for an organized eflfort of some character upon the part of the 
Afro-American to maintain and defend his rights a necessity. 
"What shall we do to save ourselves, and our people?'* was a 
question of pressing ini2)ortance to every one of the emanci- 
pated freedmen. The decision of Chief Justice Taney, which 
is remembered by the blacks with regret, and by many of the 
whites with pleasure, and the Southern policy of President 
Hayes, with the repeated declarations of Chief Executives 
and Congress to Afro-American delegations that they could 
not interfere with State rights, hence could do them no good, 
made the demand for race concentration greater and greater 
every day. The race leaders were put to their wits' end to 
devise some means which would lead to the accomplishment 
of their desire. From the first sitting of an Afro- American 
convention in Syracuse, N. Y., October 4th, 1864, to tho 
present day, these grave questions confronting the race have 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 525 

been soberly and wisely cousidered. The question assumed 
prominence in the Syracuse convention by the attacks and 
jeers of some evil designing white men. It was in this 
convention that Hon. Frederick Douglass answered with 
telling effect some whites, who, after noticing the Afro- 
Americans passing to and from the hall, sarcastically asked — 
"Where are those d— -d niggers going?" 

At this convention the business committee, through its 
chairman, Rev. Henry Highland Garnett, D. D., reported 
** A Declaration of Wrongs and Rights;" these were nothing 
more than a parcel of resolutions introduced and passed. 
This precedent, once established, was devoutly clung to until 
1887, when something tangible was laid before the Afro- 
Americans all over the country for their consideration and 
sanction. 

Heretofore, resolutions had been introduced in convention 
after convention, and passed several national and state 
conventions, setting forth our needs, etc. These resolutions 
introduced and passed were delivered by delegation to the 
president and members of Congress, who gave them the 
following words of assurance : *' Gentlemen, we appreciate 
your position ; your case shall have proper consideration." 
This said, we heard no more. 

This state of aflfairs the black newspaper fraternity decided 
could not longer exist; accordingly they began to think 
profoundly, and soon one of the number, Editor T. Thomas 
Fortune, aroused from his revery and brought from its 
depths the Afro-American League. 

In Tfie New York Freeman of August and September, 
1887, Mr. Fortune published a series of articles, stating the 
cause for organization, the manner of organization, and the 
results sure to attend its efforts, if properly managed. These 
articles were considered the ablest treatise on the condition 
and remedy for race recognition ever published by a black 



626 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

man. The issae of September 10, 1887, contained the plan 
of organization.^ Several leagues were immediately organised, 
the first being that of Richmond, Va. 

The author, having been forcibly impressed with the 
expediency of such an organization, read a paper in its 
interest (August 15, 1887,) before the New Era Literary 
society of Lynchburg, Va. The Afro-American citizens of 
the Union, though under oppression and desirous of relief, 
did not take to the organization, presumably on account of 
the lack of proper knowledge of it, as succeeding action 
proved. Thus it was not until Mr. William E. Matthews, 
LL. B., a prominent Afro- American banker of Washington, 
having been deeply impressed with the courtesy extended 
him while on a trip to Europe, and noticing the lack of such 
courtesies and the race restriction and discrimination on his 
return to America, addressed a letter to Hon. John M. 
Langston, M. C, in which he urged the organization of the 
Afro- American league; hence, the credit for the revival of 
the same belongs to Mr. Matthews, and accordingly The 
Plaindealer pays him the following tribute : " When the 
concentrated eflforts of the whole race, acting through the 
agency of the Afro-American league, shall have secured to 
every man and woman of African descent the protection and 
justice enjoyed by all other classes of citizens, the name of 
William E. Matthews will be intimately associated with the 
history of this great movement." 

The institution of the league was at once taken hold of 
with renewed strength by individuals of .the race and by all 
of the Afro- American journalists, with a vim and a power 
known only to the newspaper man of firm and unflinching 
convictions. Every Afro-American editor, with quill in 
hand, took a decided stand for the league, proclaiming to the 
world — "Upon this rock I stand; all other is sinking sand," 

The New Yoik Age began a lively crusade, while The 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 627 

Plaindealer of Detroit, Mich., issued a circular to the leading 
men, calling on them for aid. The response from these 
circulars was both satisfactory and encouraging. ITie 
Plaindealer publishes them under the caption — "Let ua 
reason together." 

Judge A. W. Tourgee, in his answer to 27ie Plaindealer, 
said: '*If Irishmen may organize, to aid in improving the 
condition of Ireland ; or other nationalities among our citizen- 
ship, to perpetuate the tradition of the land of their nativity, 
I can not see why it is not only the privilege but the bounden 
duty of the only class of our citizens whom any one has 
ever proposed to deprive of the rights so readily conferred 
upon the alien, to organize for consultation and harmony of 
action in the maintenance of their lawful rights, in a lawful 
manner/' 

Prof. B. T. Washington said: **An organization of this 
kind, I am sure, can be made to serve a good end, if it can, 
in some way, be made to reach the masses of the colored 
people. Most of our conferences, conventions, etc., have 
reached only the mountain peaks, leaving the great Alpine 
range of humanity and activity below." 

Other views were received from Hons. John R. Lynch, 
J. M. Townsend, Rev. J. C. Price, D. D., and a host of others. 
Suffice to say, the consensus of opinion was so satisfactory 
to l^he Plaindealer, it was led, editorially, to ask for a call, 
as follows: The success of the proposed national Afro- 
American League is almost assured ; there remains but one 
preliminary arrangement to be perfected, and that is the 
call with the number of delegates to which each state is 
entitled. This should be made before new state organizations 
are effected, to save the expense of two state conventions. 
The consensus of opinion, as gathered from 27ie Plaindealer 
from those in a position to represent the sentiment of their 
localities, is almost unanimous as to the need of such an 



528 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

organization to exhaust every legal remedy to secure rigbts 
which the Constitution guarantees. There is no question 
that if the league be non-political, that we shall have 
thousands of white men who will aid us in every material 
way. The sense of justice, both North and Bouth, among the 
intelligent people is greater than a casual observer would 
suppose. The agitation pushed so far has been productive of 
rich, yet unexpected fruit already." 

Hie New York Age said : " Interest in the Afro- American 
league constantly augments. From all sections of the 
country letters are received, asking for information upon 
which the league .should be organized. Leagues are springing 
up at points so far apart as to indicate unmistakably how 
extensively dilfused and deep rooted the idea has become in 
the minds of the people. 

• •••••«••• 

Let us have a national meeting. We submit in another 
column the plan of organization publisliod by us September 
10, 1887, for the guidance of those who desire now to move 
in the matter of organization, and we do so because the 
correspondence from all parts of the country for information 
as to plan of organization has grown so enormous as to be a 
drain upon our time." 

The following constitution was then offered bv Mr. Fortune: 

Sec. 1. Any person of the age of eighteen and upward 

(without regard to race, color or sex) can become a member 

of thi's league by subscribing to its constitution and by-laws, 

and by the payment of the entrance fee and monthly 

assessment of . 

Sec. 2. The objects of this league are to protest against 
taxation without representation; to secure a more equitable 
distribution of school funds; to insist upon fair and impartial 
trial by judge and jury of peers, in all cases at law wherein 
we may be a party; to resist by all legal and reasonable 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 529 

means mob and lynch law, whereof we are made the victims, 
and to insist upon the arrest and punishment of all such 
offenders against our legal rights; to resist the tyrannical 
usage of railroad and steamboat and other corporations, and 
the violent and insulting conduct of their employes in all 
instances where we are concerned, by prosecution of such 
corporations and tlieir employes in state and federal courts; 
to labor for the reformation of our penal institutions, where 
barbarous, cruel, and unchristian treatment of convicts is 
practiced, and to insist on healthy emigration from terror- 
ridden sections to other and more law-abiding sections. 

Sec. 3. A general tax of $1. per annum on all members of 
this branch league shall be levied and conserved by the 
treasurer into the treasury of the national league, to carry 
out the objects set forth in Section 2, 

Sec. 4. The objects of this league shall be conserved by 
the creation of a healthy public opi?iion, through the medium 
of public meetings and addresses, and by ap2)ealing to the 
courts of law for redress of all denial of legal and constitu- 
tional rights; the purpose of this league being to secure the 
ends desired by peaceable and lawful methods. 

Sec. 5. This league is in no sense a partisan body, and no 
man shall be debarred from membership therein because of 
his political opinions. 

BY-LAWS. 

1. The name of this organization shall be the Afro- 
American League of — No. — 

2. The officers of this league shall be one president, two 
vice-presidents, one secretary and two assistant secretaries, 
one treasurer, two chaplains, two serjeants-at-arms, and an 
executive committee of five, the officers to be elected (as the 
league shall determine.) 

3. This branch league shall meet at — the first Tuesday 
in each month (or oftener, at the discretion of the league,) at 

34 



530 THE AFKO-AMERICAN PRESS. 



8 o'clock p. m., witk open or secret meetings at the dinn^on 
of lUe league. 

4. Tills branch league shall be subject to the laws 
hereafter made by the uational Afro-American league. 

With this published, aud the rapid foriflation of branch 
leagues ia many atat?;^, the desire for a uational call grew 
greater and greater. The newspapers were loud in tbeii- 
demands, in response to which the Ibllowiug call was issued 
November 4, 1890: 

To the Colored Citizens of the Jirpublic: Bebg convinced 
that the time is ripe for the organization of tlie Natioiiul 
Afro-American League, proposed by me two years ago. to 
successfully combat the denial of our Constitutiotial and 
inherent rights, so generally denied or abridged thronghout 
the Republic, and being urged to do so by members of branch 
leagues all over the country, I, by these presents, issue a 
call to all the branches of the A fro- American League, and 
invite all clubs and societies organized to secure the rights 
of the race, to meet by their representatives in National 
Convention at Chicago, III., Wednesday, January 15, 1890, 
for the purpose of organizing a National Afro-American 
League ; Ihe bam of Beprescntation to be four delegates for every 
one hundred members, or one delegate far every twerdy-five 
members, constituting the branch league, club or society, 
desiiing to co-operate in the movement for National organi- 
zation. 

Correspondence from all organizatdona desiring to join in 
this movement is requested. 

Very respectfully, 

T. Thomas Foeiuks. 
New York, November 4, 1S89. 
Concurring in this call : 
Alexander WiLTEiia of New York, 
J. Go&DON Street of Massachusetta, 






THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 531 

W. A. Pledger of Georgia, 

Robert Pelham, Jr., of Micliigan, 

Edward E. Cooper of Indiana, 

H. C. Smith of Ohio, 

John Mitchell, Jr., of Virginia, 

Magnus L. Robinson of Virginia, 

J. C. Price of North Carolina, 

John C. Dancy of North Carolina, 

Thomas T. Symmons of the District of Columbia, 

F. L. Barnett of Illinois, 

Z. T. Cline of New Jersey, 

Van N. Williams of Alabama, 

B. Prillerman of West Virginia, 

William H. Heard of Pennsylvania, 

R. K. Sampson of Tennessee, 

H. M. Morris of South Carolina, 

James G. McPherson of Mississippi, 
and others. 

The reader will notice that this call is signed, in the main, 
by the young and progressive newspaper element. 

The local leagues having been organized in various sections, 
delegates were elected to the national convention according 
to the direction of the call. The call for the convention 
was indorsed by The A. M. E. Church Review^ in the 
following forcible language: "The interest and enthusiasm 
with which the call for a meeting of the Afro- American 
leagues in the several states to convene at Chicago, January 
15, 1890, for the purpose of eflfecting a national organization, 
has been received by the race in every section of the country, 
is one of the most remarkable and significant manifestations 
of awakened manhood shown by the race since or before the 
war. The unanimity with which the people have responded 
to the call for national organization eflfectually disposes of the 
belief, long current and firmly rooted, that the Afro- American 



532 . THE AFRO- AMERICAN PRESS. 

was constitutionally inc«apable of grasping the potentiali- 
ties of co-operation and of turning them to advantage. To 
be sure, the great work to be done by the league remains 
to be subjected to the crucial test of practical demonstration ; 
but, as a matter of fact, the victory is more than half assured 
in al4 such efforts when large masses of men, widely separated 
and differently circumstanced, begin to think in a given 
groove, and to declare their readiness to move together as 
one man, to accomplish a given result. That the race lias 
reached this point to-day, and will meet in convention to 
perfect a permanent organization which shall put to the test 
ita capacity for intelligent and uncompromising contention tor 
absolute ju.stice under the Constitution, marks a tremendous 
advance in all the elements of strong, resourceful and 
aggressive manhood." 

In acc'or«lance with the call, the league convened in 
Chicago, January 15, 1890, and was an enthusiastic gathering. 
There were twenty-one states represented by a convention of 
one hundred iind forty-one delegates. A national organization 
was eti'ected, with Rev. J. C. Price, D. D., of Livingstone 
College, president; T. Thomiis Fortune, Esq., editor iVcu» 
York ylyr, secretary ; Lawyer E. 11. Morris, Chicago, attorney; 
and George H. Jackson, Esq., treasurer. 

The object of the meeting was clearly and forcibly made 
known when Mr. Fortune said : '* We have met here to-dav 
as representatives of 8,000,000 freemen, who know cmr 
rights and have the courage to defend them. We have nu*t 
here to-day to impress the fact upon men who have used us 
for selfish and unholy purposes, who have murdered and 
robbed and outraged us, that our past condition of dependence 
and helplessness no longer exists." Thus the key-note was 
sounded which united the clansmen. 

The work of the league organization is a very thorough 
and matured plan. It is divided into three sections, national 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 583 

state and local. The state organizations are subordinate to 
the national, and the local leagues are subordinate to the 
state. The object of the national league is the same as that 
of local and state leagues, only the national is pledged to 
support the local and state leagues in any way whetever in 
the carrying out of the principles set forth in Article II of 
the constitution for local leagues heretofore quoted. The 
means for accomplishing the ends of Article II is sufficiently 
provided for in Section 3 of the constitution. 

The great and pleasing feature of the whole league is 
expressed in Sections 4 and 6. "A peaceable and lawful 
method" is to be pursued in contending for the objects 
outlined. It was argued by many that the league would be 
construed as an organized effort among the Afro- Americans 
for physical warfare. This idea is completely obliterated in 
the light of Section 4, — so much so, that the evil-designing 
papers which are always ready to question any thing planned 
for the good of the Afro- American, have not dared to raise 
such an issue. It was also argued by many that the purpose 
was to strengthen this or the other political power. This, 
Section 5 of the Constitution clearly settles. 

Again, this section is strongly supported by the constitution 
of the national league, Article XIV, Sections 1, 2, and 3, 
which read thus: "This league is a !ion-partisan body, and 
any officer or member of the executive board attempting to 
use the league for individual purposes shall be expelled." 

" Any officer or member of the league being elected to any 
political office, or appointed to the same, shall resign the 
office held by him in the league." 

'• The work of the convention was strongly indorsed by 
all of the white papers of Chicago, save TJie li'ibune, also 
The New York Sun and Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, 
By the Afro-American press the league was indorsed 
UTianimously. We append a few of the comments ; 



684 THE AFRO-AMEBIOAN PBESS. 

The national Afro- American league called at Chicago, HI., 
last week, was well attended and laid the foundation for 
local leagues for the advancement of the rights and interest 
of the colored people throughout the country. — Sofuihwedem 
ChrisUan Advocate. 

It is a good time for our people to occasionally formulate 
their grievances and appeal to the judgment and &ir play 
of the American people. If it is possible at this stage of 
our advancement for our people to keep up a national 
organization, we are disposed to feel that the league has 
secured the best men we have for that purpose. — Auffuda 
(Ga.) Sentinel 

The earnestness, unity and good will which pervaded the 
action of the conveution, showed that all had come to the 
conclusion to take united steps in the direction of banding 
the race together for the purpose of working its own destiny. 
— PUlsburg Spokesman, 

One of the grandest and most important organizations 
ever effected for colored people was completed and sent forth 
for the ratification of 8,000,000 of America's most industrious, 
yet most abused and misrepresented citizens. — Lexingixm 
(Ky.) Soldier, 

The young men who assembled at Chicago went there to 
do their duty by the race. They succeeded admirably, 
displaying the nicest discrimination in the adoption of 
resolutions and exercising the most intelligent care in the 
selection of leaders. — Philadelphia Tribune. 

The meeting was a representative body of the colored 
people of the country ; and more than that, it was a coming 
to the front of an entirely new element, with new ideas, 
larger aims, and higher and nobler aspirations. — Philadelphia 
Sentinel. 

These comments cannot fail to impress the reader that the 
league is meeting with popular favor. 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 535 

Enthusiastic state organizations have been effected in New 
York, Ohio, and other states, while local leagues are being 
set up daily. In Ohio, state organizers have been commis- 
sioned by the state league to organize every township and 
city into a league. 

Upon a recent meeting of the New York state league at 
Rochester, Tfie Democrat and Chronicle said, editorially, the 
following words of commendation : 

" The delegates from Afro-American leagues of New York 
state who have assembled in convention in this city for the 
purpose of forming a state orgatiization, are a fine-looking, 
representative set of men, and their proceedings are marked 
by evidence of intelligent thought and an earnest desire to 
improve the opportunities which are offered in the commercial 
and intellectual world. The object of this league, as we 
understand it, is self-development and the creation of relations 
which shall be eventually beneficial to the members in the 
various enterprises in 'which they may engage. Necessarily, 
the beginning must be small ; but it is a step in the right 
direction, which will have a strong tendency to stimulate 
self-respect and honorable ambition." 

The national league has already begun its humanitarian 
work. In the case of Fortune vs. Train or for ejection from 
the Trainer hotel of New York and false imprisonmetit, the 
league has indorsed Mr. Fortune in the suit for $10,000 
damages, instituted in the courts of New York. The fol low- 
eminent counsel have been retained by the league, through 
Mr. Fortune: Hon. J. M. Langston, M. C, T. McCauts 
Stewart, attorney for New York state league, Jacob Simms, 
Esq., New York City, and E. H. Morris, Esq., of Chicago, 
attorney for the national league. These able and efficient 
lawyers will defend Mr. Fortune's rights, which, in a measure, 
involve the right of every other Afro-American leaguer. 

This unity of the race promises to be the best means yet 




536 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

£or securing the legitimate rights of the black man. It means 
to back resolutions and assertions with financial substance 
and intellectual power. The eflfort has been briefly referred 
to in this volume to prove to the reader that something is 
being done for the race by the Afro- American press. Is 
there one who will gainsay that the Afro- American press is 
not forging us to the front? 

Contending for what he knows to be right and for what 
he believes to be the race's salvation, the Afro-American 
editor has thus far gained the merited "Well done." There 
is no one who can dare say that, with thorough aud compact 
organization, with trusted leaders, this scheme may not prove 
the salvation and redemption of the black man. The unan- 
imity with which our Afro-American editors took hold of the 
scheme means more than the average man suspects. The 
author's impression is, that these editors, with their pens of 
warfare, mean to press every man of the race into line of 
battle for a peaceable and aggressive warfare. These gentle- 
men of the press recognize the fact that the public conscience 
must be quickened, in the light of human freedom and 
hai^piness. We are supported in this assertion by the words 
of one of our ablest and most experienced editors, probably 
the oldest man of our race now editing a newspaper, namely, 
Rev. Mr. White of 2^he Georgia Baptist. Says he : 

" The time has now come for the colored man to organize 
effectively in the South for his own protection. Our hope in 
this respect must be in the creation of a public sentiment by 
which the better element of white people in the South shall 
combine to put down lawless treatment of colored people. 
Still, we have not a word to say against any movement that 
tends to impress the colored men of the country with the 
necessity of combined effort for bettering the present condition 
of the race." 

Another one of our ablest contemporaries, TTie IiHlianapolis 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE. 



587 



Freeman^ gives some pertinent thoughts just on this point: 
"The organized protest of the representatives of nine 
"millions of people against flagrant, unprovoked bloodshed and 
wrong must attract attention and arouse the intelligent, 
humane pulse and conscience of the nation and civilized 
world. That once aroused, light will begin to break upon 
the dense wilderness of hate and persecution by which the 
Afro-American is enveloped, and a way will be blazed for 
him, which, followed, must laud him at the summit of 
complete American citizenship." 

It seems the intention of the press to lay before every 
Afro-American this effort, which, in their judgment, is the 
best road to the goal. It is their intention that not an Afro- 
American shall be ignorant of the league and its purposes. 
It shall be so simple and plain, that " a way-faring man, though 
a fool, shall not err therein." This aggressive, yet peaceable 
manner of agitating is a commendable step, for the best senti- 
ments of the people may be relied on to take the side of the 
right; and since the side of the right is the* complete 
emancipation of the race from social, moral and political 
injustice, it is safe to say that the Anglo-Saxon, with whom 
we live and move, will some day, en masse, get on that side. 

Then it is the business of the Afro-American to contend, 
to agitata ; and it can be done in no more effectual way than 
through the league system. The press is determined ; let the 
people rally. 



CHAPTER XXVni. 

THE ASSOCIATED CORRESPONDENTS OP RACE 

NEWSPAPERS. 



IT is a fact not to be denied, that since the Afro-Americaus 
compose a portion of the nation inhabiting the United 
States, and since what is done to the uttermost of one 
part affects the well-being of the other part, proper and 
reliable information from the nation's capital is desired by 
the Afro- American journals, as well as by any other. 

Nearly all of the Afro-American journals prefer the most 
accurate information from Washington, and so the leading 
ones have enlisted the services of some very able correspondents. 
These organized themselves April 23, 1890, under the name 
of the '* Associated Correspondents of Race Newspapen*," for 
the purpose of furnishing data for papers, and to establish a 
better medium of communication from the capital with all 
Afro-American journals. The article of organization reads 
very significantly. It says : ** The object of this Association 
is to form a more perfect union of the correspondents at the 
national capital, in any way identified with Afro- American 
journals or journalists, and to promote in every legitimate 
way the best interests of our race through the medium of the 
press." 



THE ASSOCIATED CORRESPONDENTS. 539 

Through the organized effort of this Association the race 
will, no doubt, be benefited a hundred fold. Already, the 
encomiums heaped upon the Association from the readers of 
those newspapers containing letters from its members are 
many. The Association seeks to come into communication 
with all journals; and the writer takes the liberty to say, 
that when all of our newspapers shall have obtained the 
assistance of the Association, they will add a very important 
feature to their journalistic pretensions. 

The membership at present is forty ; the papers represented, 
ten. The following able and influential gentlemen direct the 
affairs of the Association : Prof, E. L. Thornton, New Ycn'k 
Age^ president; J. E. Bruce, Cleveland Gazette, first vice- 
pi'esident ; C. Carroll Stewart, Indianapolis World, second 
vice-president; C. A. Johnson, Chicago Appeal, recording 
seci-etury ; B. C. Whiting, Indianapolis Freevian, corresponding 
secretary; R. J. Raymond, Chicago Advance, treasurer; C. E. 
Lane, Khoxville Negro World, manager. 

Edward Loften Thornton, of The Nciv York Age, the 
president of the Association, was born in Fayetteville, N. C, 
in 1863, his parents being A. G. and Elsie Thornton, They 
were well-to-do people ; and it may be said that Edward 
came of a worthy and good parentage. He is the only boy 
of five children, and his life has been one of great credit to 
himself and people. 

He began to attend school at the age of five years, and > 
graduated from the state normal school at Fayetteville. 
Bishops J. W. Hood and C. P. Harris were among his first 
teachers. From this school he graduated as valedictorian of 
his class. He matriculated at Howard University in the fall 
of 1878, and was assigned to the junior preparatory class, 
and at once took the' lead in his classes. He graduated from 
Howard as Bachelor of Arts in 1885. 

Since graduation, he has been principal of Edgecombe 



540 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

normal school, which position he resigned in 1889 to accept 
a position in the Census Department at Washington. He 
now holds a $1200 clerkship in the Record and Pension 
Division of the War Department. 

While an able editor, he also ranks high among the orators 
of North Carolina, — that state of orators. He has made a 
splendid record as an orator. He delivered the first annual 
address before the Garrison Lyceum of Livingston College. 
He was the orator at the fifth annual fair of the North 
Carolina Industrial Association, held at Raleigh, N. C. He 
was the orator at the third annual fair of the Eastern North 
Carolina Stock and Industrial Association, held at Groldsboro, 
N. C. 

He was president of the Edgecombe County Teachers* 
Association, and in 1888 was elected president of the Eastern 
North Carolina Stock a!id Industrial Association, and in this 
capacity conducted one of the most successful fairs ever held 
in North Carolina. 

He began his first active newspaper work, as the Washington 
correspondent of The Charlotte (N. C.) Messenger, His 
letters to this journal attracted the widest attention throughout 
the country, and were generally clipped. During the summer 
of 1882, he edited that journal with signal ability. He was 
universally esteemed by his fellow collegians while at 
Howard Universitv, and as an evidence of their esteem and 
a compliment to his ability they elected him editor-in-chief 
of the first and only college paper organized by the students. 
At the organization of the Associated Correspondents of Race 
Newspapers at Washington, D. C, he was unanimouslv 
elected president, and has filled the office creditably. He \a 
now the regular Washington correspondent of The New York 
Age, a leading Afro-American paper, and his letters from 
the capital are read with interest and are one of the leading 
features of that deservedly popular and aggressive journal, 




EDWARD LOFTEN THORNTON. 



542 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Mr. Thornton is quite a young man, and stands high in the 
estimation of the journalistic profession as a writer and 
thinker. 

Charles A. Johnson, of The Chicago Appeal^ the recording 
secretaiy of the Association, was born in St. Louis, Mo., April 
4, 1865. His parents moved to Ironton, Ohio, when he was 
only seven years old, presumably for the benefit of better 
school facilities. He attended school regularly and graduated 
in 1882 from the high school of Ironton. After this he 
taught school in Ironton, It will be interesting to note that 
the admission of young Johnson into the high school of 
Ironton was the first opening of that school to Afro- American 
students. 

While teaching school he learned the printer's trade, in 
the office of a white paper, llie Ironton Busy Bee, and during 
vacation was city editor, and in winter, during the scliool 
term, he had control of the educational column of that paper. 
For two years he was local correspondent of The Cohnnbus 
(Ohio) Evening Dispatch, and at other times the correspondent 
of TJie Sentinel and Afro-Amencan of Cincinnati and of Hie 
Ohbe at Cleveland, Ohio. 

In 1886, in company with Calvin W. Reynolds, since 
engrossing clerk of the House of Re])resentatives of Ohio, he 
started llie Spokesman, an Afro-American journal at Ironton ; 
but like a rose blighted by frost from too early betting out 
the attempt tailed, and The Spokesman became a thing of the 
past. 

Going to Missouri in 1886, he taught school in Webster 
Groves until 1889, and while there was local correspondent 
for TJie St. Louis Otohe-Dcnxocrai, and for Tlie Clayton 
Waichman, both white papers, his work being devoted not 
to race news alone but to the public. He is now the 
correspondent of Tlie Chicago Appeal, from Washington, 
where he is a clerk in the War Department. 



644 THE AFBO-AMEBIOAN PRBS& 

diaries Carroll Stewart, of l%e Jncfiofupofit (Ind.) Warld, 
second vice-president of the Araodation, was bom at Annap- 
olis, Maryland, February 28, 1859. In 1862 he moved with 
his parents, who were free-bom, to Washington, where his 
father, Mr. Judson Stewart, engaged in bosinesB. He is a 
descendant of one of the best Afro-American CEonilies of 
Maryland. His grandmother was a Bishop, while his grand- 
fiEither was a Jackson. These fiunilies are well known 
throughout Maryland and in Washington as large owners of 
real estate. 

Mr. Stewart was educated in the public and private schoob 
of Washington, and there studied dentistry for several years. 
When but sixteen years old he had a desire to see more of the 
world, and in 1874 an opportunity to do so presented itself to 
him. He accepted a position with a party of surveyoi-s that 
were to go to Panama to survey and lay out the plan for cut- 
ting the Panama canal. During this trip he visited Central 
America and the Southern seaport towns of the United States. 

On his return, he was apprenticed at ship-building by Hon. 
George M. Robeson, then Secretary of the Navy. Serving at 
this over a year, he resigned. Since then he has traveled 
extensively in the United States, Europe, and some parts of 
Africa and Asia. In 1876 he was with the relief party that 
went to Custer's aid, at the time he was killed in the Black 
Hills.- During the time intervening since his travels abroad, 
he has held several government positions at Washington, D. C. 
In 1882 lie began his work in journalism as Ixislness man- 
ager and publis!u*r of ITie Washington (D. C.) Bee, which, 
under his astute management, ruse to popularity. He 
severed his connection with llie Bee in 1884, to take the 
position of Washington correspondent of The Baltimore 
Vnidwator, 

In March, 1884, he organized a national news bureau, 
which was composed of representatives of the Afro- American 




CHARIES C\RB()II STF\\AET. 



k 



646 THS A7B0-AMEBICAN PBBB8. 

press from nearly every state in the Union. He was made 
president at its organization, and sacceeded himself twice, 
despite repeated declinations. He has since corresponded 
for ne Hichnumd (Va.) Flanei, Cleveland (Ohio) OaxeUe, 
The Arhanaaa Sun, IndiomapoUB World, and other papers. 
His writings are often quoted by leading white and black 
journals. As a writer, he stands well among the first; as a 
politician, he is a shrewd and tireless worker. 

He was the only Afro-American representative of the 
press invited to the dedicatory exercises of the Washington 
monument, in 1885. Great courtesy was shown him in the 
reporter s gallery of the House, on that occasion, as well as 
at the exercises at the base of the monument, over which 
President Arthur presided. He is at present an employee at 
the government printing office, and has many warm and per- 
sonal friends among the leading white and black Republicans. 

In April, 1890, he was elected second vice-president of the 
National Associated Correspondents of Race Newspapers, 
which ^Ir. Stewart aims, as far as he is concerned, to make a 
powerful combination. 

Benjamin C. Whiting, of the Indianapolis FrceinaiXj corre- 
sponding secretary of the Association, was born at Frederick 
City, ^Id., and received a common school education. He was 
em})loyed upon a farm, at intervals, until the age of ten. 
Although too young to assist in the late civil war, it so filled 
him with patrotism that, at the age of sixteen, he enlisted in 
Company ^I, 10th United States cavalry and was sent to Fort 
Still, Indian Territory. The Company commander, Capt. S.I. 
Norwood, paid great attention to young Whiting, and it was 
here that he got a fair knowledge of book-keeping, under 
Captain Norwood's instructions. During the first year, he was 
reappointed corporal ; and afterwards he became quarter- 
master sergeant to the regiment, during the campaign of 1876 
asjainst the Comanche Indians, and was engaged in several 



548 THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

battles. He was personally mentioned in the company's 
orders for his gallantry at the battle of Cheyenne. 

In 1879, at the expiration of his term of service (five years) 
he retnrned East and entered the grocery business. Later, 
he accepted a position as restaurateur, in connection with the 
United States senate. After three years* service he wa^ 
a[)pointed to a position in the treasury department. A few 
vears later, he entered the service of the Pullman Palace Car 
company and remained in their service until receiving an 
appointment in the United States repair shop, po.st-office 
department, at Washington. 

He has always been prominent in the organizations for the 
benefit of his race ; also, in the order of Odd Fellows. He 
represented his lodge at several general conventions. He is 
a member of P. G. M. Council, No. 44, Patriarch No. 42, and 
chairman of the Hall building committee, an advocate for his 
lodge, a member of the county Republican committee of 
Washington county, Md., the John Sherman Republican 
league, the Afro- American league, and many other charitable 
and benevolent associations. He has been on the stafl^ of 
TJie Washington (D. C.) Bee for five years. 

Mr. Whiting is a genial gentleman and has many warm 
friends among both white and black. As coi-re.spondent for 
The Frennan, he has been an exceptionally faithful and 
successful worker. His lettei's are newsy and pointed, and 
his efforts have been the means of introducing The Freeman 
into many new quarters. He wa.s recently elected correspond- 
ing secretary of the Associated Correspondents of Pu\ce 
Newspapers, and is filling the office very fittingly. 

The sketch of the first vice-president, John E. Bruce, will 
be found in another chapter of this volume. Messrs. Ravmond 
and C. E. Lane entered the arena of journalism as corre- 
spondents, respectively, of The Indianopolk World, St. Louis 
Advance and Knorville Negro World, They have filled their 



THE ASSOCIATED CORRESPONDENTS. 549 

places with ability. The lettem of eacli of the A. C. of R. N. 
are looked for and admired. There in inuc-h within the grasp 
of this Association to make our press a unanimoue agitator for 
the rights and privileges of citizens. The hope is, that the 
organization will not lose sight of its far-reaching possibilities, 
but with a keen perceptive faculty may seize every oppor- 
tunity which will redound to tiie favor of the race and the 
perpetuity of our free institutions. 





REV. J. ALEXANDER HOLMES. 

(Set P»lrt 140.) 

(Note. These portrait* Inserted have been received ti 
iDiertfon in connection with the text conceminf them.) 



fci ■Mfif 1 jiI: I "r 






SAMUEL A. RUDD. 




BISHOP JABEZ PITT CAMPBELL, D. D., L.L.D. 



JOHN M. BKOWN, D. D., D.C.L. 



ALEXANDER CKUMMELL. 




EEV. BENJAMIN F. LEE, D. D., L.L.D. 




HON. UIFFUN W, OIBBS. 



INDEX. 



AdTocatt. the Weekly bcpin. a;. 

obaneed to Colurrd rtuierluan. U. 
AMoan KxpotibT. 1 be. i\0. 
AMoan *i K. t but.*, ;k 
African Wadun IKthIiI. The. S88. 
AMran Wntont. iii< 
Afro- American [!ucli.'<-t. liiM^T. 
Arro-Amerivan. i^oiitrilutorB to while 

^ urn alt. 514. 
}-ADierican JuurnallHii. ecneriil 
idea of. icr7. 
lournnllsm. projmjBs of. ITO. 
juuniala. dally. 1^. 

journals! WHO lo IBftJ.'by stntea, 

Afro-Amrrican League. Ita origin, 

iUeon9Lltutlon.B28 

the Blmera. ssa. 

the CIiId:um moetfnii of 1«». SSB. 
Joiirnallsth' IndoreemeiitB, ia*. 
Its humanllarian work. iX>. 
Afro-AmeridHn MsMKinea, 118. 
newspaper, the HrsL 118. 



ed. H. W. i'brlsUan AdToeate, tew. 

quallUea as a writer. SX. 
Alienated AmerlCBii. The. T4. 
Allen, Rlehard, jKirlialt of. T*. 
Allen. WllllainU..pubU^eru[Wateh- 



Amerluan Baptist, The. of New Tork, 

AnicrlcBn Catholla Tribune. The, 410. 

418. 
American cmieii. The, in. 



n. G. V/.. usoclats editor New 
Boum. W6. 
pi>nrttltof. SOT, 
IniTurgou. W. H., editor Detroit PlalD- 
denler. inS. 
n.rtralt of. IM. 
Anderson. W. H., D. D.. editor Bapttot 
Waruhman. 348. 
ponrnt of. 84' 
lnglo-A(rk-un. Tl 



n. The. beEOn. BS. 

■Hi;iiii.ii<;ler.S4. 

cbaiucBd to Pine and PsIiD, BS. 

Hdrouaor of eduuallon. 87. 

contemporaries of. BO. 
Aniito. African Macazlne. Tbe, IIS. 

Its objects. 119. 
Aiwlo.saion and AfroAm, pra*: 



M attitudes of A. S. papm, 
r words, iDdlanapolii Jour- 



Chattanooga Tiroes, DO 
Rulefeh News and Ot* 
Mobonk Conference, H 
llbtaopC.n. Fowler, 50 
Bishop Whipple, DOa. 
Bev, ft, Burnham.UA 
Unyor Carroll. AM, 

Hon.OcorKeH 

Hon. Joeepli E. oruwn. mi, 

Hon. G, J, Orr.Boe. 

Bishop A. O. naygood. MB. 

L H. Blulr. Esii , tM 

Half -friendly edltun. SIO. 

unfriendly editors, GIO. 

the danirer from llllteraoy.Ml. 

recognition of Afro-Am. by A. B,i 

G14. 
why not priipnrtiounlly recognized 

518, 
examples of JoumaUsUo loooeM. 



s, 504. 



Arknnsas Baptist. The, ttO. 
Arkansas nispntch. The, SO. 
Aitansas Herald, The, MS. 
Armttcad, J. U., Key.. OH. 



558 



INDEX. 



Amett, B. W.. Rot., D. D., opbUon of, 
450. 
assoolated oorrespondents, 688. 
Atkins, S. O., Prof., editor of South- 

land. 1S4. 
Atlanta Repablioan, The, 219. 
Atlanta University, 219. 
Author's introduction to oiiinioiis of 
eminent men, 4A 
circular addreaMd to eminent 

men. 430. 
introduction to editor*8 miaslon, 
478. 
Avery fund. The, 66. 



Bailey, J. T., Prof., editor Uttle Rock 
Sun, MO. 

portrait of, S41. 

as scholar and teacher. 242. 

as a lawyer, 248. 

as a newspaper man, 244. 
Baltimore Baptist, The, 424. 
Baltimore Vindicator, The, 140. 
Bamfleld, 8. J., managing editor New 

South, 206. 
Banner, The, 141, 182. 
Banner Enterprise, The, 182 
Baptist Companion, The. 1<)6. 236, 253. 

829 
Baptist Headlight, The. 388. 
Baptist Herald. The, 2\3. 888. 
Baptist Journal, The, 878. 
Baptist Leader, The. 80«», »i6. 
Baptist Messenger. The. 23^. 234, 426. 
Baptist Monitor. The, 208. 
Baptist Pilot The, 306. 
Baptist Signal, The. 144, ZU. 
Baptist Standard. The, 212 
Baptist Vanguard, The, 25.S 
Baptist Watohover, The, 24.5. 
Barbadoes. F. G., Hon., work in Cali- 
fornia, 98. 
Barnett, Mr., editor Conservator, 262. 
Bassett, E. D., Prof., 156. 
Beclcloy, R. D., business manager 

People's Advocate, 166. 
Bee and Leader, The, 346. 
Bell P. A., publisher Advocate. 32. 

character and ability. 33. 

associate editor, Pacific Appeal, 91. 

portrait of. 93. 

publl"»her of Elevator. 94. 

tribute of Gate City Press, 95. 

tribute of New York Age, 96. 
Benjamin, R. C. O., editor San Fran- 
cisco Sentinel, 820. 

portrait of, 821. 

newspaper testimonials, 828. 

his published books, 824. 

rell^ous and political connections, 
824. 
Bentley, D. S., Rev., president Spokes- 
man Company, 160. 

portrait of, 151. 
Birmingham. Eva, 267. 
" Black andA\Tilte," isa 



Bliflk Hanr, 81. 

Black phalanx. The. 179. 

Blair, L H.. Esq,, fHendly words, 606. 

Blocker. John L., S21. 

Booker. J A., Rev., editor BapdH Van- 

gnard,96& 
portrait of, 961. 
Boothe Mr., associate editor Cc.^ 

servator. 282. 
Boston Advocate, The, 829, 861, «:<; 

38S. 
Boston Beacon, The, 864, 864. 
Boston Courant The, 866. 
Boston Evening Record, The, 864. 
Boston Globe, The. 861. 
Boston Herald, The, 862. 
Boston Leader, The, 860. 
Bowling Green Democrat, The, 268. 
Bowling Green Watchman, The, 268. 
Bowser, J. D., editor Gate City Press, 

280. 
qualities as a writer. 281. 
Bragg, Caroline W., Miss 426. 
Brltton. Mary B.. Miss, 416w 

portrait of. 417. 
Brooklyn Sentinel, The. 298: 
Brookljrn Union, The, 292. 
Brooks. William F., Rev., treasurer 

Spokesman Company, 150. 
Broussard, Augustus, 366. 
Brown, Benjamin, Rev., 258. 
Brown. C. S., Rev., editor Baptist 

Pilot. 305. 
portrait of, 807. 
a self-taught printer, 808. 
Brown, James E., Hon., friendly 

words, 506. 
Brown. Jere A., Hon., opinion, 467. 

portrait of, 469 
Brown, John, aid to the Ram*s Horn. 

64. 
Brown. John M., Bishop, editor Chris 

tian Recorder, 79. 
Brown, William Welles, opinions, 78. 

91, 111, 118. 
Bruce, J. Edward, 844. 
portrait of, 345. 
'•Bruce Grit," 847. 
Bruce, B. K., Hon.. 287. 
Bryant, J. B., publisher Loyal Georg- 
ian. 104. 
Bryant, M. B., Rev., 202. 
Buford. William, editor Arkansas Dis- 
patch, 245. 
Bulletin, The. 287. 
Burleigh, A. A., Rev., opinion of, 450. 

portrait of, 461. 
Bumham, M., Rev., friendly words, 

606. 

O. 

Cain, R. H., Rev., publisher Charles- 
ton Leader. 106. 
portrait of, 109. 
Cairo Gazette, the first daily, 128. 
Caldwell, A P., bosiiiess manacvr of 
the Echo, 214. — • 

portrait of, 216. 



INDEX. 



559 



Campbell Jabez, Bishop, editor of Be* 

oorder, 78. 
Carroll Mayor, friendly words. 504. 
Carter, D C, ex-editor Virginia Critic, 

245. 
Carter, J C. editor of the Enterprise, 

805. 
Carter, William H., publisher of Pa- 
cific Appeal 91. 
Central Methodist, The, 140, 881. 
Chapman, Kate D., Miss, 888. 

portrait of. 889. 

poem of, 890. 
Charleston Leader, The, 108. 
Charlotte Messenger, The, 272. 
Chase W. C , editor of Washington 
Bee, 287. 

portrait of, 289. 

^' the sdng of the Bee/* 290. 
Chattanooga limes. The, 500. 
Chicago Conservator, The, 846. 
Chicago Inter Ocean, The. 499. 
Christian Banner, The, 25& 
Christian Bra, The. 266. 
Christian Index. The, 278, 846. 
Christian Recorder, The, 78, 150. 405. 
Christy, Levi B., editor IndianapoUs 

World, 2^8. 
Chowan Pilot, The, 806. 
Chronicle. The, 828. 
Cincinnati Commercial. 415. 
Clair, M. W., Rev., editor Methodist 

Banner. 880. 
Clair, F. M. W.. Mrs. 882. 

portraits of both, 888. 
Clanton, Miss, 427 
Clarion. The, 54. 

Clark, P. H . Prof., editor Herald of 
Freedom, 76. 

portrait of 77. 

associate editor North Star, 78. 
Cleveland Gazette. The. 280, 292. 
Cleveland Globe. The, 298. 
Clinton. George \V., editor Afro- 
Amencan Spoliesinan, 309. 

portrait of. 811. 
Coffee. T. W., Rev., portrait of, 265. 

editor of Vindicator, 2C6. 
Coleman. Lucretia N., Mrs., 884. 
Coles, R. H.. Rev., 378 
College Journal of Paul Quinn col- 
lege. 268 
Colonization Journal. The. 81. 
Colored American. The. of 1887, 8«. 

plan and scope of. 87. 

endorsed by other papers, 89. 

samples of editorials, 42. 
Colored American, The, of 1865, 100. 

its prospectus, 101. 

cause or establishment, 102. 

changed to Loyal (^^eorgian 101 

contemporaries of, 105. 
Colored atizen. The, 90, 110. 112, 282, 

814. 
"Colored clause," defined. 61. 
Colored Illustrated Weekly, The, 855. 
Colored Man's Journal, 72. 
Colored Tennessean, The, 105. 



Colored World, The, 888. 
Columbus Messenger, The, 128. 221. 
(/'ommoner. The, 112. 
Commonwealth. The, 846. 
Conference Journal, The, 255. 
Conservator. The, 262. 
Cook, Mary V., Prof , 'portrait of, 860L 

as teacher, 871. 

as public speaker, 872. 

as Journalfet, 878 
Cooper, A. G., Mrs . 427. 
Cooper, B. E.. publisher Indianapolis 
Freeman, 834. 

portrait of, 835. 

eminence as a journalist, 889. 
Coppin, L. J.. Dr., editor of A. M. E. 
Church Review. 120 

connection with the Echo. 216 

portrait of, 217. 

opinion of Editor's Mission, 488. 
Coppin. F. J , Mrs., 816, 427. 
Cornish, Samuel, Rev., editor Jour- 
nal, 28. 

sample of editorials, 29. 

editor of Advocate, 82 

editor Colored American, 96. 
Correspondents and contributors, 840. 
Courant, The, 415. 
Crary, B. F , D D , 255 
Crary, M. S . Mrs.. 427. 
Critic, The, 848. 
Crummell, Boston, 28. 
Cromwell, John W., Hon., early life, 
154. 

portrait of, 155. 

editor People's Advocate. ISO. 

quality of literary work, 157. 



D. 

Dafly Afro- American journals, 127. 
Daily Sun, The, 323. 
Dallas Post. The, 201. 
Dancy, John C, Hon., public services, 
197. 

editor of Star ot Zion, 198. 

portrait of, 199. 
Davis, 1>. Webster, editor Toung Man's 
Friend, 826. 

portrait of, 827. 

honorary positions, 828. 

as an orator, 329. 
Day, W. H. H., Prof., editorlof Alien- 
ated American. 74. 

subsequent life, 76. 
Day, W. Howard, editor Zion's Stand- 
ard. 106. 

editor National Progress, 110. 
De Baptiste, M., 80. 
De Baptiste, R., Rev., ex-editor Con- 
servator. 262. 

portrait of, 268. 
De Baptiste, Georgia M., 886. 

portrait of, 887. 
De Grave. George, 80. 
Delaney, M. R., publisher of Vyiterr, 

his libel suit, 86. 



560 






- Jt of. SB. 

in. D-.HoiL.isa. 

i«»lBdeBl-r.ThB,lM,»M.«0. 

Smnr, W. B . editor Ool^en Rule. to. 
Slia. latuLPiib'r I'eople'i Prrax. K>. 
Sgn^lMrmdorick. Hun., coBtrlbu- 
torloUiB B^m-i Horn. 88. 
edilo of Hortli Star. ST. 

. C. siaitb. tat 




D, Afto.Ainerliiui, 418. 
ecuUlibsd, 48 
U pmwiM, A 

»Uir, TlM,uf San FnuiolKXi, «. 

»4.»<. 
ElUott. R B., Hun., editor HUHouarr 

Itccord, IDS. 
BnterpriM, The. S4tl. 
ETunellst. Tba. M 
Evening BuUetln. The, aw. Mt 
EvetiltiK Post. The, 8N. 
Exodua. The. MT. 



pactnltal,Bi. 

MM. idUor of AB|l»-ZMMa, V. 

portcanstUi. 
polMoal mlaH. IM. 
Qa«.JaluilI 



QeordB iUpt^ lli&nh 



portrait uf . U8. 
Golden Kule. The. Ul. 
Ooldiboro Enterprise. The. ISt 

Gordon. C. B, W-, ■' 

FUot, m. 

portrait ot. IK. 



, editor Nallawl 



Fay. C, W.^ editor of People'» Ad- 

FayattcTllleEduaator. 270. 
Flnt Afru-AmericBa NewBpapera, n. 
Flak Dnlrersltr Herald, 110. 
FlUbutk-r. Ueiirr. BI4. 
portrait of. SIS. 



QrlffiD. Mr. IAS. 
Urlmcke. Frank. Tin. Ol. 
Orfncke. A. B.. SM. 



Eiuren, 81 
■1. The. 171 



Puralier. J. B.»S 

Fortone, T T.iketchofes 
edlturi>r the u lobe, l»t 



pubTlahed worki, 18'. 
opInioD (>r Edltor-a Mluion. 479. 
dwIot. Btohop. friendly wordi. 908. 

- -■"- ■■■ "i.sr 



BaUtai Bnterulae. SOL 

Hall. R. A., as. 

Hamilton. F. H.. edlUir ChilMUn 



Hamilton R B. >H. 

portrait of, S8«. 
Hamilton, Thomai, editor People'* 
Prea.U. 

ed, Anslo-AMcan, S4. 

AokIo- African Maptlne. lU. 



[lortralt ot. Sift 



eilliol 



from artlclH, 818. 

tu: defined. BIS. 
- country. Ml. 
aeore of nation '■ 

(reedom, Btt. 



BarrU, A. W., < 



ar Simmer Tribune. 



portrait of, itg. 
Hanood. A. O.. Mandlr irorda, Bm. 



INDEX. 



S6i 



HAytian JEoiicnitioii Mofwnent. M. 
Hendler. Chat , portrait of, Hk 

editor HontSTiUe Gazette, S88. 
Henhawa, Seth, 80. 
Henry, Thomas T., editor Halifax Sn- 

terpriae, 90ES. 
Herald-Manaion, TheJM. 
Herald of Freedom, The, 70. 
Herald-Presbyter, The. M8w 
Herald of Truth, 908. 
Hershaw, L. M , 188. 
Hill, 8. N., editor People's AdTooate, 

141. 
Hodges, Aoffostiis M ., portrait of, 991. 

editor wooklyn Sentinel, 800. 
Hodices, Willis A., K. Y. Son. 88. 

editor Ram*s Horn, 08 

quality of writings, 04. 

portrait of, 88. 
Holmes, J. A., editor Central Metho- 
dist, 140. 

portrait of, 681. 
Horn, Kdward F., pub. Colored World, 



Hot Sprlncs Sun, 944. 

Howard. Jas. H., and The Negro Amer^ 

ioan,l». 
Hub and Advocate, The, 400. 
Hughes, B. F., 80. 
Hughes, Joseph, 80. 
Huntsville Gazette, The, 880. 



Illustrated Afro-Am. journalism, 881 
Imnartial Citizen, The, 78. 
Indianapolis Freeman, purpose of 
founding, 884. 

standing among white papers, 880. 

quoUtions from 88i, »0, 888, 948, 
804. 804. 885, 407. 
Indianapolis Journal, The, 496, 407. 
Indianapolis World, The, 888, 888. 
Industrial Day, The, 174. 
Industrial Herald, The, 804. 
**Iola."407, 
lyy. The, 416. 

J. 

Jasper, John, 848. 

Johnson, A.B., Mrs., editor of The Joy, 
488. 
portrait of, 488. 
tributes fh>m Anglo-Saxon papers, 

494. 
tributes from Anglo- Afrioan pa- 
pers, 480. 
Johnson, A. R., 981. 
Johnson, C. A., sec associated e ocre>- 
pondents, 648. 
portrait of, 648. 
Johnson, H. H., pub. Western Be- 

corder, 101. 
Johnson, William B., editor Wayland 

Alumni Journal, 886b 
Johnson, Wm. J., opinion of, 480. 
portrait of. 441. 



Jones, J. B., manner of education, 104. 

poitraltof,ie6. 

eminenoe as a scholar, 100. 

editor African Missions, 107. 

oontroTersy with Bp. Keane, 107. 

quality of writings, 107. 
Jones, Richard A^ editor Clerelaad 
Globe, 888. 

portrait of, 808. 

sodal position, 801 
Jones, S. T., editor Zion*s Standard, 

108. 
Journalist, The, 878. 
Journal of the Lodge, 880. 
Joy. The, 488L 



King, Dr., 888. 

King, WuL B . editor Fair Play, 
Knoxville Examiner, 848. 
KnoxYllle Negro World, 180, 847. 



Lambert, M. B. Mrs., 487. 

Lane, C. B., mgr. associated oorrss- 

pondents, 648. 
Langaton, J. M., opinion of, 481 

portrait of. 486. 
Lawrence, Geo., Jr., pub. Pine and 

Palm, 86. 
Lawson, J. H., opinion of, 47S. 

portrait of, 476. 
Leavenworth Advocate, The, 818. 
Lee, B. T., editor Christian Beoorder, 
80. 

portrait of, 667. 
Lemond, John, 80. 
Lewey, M. M., army service, 170. 

founded Florida Sentinel, 171. 

courage and steadiness, 178. 
Lewis, Lillian A , 881. 

portrait of, 883. 
Lewis, 8. H., 888. 
Lewis. Miss, of Philadelphia, 487. 
Lexington Herald, The, 416. 418. 
Lighthouse, The, 818. 
lipscombe. B. H.» ed. Expositor, 810. 

portrait of, 811. 

editor Mountain Gleanor, 818. 
litUejohn, B. D., editor New Light, 



portrait of, 980. 
Little Rock Sun, 9«0. 
Living Way, The, 407. 
Lowry, W. 8., asso. editor Spokesman, 
148 

portrait of, 149. 
Loyal Georgian, The, 101 919. 
Lynch, Jaa., oontrib. to Colored Amer- 
ican, 108. 
Lynch, Jas., 984. 
Lynch, John R. , portrait of, 87. 

opinion of. 488. 
LyndUnirg Laborer, The, 880, 800. 






portrait of. »" 

■ample of ed 

llGBwen,AlloeS..u 
LMdar.SM. 

PDCtnlt of, tt7. 
Huldox. oatold B . <ai. 
lUdUoii VIndkwtOT. The. tW. 
If VuliHa, Afro-American. 1 Ilk. 
Hkrylaad DtNCNor, The, S41 
Uuoo, HIa, 4K. 
Uuonlo VUtor, The. SM. 
MiQwira, W. B.. Mn, ffrs. 

porbftH of, S7T. 
ll«tiUB.QociiVD, editor BuiDi^r'SBt 

MttnldiU Fme ^rnmli. Mi 
Msnr. H.Q^IGS. 
XOMsarer, The, a34. 
HKhoffiin BuiDv, Ths. S30. 
■etbodM Vlndloator. The. ao. 
Uiror of libertr. The, M, lia 
Wmr of the Tlmee. 'hio. n. 

obuised to Poollla Appeal. SI. 

"alppl Vi-p\i 



Natioanl PUoL T)u^, IM. 
NaUonal Wkiebman. The. sa. 
Negro AmBTknn. The. aaa. 
Negni 1b BusUkub. 157. 
Hcero In Polltla. The. 136. 
Kebon Blchkrd. editor naa 
Joarnal. 874. 

porIr»it of, sn. 

tribute* from white pajMn. I 
Now Jersey Trumpet, 138. 
New Lirht. Tlie, i& 
Kew OrleanB CruBsdeT. 3K. 
Hew Orleans LoulaliLalan. tilt 
Nf wBboy. The. porwnlt of, £& 
New SoDtlt. Tbe, SOS. 
New York Alte. 90, 137. MT, M 

New Tork PrMmu, The. 4ai,U 
New Vork Glohe, ISi aCS, SM. 
New York Weekly. 8TB. 
North Carol ins Oustte. 180. 
North CBToUnAltepnbUoan, W. 
North Carolina Bentbiel. IW. 
North Star. Tbe, begun. <fl. 
changed lo Frederick 

contomporarie* of, "I. 



jpl ohm of editor'! 
I>ortrait of, 489. 
Mountain Oleamr. The. KO. 
Hurray, P. H., editor Colored CItUen, 

Hurrell.Wm.. life Bad KiTlee*. U8. 

portrait of. ISB. 

ed. N. J. Tnunnt, 140. 
UurrelL IxniUBDalttv., 140. 
Hualoal Keaetwer. The, 40t, 
Uyvrt, SteplHD, pnli. of Uie SleTat«r. 

pereonal bMoiT. 40. 
portrait of, M. 
Mytlery, Tbe. M. 



Planet. IBS. 

piHinIt of. ISB, 

power as writer and speaker, IBB. 
Hlmii, W. B., editor Dallas Foit, SOI. 

portrait ot. xa. 
Hobonk ConfereDoe.BOl. 
MoDlgomery Herald, The. KB, BBS, 
_j. t„i.^m ..„ editor dBTBland 



Obsenn', The, SSV. 
Ohio FalU XipreM, 1 

OpinloDS of emlsent 

OiT. OnstKTus J„ Mendli 
Oley Charles N.. '- " ' 



irtm,» 




I8B. 405, 406, 410. 



Paul, 

Panl, 

Payne UoiTenlty, 



6aafcaenae ioamal. 



lleUX.41» 

Robert, Jr.. portrtit of, im 
r Detroit Cl^ideahr. lai. 



People's AdToo^ T 



Natobra Denoorat. Olie, SOD, 



Pnopla's AdTocaleL Tba, ot Alena- 

dAa. IM, lU. 
Fnome's JoiunaL Tbe, lOt, IHi m 
Peorte's Pres^T^ke, W, 



INDEX. 



563 



People's Protector, The, 866. 
Perrv, Christopher J., editor Weekly 
Tribune, 146. 
portrait of, 140. 
editorial 147. 
Perry. R. L.. editor Sunbeaio, 106. 

editor Monitor, 110. 
Philadelphia Boho, The,* 406. 
Philadelphia Sentinel, 281, 886. 
Philadelphia Tribune, The, 146. 
PUot, The, 288. 

PhMshbaok, P. B. 8., pub. N. O. Loui»> 
ianlan, 110. 
opinion of. 454. 
portrait of, 466. 
Pineand Palm, The, 888. 
Pinn, T. B., pub. People*8 Advocate, 

168. 
Planet, The, 818. 
Powell, Wm. J., asio. editor Sieyator, 

96. 
Powell, Hr., editor Boiton AdTocate, 

888. 
Price, J. C, founder of Southland, 
184. 
portrait of, 12&, 
opinion of, 460. 
Print; John W., 80. 
Progresflive American, The, 111, 882, 

844,868. 
PtogreasiTe Educator, The, 848. 
Provincial PYeeman, The, 487. 
Public Educator. The, 188b 
Public Ledger, Tlie, 18a 
Putnam, Louis H., editor Colored 
Man^s Journal, 78. 
as a writer, 74. 

Radical, The, 814. 

Raines, George, friendly words, 604. 
Raleigh News, The, 600. 
Ram*s Horn, The, 68. 
Ransom, R. C, editor Spokesman, 148. 
Ray, Chas. B., editor Colored Ameri- 
can. 86. 
reputation as a journalist, 47. 
portrait of, 07. 
Raymond, R. J., treas. associated cor- 
respondents, 648. 
Radpath, James, pub. Anglo-African, 
86. 
Hajtian emigration movement, 

editor Pine and Palm, 882L 
Reed City Clarion. The, 848. 
Reid, I. R., asso. editor New South, 
806. 

portrait of, 807. 
Reeee, D. M., colonizationist, 60. 
Religious Herald, The, 107. 
Remond, John, 71. 
Richardson, Geo. H., editor People*s 

Advocata,167. 
Richmond nanet. The. 188. 
Richmond Rankin Insatnte, 406. 
Richmond Star, The, 844. 



Right Way, The, 178. 

RighU of AIL 86. 

Rinng Sun, The, 88, 76. 

Roberts N. F.. 2ia 

Robinson, Magnus L., early life, 160. 

portrait of, 158. 

social position, 168. 

established Virginia Post, 168. 

established NaBonal Leader, 158. 

later honors, 154. 
Rose, R. W., portrait of, 888. 

editor Industrial Day, 886. 
Rudd, Daniel A., 868. 

portrait of. 668. 
Ruggles, David, editor Genius of Free- 
dom, 68. 

reply to D. M. Reese, 60. 

editor Mirror of Liberty, 118. 
Rumor, The, 184, 
Russell, J., Jr., 808. 

Russell, 8. D., editor Torchlight Ap- 
peal, 267. 

portrait of, 260. 
Russwurm, J. B , portrait of, 84. 

editor Freedom's Journal, 86. 

sent to Africa, 81. 
Ryder, W. P., 288. 

8. 

St. Louis Tribune, 844. 
St Matthew's Lyceum Gazette, 487. 
Samuritan Journal, The, 806. 
Sampson, J. P., portrait of, 80. 

editor Colored Citizen, 90. 
San Antonio Express, The, 500. 
San Frandsoo SentineL The, 880. 
Saunders, D. J., editor Afro- American 

Presbyterian, 890. 
Scarborough, W. S., 282. 

opinion of, 481. 

portrait of 488. 

tribute of Indianapolis Journal 
497. 
Scott, w! S., pub. Cario Gazette, 128. 

portrait of, 129. 
Sears, Robert, pub. Advocate, 82. 
Settle, J. T., opinion of, 408. 

J portrait of, 466. 
ten, J. T.,pub. Colored American, 
102, 219. 
portrait of, 108, 
eminence as a writer, 104. 
Simmons, Wm. J., editor Our Women 
and Children, 120. 
tributes to ability, 188. 
portrait of, 188L 
Simpson, Chas. W., 814. 
Sfanpson, Wm. F., editor Echo, 81& 
Smitti, B. S., 188. 

Smith, H. C, editor dereland Gazette, 
880. 
portrait of, 881. 
Smith. H. L., managing editor Boston 

Leader, 880. 
Smith, James MoCune, editor Ameri- 
can, 88b 
portrait of, 86. 




star o( Zlon. 'nie, 18T. 
HUrkey, Jai. R., W. 
BUteCBpltsl.The.aW. 
Btepbans. Geo. K-, opinion of, Mo. 
portnit of. «I, 

Btcwart.' Austin. 90. 
Stewart. C. C. ad v, p, usoolaled oor. 
AM. 

portrait of, MS, 
Stewart. T. O,. oplolDii of, 4TI. 

portmlt of. 4ft. 
Stlli: J. T.. opinion of , 4M. 

portrait of. «6S 
Stowera. Wni. II. .editor Detroit Plaln- 



portmt of. «. . 
Tmo SoQthemer. The, 174. 
Tapper. H, H.. SIO 
Turner. Blahop. editor Suntbem X*- 



portrait of. SM. 
TwligB, W. H..cor. editor, 
loan Btidicet, 181. 






mnd Railroad. Tbe. 4». 



Stn^, n 



Street. J. Oordon. ns. 

portrait of, asa. 
8taiDm.C, C. editor BapUat Monitor, 

portrait of. »». 

career aa a leitober, SM. 

aa pastor and preaohw. SSI, 
StniiuD. C. C. Hra-i portrait of, tM. 

■ketch ot lite, «0. 
Sumner TribaDe. Tbe. lU. 



Vao Rensselaer. Thomaa. maoaett 

Ram's Horn. M. 
Vauithn. R.. M. 

■■ Victoria Earle."'aTB. 
Vlndloator. The MT. 
Vlr^nla Critla. The. MS. 
Virginia lanoet. The, 4S8. 
VlntlDla Poft, The. IS8. 
Vlr^nla Star. The, TO. 
VBie.B. H., sot. 



Walker. Dartd, ». 



D L. portrait of^ise. 



Tanner, Bishop, editor A, lI,KChiiRih 
Betiew, ISO. 
portrait of, HI. 



WB^hu^n, B. T., oplolan uf. ML 

VMb&jlon C^aTerenve Jonni*]. MS. 

WMhlnxtoD Grit. The, »«, 

WiihlMton. JoMpblne T.. Mn.. Wt. 



Wk^DCtODNs 



.tonNittonal Lcoder. The. IBO. 

TMUBBlon nalDduler. Tbe. «8. 
Vayluu Alumni Juurnkl, -JDH. 

Wkrbuni H- 1- «'- 
w«bb.>nncii. so. 

WM*lr AdTDcale. Tlie. as. 
Weekly SpecUtor. TLo. «T<. 
WMklr witneH. The lit. 
Welcome Friend. Tbe. £«. 
WdlB. lclaB..«(n. 
porlralt cif , 409. 



iiulltiei u a writer. M3. 
~ A., poitralt of, StS. 
mrnal of tbe Lodce. II 
J. H-, lerllUtIre car 



portntt ol 

Beiiner-El 



TbeN. C. GsMtte,lM 
Wilson. J. T., mllituy leTTlDes, 

portrait at. ITB. 

poDtica] lite. 177. 

pub. The Rtaht Way. 178. 

founded iDduatrial Day. 178. 
WlUon Nowa, The. Ul. 
Women Arro-Amerlcan, 



■87. 




r. John a., portrait oF. MS. 
*-- ol, m 

D. A.. editor NewlJ8ht.no. 



.r., editor KaoxTlUe Bl^ 

aminer. M8 
Tat«,W. W..BS. 
Younc Han'i Friend, The, Sn, 



Qon'i eiandard, lOtL 



APPENDIX. 

Hrv. T. J, Smith, Juiis M. CLAas.AND A, (J. Dklmiv. A. B. 

OF THE " BaOAD AXE. " PnTKBITRO, pA. 

Rov. T. J. Sinitli, UitUi' known ^ Bt'«ad-Ax« Smilii, wm 
bom at Sandy Lake, Mercer Ooauty, Pa., on the 29ilj, of 
Deceuibc'i', 1838. He entered tlie mtniHtiy at the age of 

wveriteen, and wiw connected witU tlie Undeigroiiiid Ii:i]| 
Road. He embarked on the aea of JouroaliHUi with twenty- 
live oentfl in cash, borrowed money, in 1881. He fii-st 
pnblished the " Colored Oitizen " and as itseemed the Colored 
Cilizni had no rightH which its subacribers were pecuniarly 
bound to reBpect. it went to tlie bottom of the sea. Sborlly 
aftenv.iL-d he atarted tlie daily Witsp but got stung so badly 
tint he had to hew it to death with a Broad-Axe. Tlie 
Broitd-Axe still lives, hewizig to the line, letting the ibijB" 
fall where they may. 

John M. Clark, one of the proptielors and publitiheni of the 
Sroad-Axe, waa born at Drummonsville, Ontario, May, 1850. 
He started life an a butcher, and afterward went into the 
horseshoeing bu.'^ineits. lie Ih now a contractor and one d 
the editors of t!ie Bivad-Axe. 

J. C. Delphy, A. B, was born in Pittsburgh, Tit., on July 
14, 1857. Shortly after graduating from Howai-d University. 
Washington, D. C. in 1881, he became correapondent fur the 



THE AFRO-AMERICAN PRESS. 

Gleyelaad OazetU, In 1882, associated with E. A. Kuox, J. 
A. Strickland and R. Day Jr., he edited the Pitteburgk 
Oommoner. Since 1884 he has been associate editor of the 
JBroad-Axe. 

Rev. C. H, Payne, D. D. of thb " Pioneer." Huntinston, 

Va. 

CijriHto])her H. Payne was born near the Red Sulphur 
Springs, Monroe County, Virginia, since West Virginia, 
September 7, 1848. 

His father was free born and mother was set free br her 
owner. The subject of this sketch wuh their only child. He 
was left fatherless when about three years old. 

His mother, having received the rudiments of an English 
education from her master, became the anxious teacher of her 
little son. He learned rapidly and had read through tlie New 
Testament when he was but ten years old. 

While quite young, he married Miss Ann Hargo, a lady 
who has clung to him in adversity as well as honored him in 
prosperity. 

They have born to them two girl.s and four boye, all of 
whom they are striving to educate. 

They own a comfortable home in Hinton, W. V. 

Mr. Payne's first lessons in school were learned in a night 
school in CluirleHton, W. V. 

From this place, he returned to his home where he eugage<l 
in farming. He often plowed with his arithmetic between 
the plow handles and would commit a rule to memory while 
his horse, was resting. He would sometimes walk two or 
three miles at night, to get some one to solve a problem for 
him. 

lu a short time; he began to teach in the public schools of 
Mereer, Monroe and Summers counties. 



CHRISTOPHER H. PAYNE. 

He became a Christian in 1875, was licensed to preach ia 
1876, and fully ordained to the gospel ministry in 1877. 

In September of the same year, he entered the Richmond 
Institute, now the Richmond Theological Seminary. 

Here by dilligent study and Christian deportment, he won 
the implicit confidence and universal respect of students and 
teachers. He graduated from this school in 1883. 

He belongs to the Baptist denomination and has, more than 
once, been appointed to address the national assemblies of 
white Baptists in their annual meetings. 

The church at Coal Valley of which he has been pastor six 
yeara is one of the most flourishing in the State of W. Va. 

In 1885, he established the West Virginia Enterprise, at 
that time the only weekly negro journal in the state. 

While editor of this paper, he did much toward creating a 
sentiment in favor of negro equality before the law and in 
arousing in many an ambition to buy laud, build homes and 
educate themselves. 

He had been correspondent to the Virginia Star, the Hich- 
mond Planet and to several other negio as well as to white 
journals. 

In 1884, he was alternate to the national republical conven- 
tion tliat met at Chicago, and in 1888, he represented the 
Third Congressional District of West Va. in the convention 
that nominated Hon, Benjamin Harrison for President of the 
United States, 

He has been tendered the nomination for the state legisla- 
lature and has been a member of the congressional committee 
for six years. 

He exerted such an influence in the politics of W. Va. in 
1888, that Gen. Goff" and other leading men in the state, 
ciedit him largely with success of the republican party in 
that year. 



THE AFBO-AMEBIGAN PRESS. 

The Republican executive committee the entire state ticket 
and many other prominent men, in the state and out, en- 
doreed him for minister to Liberia in 1889. 

In 1890, the State University of Ky. conferred upon him 
the degree of D. D." 

In the same year ha was appointed deputy collector of 
internal revenue, with his office in the custom bouse, 
Oharleston. 

It was solely thought the efforts of Dr. Payne and Prof. 
Byrd Prillerman that, in 1891, tlie legislature of W. Va. 
established the Uechanical and Agricultural College in 
Kanawha County for the benefit of the negro yonth of the 
state. 

It wafl in this year that he became one of the proprietor of 
the Pioneer, a weekly journal printed in Huntington with 
Rev. I. V, Bryant editor in chief. 

As a preaclier and an orator he is dignified and eloquent. 

As a writer, he is polemic, his diction pure, and his style 
grace ful. 

He is unquestionably, the most representative negrt in the 
atate of W. Va., both in religion and politics. 




Q MB ■■LAHU, flu^r *H r». CftDdoT Wilt «Ud> TOU WTTlB of Fn* 

>i.in>rM~nuo ntmjMt MMhudUm — Bilbep B. T. Robertl. I 

with Hliifactioii lad [ira£t.~H. A. Bum, Pm. Dkw Th»I. Seminu^. 
it tuiabroDjFbt thvienof ■ lifa^Lme vtd tht ttadj af filiy ^cAra. — Dind 
4. Chkaia ChruiiBD AdnKall, A woaderfal Sloir, umplyuidg 
Li&iruBjSpriatSElil^MuL I^ urn in lull ipoipiiihf wiih 



H. Ml 

-Wm. Rice. LibnruB. Snn»B__, 

imputiiL— BHbap Kcner. lo'tmr IfRbcdi 

^nici.uUc— Biahi- " — "■ — ' ""-- " 

Adi^nbld cnrr 



Theenf^TATini^priiiliBcaiidbiiidiQgBTtiapiotiiv cimnaadtubjcctr— BufaapMcTjnrc 
knteritiDiii^ iDtlntcdTt Had impArtiaL— BMhop Kteaer- In ct*tt If RboditE Umilj 

ii .hiHiU han iplmon ihc cnicruUc— Biahop CinnbnT. Im. ""-- =— 

■ ilul— BhhopDur - ■' ■ ■■ - - ■■ ■= 



. Inpirtiil and candid.— L. C GarUad. Chan 
id len ya.n nU, an ddichb ■ • ■ ■ 
H Pral. in VjBdnbillUiii' 
— Bi-hop FitigHiid. Lire 



lorical compaetne** and illuirTaliaDL — N. W. C. Adnjcata. Thia manrclvna itory ■ 
laid wilb Inahnaaa ind Tiror and ooodetltd condciuaiioD. — CaaadiaD Mabadiil U an- 
lioa. tlialiktiDDiklDilicianl.—BnSids Chrndan Adncuc. ll encn aU HetEs- 
diM hinorT and biinjia il down lo iba preaeDi da*. — Piltaburt Cbriatiaa Adrocala It 
irC(Ia*iihcqua]Iiirnnaallbrudwaa(Mtlbadum.— UetbadiMPraMaUou Balihson. 
Ha it tb« binn nt any Norihern inUkor wa bar* lyn nmL—Thc Emaciipal HMbodnt. 
RaJdmoTQ^ Tbia niRBiiir« la pleaiiBf 1€ tba miad aitd Ibc aechaiual etccaEion pltaaiiv 
taIhE tya. HearcB weed it.— OiriMian Ad*satc M. E. Ch. Soatb, Naihnlta. Ilatk 
ba DKd ID rtit on whiU sn-jliv — AUbanu Cbriitian Adncuf. tg lU >ha SBt ■ 
compact, ima hhiuir at Iha wbola Hclhodiu CbunA m aa* bur Hydc'i SleiT << Malh- 
odiun.- Soatbtrn Cbrniiin AdTocaic. Knnkal It ia baniiaM mbndunaM U ■■■ 
InctioDi b' th far yaan and aged vc ha« cm teta. ~ Tba MalaiaD Ildlmdial, 
WUI bt driinnd fn> in th> nriooa Orlaa of akfanl bindhw: 

r ■ - ■- - 

Hill Sul r.niD Uxrnm nit Kirk wi,„ ,_„_,..„..,..,,_„.„ ..^^ 

td sdc* Ga f StTcain dcvfv, tE 



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REV. ALEX. CRUMMEIX, A. B., 
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Note some of the GoutentB : 

Oar National MiBtakee and The Remedy for Them. 
The ReaponBibilitj of the First Fathers of s Conntry 

for its Fntare Life and Character. 
The Regeneration of Africa. 
The Black Woman of the South. 



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